|Major cult center||Ulamme, Nuzi, Kuruḫanni|
Tilla or Tella( d til-la or gud ti-el-la) was a Hurrian god assumed to have the form of a bull. He is best attested in texts from Nuzi, where he commonly appears in theophoric names. His main cult center was Ulamme.
It has been proposed that Tilla's name was derived from a Hurrian word for bull, though this proposal remains unproven.He is nonetheless often characterized in modern literature as a "bull god". The only source which explicitly describes him as having the form of a bull is the Song of Ullikummi . In this composition, which is considered to belong to the cycle of myths about Kumarbi, Tilla is one of the two bulls who pull Teshub's chariot, the other one being Šerišu. During preparations for battle with the eponymous being, the stone giant Ullikummi, Teshub says Tilla's tail needs to be covered with gold.
In other sources, such as offering lists, Šerišu is paired with Hurriš, not Tilla.Piotr Taracha considers the pair Tilla and Šerišu to belong to eastern Hurrian tradition, and Šerišu and Hurriš to western. However, Daniel Schwemer notes that in the eastern Hurrian text corpus from Nuzi both Tilla and Hurriš are attested, and concludes that the exact relation between these two gods is unknown and it only can be determined that most likely neither was an epithet of the other. He proposes treating both of them, as well as Šerišu and Šarruma, as members of a category of bull deities linked with Teshub. He notes that bull-like deities were linked to weather gods across the entire ancient Near East starting in the beginning of the second millennium BCE, but the roots of this phenomenon are uncertain. He also states Tilla might not have initially belonged to the circle of Teshub, as sources from Nuzi treat him as an independent deity rather than as a divine draft animal of the weather god. Volkert Haas suggested that in this area Tilla's character was comparable to that of Teshub based on the fact that in religious texts he could be listed alongside Ishtar (or Šauška) bēlat dūri ("lady of the city wall"), which according to him might parallel the weather god's relation to Šauška.
Tilla was worshiped in the kingdom of Arrapha, which was located in northern Mesopotamia on the eastern border of the Mitanni Empire.His cult center was Ulamme. He was seemingly the head of the pantheon of this city. A temple dedicated to him was located in this area. He is best attested in documents from Nuzi, where he is the most common deity in Hurrian theophoric names next to Teshub. Examples include Irir(i)-Tilla ("Tilla is the one who helps"), Kirip-Tilla ("Tilla frees"), Pašši-Tilla ("Tilla sent"), Šarri-Tilla ("Tilla is a divine king") and Urḫi-Tilla ("Tilla is reliable"). It is possible that in some cases theophoric names in which a theonym is abbreviated as Te, Tē, Teya or Tēya also refer to Tilla, as opposed to Teshub or Tirwe. References to an entu priestess connected to his cult are also known. She resided in Kuruḫanni (modern Tell al-Fakhar).
In the corpus of texts from Kassite Nippur, which constitutes the main source of attestations of Hurrian personal names from Babylonia from this period,four examples invoking Tilla occur. However, theophoric name Ur-Tilla known from both this city and Puzrish-Dagan from the Ur III period refers to another deity, seemingly worshiped in Umma, whose name is derived from the Sumerian word tillá (written AN.AŠ.AN or AN.DIŠ.AN), "street".
Volkert Haas proposed that the name name of the Hurrian mountain Šenu-Tilla (or Šena-Tilla), which is mentioned in the texts pertaining to the ḫišuwafestival, references Tilla and can be translated as "the two Tilla". This possibility is also accepted by Daniel Schwemer , who notes that the mountain possibly named after Tilla is paired with another named Šēra, which he sees as a possible reflection of the pair Tilla and Šerišu attested in the Song of Ullikummi . However, he express doubts about Haas' translation of the mountain's name, as there is no indication that Tilla was ever regarded as a dyad of deities. Gernot Wilhelm considers the connection between the names of the mountain and the god uncertain.
A deity named d ti-la, who according to Wilfred G. Lambert might correspond to Tilla, is attested in a Mesopotamian god list which equates him with a Mesopotamian deity whose name is not preserved, possibly Adad or Ea.This text is only known from a single damaged tablet, VAT 10608 (KAR 339a), which was found in Assur and presently belongs to the collection of the Vorderasiatisches Museum Berlin. It seemingly originated in the Middle Babylonian period. Multiple of the deities listed in it are obscure or foreign, with examples including the primordial figure Lugaldukuga, the Elamite god Simut or Ḫillibe, presumably related to the homophonous word for god in an unknown language attested in a lexical list.
