Tiger economy

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GDP per capita for the Four "Asian Tigers" (Singapore, Hong Kong, Taiwan and Korea) between 1960 and 2014 Four Tigers GDP per capita.svg
GDP per capita for the Four "Asian Tigers" (Singapore, Hong Kong, Taiwan and Korea) between 1960 and 2014

A tiger economy is the economy of a country which undergoes rapid economic growth, usually accompanied by an increase in the standard of living. [1] The term was originally used for the Four Asian Tigers (South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore) as tigers are important in Asian symbolism, which also inspired the Tiger Cub Economies (Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam and the Philippines). The Asian Tigers also inspired other economies later on; the Anatolian Tigers (certain cities in Turkey) in the 1980s, the Gulf Tiger (Dubai) in the 1990s, the Celtic Tiger (Republic of Ireland) in 1995–2000, the Baltic tigers (Baltic states) in 2000–2007, and the Tatra Tiger (Slovakia) in 2002–2007. [2]


In the 1960s, the Philippines, Sri Lanka and Myanmar were considered as the "Tiger of Asia" Economies as all three countries were experiencing high growth. [3] Internal issues however led to the economies of all three countries to falter. [3] Israel's rapid economic growth in the 1990s, and again in the 2000s and 2010s following a brief recession, earned it a reputation as a tiger economy, and one newspaper dubbed it the "Hebrew tiger." [4] [5] Bangladesh has been described as an emerging "Asian tiger" in recent years due to its high economic growth and industrialization which bear many similarities to the way the Four Asian Tigers industrialized between the 1960s and 1990s. [6] [7]

Another tiger economy is that of Armenia. Because of the remarkable, often two-digit economic growth that Armenia showed until the 2007–08 financial crisis, it emerged as the Caucasian Tiger. During this period, sustained economic growth allowed for economic stability, moderate fiscal deficits and external debt, as well as declining poverty rates. [8]

Similar economies

The Pacific Pumas has been used to describe fast-growing & emerging economies in Latin America such as Mexico, Chile, Peru & Colombia.

The term lion economy or African Lions is used as an analogy to describe emerging economies in Africa. [9] Countries considered to be "African Lions" are South Africa, Morocco, Algeria, Libya, Botswana, Egypt, Mauritius, and Tunisia. [10]

The term "wolf economy" is used to describe Mongolia's rapidly growing economy. [11]

The Caucasian Tiger

The establishment of macroeconomic stability and the steadfast pursuit of reforms aimed at constructing a market economy that was integrated with the rest of the world are to be attributed for Armenia's emergence as the Caucasian Tiger. [12] During the five years preceding 2007, the Armenian economy has grown by double-digit rates annually on average—similar to the East Asian tiger economies—and maintained high growth rates even before. Armenia quickly recovered from the output shock experienced by transition economies. Dating from 1994, its upturn in output reaches to the experience of the Baltic States and Central Europe and precedes by four to five years the recovery in the rest of the former Soviet Union (FSU). Armenia's growth was caused by productivity gains in the private sector as macroeconomic stability took hold; Armenia rapidly expanded the role of private markets, and it adopted necessary institutional measures to ensure free price formation, private ownership of assets (including land), and industrial restructuring, liberal trade in goods services and investment. Moreover, the defeat of inflation and predictability in financial policies' stance was caused by adopting responsible fiscal and monetary policies in the late 1990s. Thus, the foundations of impressive growth performance were laid because first-generation structural and institutional reforms were achieved. [13] In 2022, similar double-digit economic growth has been observed; in particular, a 14% GDP growth has been estimated as a result of such factors as the influx of foreigners (mainly Russians) due to the Russian-Ukrainian war. [14]

See also

Related Research Articles

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The economy of Azerbaijan has completed its post-Soviet transition into a major oil-based economy, from one where the state played the major role. The transition to oil production led to remarkable growth figures as projects came online; reaching 26.4% in 2005 and 34.6% in 2006 before subsiding to 10.8% and 9.3% in 2008 and 2009 respectively. The real GDP growth rate for 2011 was expected at 3.7% but had dropped to 0.1%. Large oil reserves are a major contributor to Azerbaijan's economy. The national currency, the Azerbaijani manat, was stable in 2000, depreciating 3.8% against the dollar. The budget deficit equaled 1.3% of GDP in 2000.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Economy of Mongolia</span> Economy of the country

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Four Asian Tigers</span> Economies of South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore and Hong Kong

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Baltic Tiger</span> Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania during their periods of economic boom

Baltic Tiger is a term used to refer to any of the three Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania during their periods of economic boom, which started after the year 2000 and continued until 2006–2007. The term is modeled on Four Asian Tigers, Tatra Tiger, and Celtic Tiger, which were used to describe the economic boom periods in East Asia, Slovakia, and Ireland, respectively.

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Remittance</span> Money transfer by a foreign worker to their home country

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The Gulf Tiger or Arab Gulf Tiger is a nickname used to describe the period of rapid economic growth in the city of Dubai. The boom that Dubai has been experiencing since the 1990s is still going on, transforming the city from a desert village to a world class economic hub.

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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ganhuyag Chuluun Hutagt</span>

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  1. A definition of Tiger Economy is provided by the Macmillan Online Dictionary, available here
  2. See this essay by Michal Hvorecký for an example of the term applied to Slovakia - The End of the Economic Miracle Archived 17 September 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  3. 1 2 "Revisiting 'Breakout Nations'".
  4. "Israel continues to fall behind developed world in education, employment and productivity" . Retrieved 18 September 2017.
  5. Jones, Clive and Murphy, Emma: Israel: Challenges to Identity, Democracy, and the State, p. 3
  6. Garber, Jonathan (7 April 2017). "There's a new 'Asian Tiger'". Business Insider Australia.
  7. "The fifth Asian Tiger: can Bangladesh become the latest economic success story?". Young Post.
  8. Mitra, Saumya; Andrew, Douglas; Gyulumyan, Gohar; Holden, Paul; Kaminski, Bart; Kuznetsov, Yevgeny; Vashakmadze, Ekaterine (2007). The Caucasian Tiger : Sustaining Economic Growth in Armenia. Washington, DC: World Bank.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  9. "The sun shines bright" . The Economist. 3 December 2011. ISSN   0013-0613 . Retrieved 18 September 2017.
  10. Beaugé, Florence (8 June 2010). "Economic power of the 'African lions' tallied". The Guardian. ISSN   0261-3077 . Retrieved 18 September 2017.
  11. Agency, The New Media Marketing. "Ganhuyag Chuluun Hutagt". Ganhuyag Chuluun Hutagt. Retrieved 18 September 2017.
  12. https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/6644/392500AM0Cauca101OFFICIAL0USE0ONLY1.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y [ bare URL ]
  13. Saumya, Mitra; Douglas, Andrew; Gohar, Gyulumyan; Paul, Holden; Bart, Kaminski; Yevgeny, Kuznetsov; Ekaterine, Vashakmadze (2007). The Caucasian Tiger: Sustaining Economic Growth in Armenia. doi:10.1596/978-0-8213-6811-4. ISBN   978-0-8213-6811-4.
  14. Eurasia, Special (2022-10-25). "2022 Armenia economy: an interview with Vahan Kerobyan". www.specialeurasia.com. Retrieved 2022-12-09.