Teshub was the Hurrian weather god, as well as the head of the Hurrian pantheon. The etymology of his name is uncertain, though it is agreed it can be classified as linguistically Hurrian. Both phonetic and logographic writings are attested. As a deity associated with the weather, Teshub could be portrayed both as destructive and protective. Individual weather phenomena, including winds, lightning, thunder and rain, could be described as his weapons. He was also believed to enable the growth of vegetation and create rivers and springs. His high position in Hurrian religion reflected the widespread importance of weather gods in northern Mesopotamia and nearby areas, where in contrast with the south agriculture relied primarily on rainfall rather than irrigation. It was believed that his authority extended to both mortal and other gods, both on earth and in heaven. However, the sea and the underworld were not under his control. Depictions of Teshub are rare, though it is agreed he was typically portrayed as an armed, bearded figure, sometimes holding a bundle of lightning. One such example is known from Yazılıkaya. In some cases, he was depicted driving in a chariot drawn by two sacred bulls.
Ḫebat or Hepat was a Hurrian goddess. She was the tutelary deity of Halab in origin, and in that role appears already in pre-Hurrian texts from Ebla. Her status was not identical in all Hurrian centers: while she was the main goddess in the pantheons of Halab and various cities of Kizzuwatna, her role in Ugarit and in eastern cities like Nuzi was smaller.
Kušuḫ, also known under the name Umbu, was the god of the moon in Hurrian pantheon. He is attested in cuneiform texts from many sites, from Hattusa in modern Turkey, through Ugarit, Alalakh, Mari and other locations in Syria, to Nuzi, located near modern Kirkuk in Iraq, but known sources do not indicate that he was associated with a single city. His name might be derived from the toponym Kuzina, possibly the Hurrian name of Harran, a city in Upper Mesopotamia, but both this etymology and identification of this sparsely attested place name remain uncertain. He was a popular, commonly worshiped god, and many theophoric names invoking him are known. In addition to serving as a divine representation of the moon, he was also associated with oaths, oracles and pregnancy. Some aspects of his character were likely influenced by his Mesopotamian counterpart Sin, while he in turn was an influence on the Ugaritic god Yarikh and Luwian Arma.
Earth and Heaven were worshiped by various Hurrian communities in the Ancient Near East. While considered to be a part of the Hurrian pantheon, they were not envisioned as personified deities. They were also incorporated into the Mesopotamian pantheon, possibly during the period of Mitanni influence over part of Mesopotamia, and under the names Hahharnum and Hayyashum appear in a variety of texts, including the myth Theogony of Dunnu.
Šauška (Shaushka), also called Šauša or Šawuška, was the highest ranked goddess in the Hurrian pantheon. She was associated with love and war, as well as with incantations and by extension with healing. While she was usually referred to as a goddess and with feminine titles, such as allai, references to masculine Šauška are also known. The Hurrians associated her with Nineveh, but she was also worshiped in many other centers associated with this culture, from Anatolian cities in Kizzuwatna, through Alalakh and Ugarit in Syria, to Nuzi and Ulamme in northeastern Mesopotamia. She was also worshiped in southern Mesopotamia, where she was introduced alongside a number of other foreign deities in the Ur III period. In this area, she came to be associated with Ishtar. At a later point in time, growing Hurrian influence on Hittite culture resulted in the adoption of Šauška into the Hittite state pantheon.
Allani, also known under the Akkadian name Allatu was the Hurrian goddess of the underworld. She was also associated with the determination of fate. She was cllosely linked with Ishara, and they could be invoked or receive offerings together. She also developed connection with other underworld deities from neighboring cultures, such as Mesopotamian Ereshkigal, Anatolian Sun goddess of the Earth and Lelwani, and possibly Ugaritic Arsay. It is presumed she was chiefly worshiped in western areas inhabited by the Hurrians, though the location of her main cult center is uncertain. She is attested in texts from sites such as Tigunani, Tuttul and Ugarit. She was also incorporated into the Mesopotamian pantheon, and was venerated in Ur, Nippur and Sippar. Hittite sources mentioning her are known too.
Kumme was a Hurrian city, known from textual sources from both second and first millennium BCE. Its precise location is unknown, but it is mentioned in cuneiform texts from multiple other sites. It might have been located close to modern Zakho or Beytüşşebap. From the Old Babylonian period until Neo-Assyrian times it served as a religious center of transregional significance due to its association with the Hurrian weather god, Teshub. Its religious role is first mentioned in texts from Mari, and later recurs in Hurrian and Hittite sources. In the Neo-Assyrian period, it was apparently the center of a small independent buffer state on Assyrian borders. Its ultimate fate remains unknown, as from the reign of Sennacherib onward it is no longer mentioned in any texts.
The Hurrian religion was the polytheistic religion of the Hurrians, a Bronze Age people of the Near East who chiefly inhabited the north of the Fertile Crescent. While the oldest evidence goes back to the third millennium BCE, it is best attested in cuneiform sources from the second millennium BCE written not only in the Hurrian language, but also Akkadian, Hittite and Ugaritic. It was shaped by the contacts between Hurrians and various cultures they coexisted with. As a result, the Hurrian pantheon included both natively Hurrian deities and those of foreign origin, adopted from Mesopotamian, Syrian, Anatolian and Elamite beliefs. The culture of the Hurrians were not entirely homogeneous, and different local religious traditions are documented in sources from Hurrian kingdoms such as Arrapha, Kizzuwatna and Mitanni, as well as from cities with sizeable Hurrian populations, such as Ugarit and Alalakh.
Šimige was the Hurrian sun god. Known sources do not associate him with any specific location, but he is attested in documents from various settlements inhabited by the Hurrians, from Kizzuwatnean cities in modern Turkey, through Ugarit, Alalakh and Mari in Syria, to Nuzi, in antiquity a part of the kingdom of Arrapha in northeastern Iraq. His character was to a large degree based on his Mesopotamian counterpart Shamash, though they were not identical. Šimige was in turn an influence on the Hittite Sun god of Heaven and Luwian Tiwaz.
Nupatik, in ealy sources known as Lubadag, was a Hurrian god of uncertain character. He is attested in the earliest inscriptions from Urkesh, as well as in texts from other Hurrian settlements and Ugarit. He was also incorporated into Hittite religion. A similarly named deity continued to be venerated in Arbela as late as in the Neo-Assyrian period.
Ugur or Uqur (dU.GUR) was a god worshiped in various parts of the Ancient Near East. He was connected with the Mesopotamian deity Nergal. Much like him, he was associated with war and death. He was also originally regarded as Nergal's sukkal.
Kiaše, also spelled Kiaže or Kiyaši was a Hurrian deity representing the sea. Sometimes in modern scholarship, he is simply referred to as "the Sea" or "the Sea God."
Nabarbi was a Hurrian goddess worshiped in the proximity of the river Khabur, especially in the city Taite. It has been proposed that she was associated with the Syrian goddess Belet Nagar.
Takitu, Takiti or Daqitu was a Hurrian goddess who served as the sukkal of Ḫepat. She appears alongside her mistress in a number of Hurrian myths, in which she is portrayed as her closest confidante. Her name is usually assumed to have its origin in a Semitic language, though a possible Hurrian etymology has also been proposed. She was worshiped in Hattusa, Lawazantiya and Ugarit.
Tašmišu (Tashmishu) was a Hurrian god. He was regarded as a brother of Teshub, and it is assumed he had a warlike character.
Ḫešui, also known as Ḫišue, was a Hurrian war god. He was also incorporated into the Hittite pantheon. He is sparsely attested in known sources, and his origin and the meaning of his name remain unknown.
Šeri and Ḫurri were a pair of theriomorphic Hurrian gods who almost always appear together in known sources. They were believed to pull the chariot of Teššub, the Hurrian weather god. Šeri additionally could function as a deity mediating between petitioners and his master, but no individual role was ever assigned to Ḫurri. In addition to appearing in Hurrian offering lists and theophoric names, for example from Nuzi, Šeri and Ḫurri are also attested in Hittite and Mesopotamian sources. While the Hittites incorporated them into their pantheon alongside Teššub and other deities from his circle, in Mesopotamia they instead came to be associated with Adad.
Namni and Ḫazzi were two mountain gods who belonged to the Hurrian pantheon. They are usually mentioned together in known texts. Ḫazzi corresponds to Jebel al-Aqra, while the identification of the mountain Namni represented is disputed. Both of them belonged to the court of the Hurrian weather god, Teššub, and it is possible they were worshiped alongside him in Aleppo. They are also attested in a variety of Hurrian and Hittite religious texts. They do not play an active role in known myths of Hurrian origin, though allusions to a conflict involving them have been identified in texts dealing with other deities.
Hurrian primeval deities were regarded as an early generation of gods in Hurrian mythology. A variety of Hurrian, Hittite and Akkadian labels could be used to refer to them. They were believed to inhabit the underworld, where they were seemingly confined by Teshub. Individual texts contain a variety of different listings of primeval deities, with as many as thirty names known, though many are very sparasely attested. Some among them were received from Mesopotamia, but others might have names originating in Hurrian or a linguistic substrate. No specific cult centers of the primeval deities have been identified, and they were not worshiped by all Hurrian communities. They were also incorporated into Hittite religion, presumably either from Kizzuwatna or Syria. Offers were made to them in sacrificial pits, examples of which have been identified in Urkesh and Hattusa. The primeval deities also appear in a number of Hurrian myths, including multiple sections of the Kumarbi Cycle and the Song of Release.