Timeline of digital preservation

Last updated

This page is a timeline of digital preservation and Web archiving . It covers various aspects of saving and preserving digital data, whether they are born-digital or not.


Digital preservation encompasses a variety of efforts and technologies, so its history can be viewed through various trends in these separate efforts:


YearMonth and dateTopicDetails
1972Versioning Marc Rochkind develops the Source Code Control System at Bell Labs.
1982OctoberPhysical storageThe compact disc (CD) as well as the CD player first become commercially available in Japan. [1] [2]
1987JunePhysical storageThe term "RAID" is invented by David Patterson, Garth A. Gibson, and Randy Katz at the University of California, Berkeley in 1987. In their June 1988 paper "A Case for Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive Disks (RAID)", presented at the SIGMOD conference, they would argue that the top performing mainframe disk drives of the time could be beaten on performance by an array of the inexpensive drives that had been developed for the growing personal computer market. Although failures would rise in proportion to the number of drives, by configuring for redundancy, the reliability of an array could far exceed that of any large single drive. [3] [4]
1989November 13Versioning Continuous data protection, the technique of backing up computer data by automatically saving a copy of every change made to that data, is patented by British entrepreneur Pete Malcolm. [5]
1990Possibly the earliest reference to the term "digital preservation" (to mean converting analog media to digital and preserving in digital form) is from this year. [6] :124
1996JanuaryWeb archivingThe initial version of the command-line downloading program Wget, then known as Geturl, is released. [7] [8]
1996Web archivingThe Internet Archive is founded by Brewster Kahle. [9] [10]
1996AprilWeb archiving Alexa Internet is founded by Brewster Kahle. [11] Since this year, Alexa Internet has donated its crawl data to the Internet Archive. [10] [12]
1996Preserving Digital Information: Report of the Task Force on Archiving of Digital Information (Donald Waters, John Garrett, eds.) is published. [13] It became a fundamental document in the field of digital preservation that helped set out key concepts, requirements, and challenges. [14] [15]
1997April 8Web archiving cURL, a computer software project providing a library and command-line tool for transferring data using various protocols, releases its initial version of the tool. It is known at this point as HttpGet, would briefly rename itself to urlget, and would finally rename itself to cURL in March 1998. cURL can be used to download files over a network. [16] [17]
1998MayWeb archivingThe first version of HTTrack, a free and open source Web crawler and offline browser, is released. [18]
2000The National Digital Information Infrastructure and Preservation Program (NDIIPP) launches. [19]
2001OctoberWeb archivingThe Wayback Machine is launched. [20]
2001October 14Version 1.0 of the Parity Volume Set specification, used in Par1, is published. [21]
2002JanuaryWeb archiving TinyURL, the first notable URL shortening service, is launched. [22]
2003JulyThe International Internet Preservation Consortium is founded. [23]
2005Cloud storage Box is launched as Box.net. [24] [25]
2005April 7VersioningThe initial version of Git, a version control system with support for data integrity, [26] is released.
2005April 29Web archiving Safari version 2.0 introduces the ability to save complete websites using the proprietary WebArchive format (details at Safari version history). [27]
2005August 1Physical storageThe article "Kryder's Law" is published The law observes that magnetic disk areal storage density has been increasing very quickly. [28]
2005AugustVersioning Writely, a web-based word processor created by the software company Upstartle, launches. [29] [30] By January 2006, Writely would have support for revision history. [31] Upstartle would later be acquired by Google and Writely would be integrated into Google Docs.
2005October 31File systemThe first implementation of ZFS, a file system that includes protection against data corruption, is integrated into Solaris. [32]
2006March 19Cloud storage Amazon Web Services launches by releasing the Simple Storage Service (S3), intended for storing individual files (called objects) in a highly redundant and available fashion. [33] [34] S3 is designed for at least 99.999999999% durability (i.e., that percentage of objects is expected to survive after a year) and 99.99% availability (i.e., that percentage of objects is accessible at any given time). [35] The cost of S3 storage dropped over the next decade, reaching 2.3 cents a GB effective December 1, 2016. [36] S3 has been widely used by corporations, libraries, and governments to digitize data for long-term storage. [37] [38] [39]
2007January 30Versioning Microsoft Office 2007 is released. Word 2007 introduces the ability to track changes in documents. [40]
2007JuneCloud storage Dropbox is founded by MIT students Drew Houston and Arash Ferdowsi, as a startup company from the American seed accelerator Y Combinator. [41]
2007September 21Physical storageThe initial version of Paperkey is released. Paperkey is a free software implementation of a paper key. It extracts the essential secret bytes from an OpenPGP private key, which can then be printed to paper. [42]
2007October 26VersioningApple releases the initial version of Time Machine.
2007Physical storageTwo software for densely storing information on paper are released: PaperBack [43] [44] and Twibright Labs' Optar. [45] [46] [47]
2007Federal Agencies Digital Guidelines Initiative (FADGI)FADGI is a collaborative effort of 20 federal agencies to articulate common sustainable practices and guidelines for digitized and born digital historical, archival and cultural content. Two working groups study issues specific to two major areas, Still Image and Audio-Visual. [48]
2008Web archivingThe URL shortening service Bitly is launched. [49]
2008April 10Versioning GitHub, a web-based Git repository hosting service, is launched. GitHub would popularize version control and Git. GitHub would also play an important role in encouraging people to make their source code freely available for posterity, allowing others to fork the code and acting as a de facto archive. In addition to software projects, GitHub would also be used to host code repositories for scientific research [50] [51] as well as for hosting and backing up websites and content.
2008November 20DigitizingThe prototype for Europeana launches. [52]
2009January 6Web archivingThe Archive Team begins operating. [53] [54] Its first big effort, for which it receives press coverage, is to download Geocities data before the service shuts down. [55]
2009Web archiving SocialSafe Ltd, the company responsible for developing SocialSafe, is founded. [56]
2009March 23File systemThe initial version of Btrfs, a file system that supports checksums, incremental backups, and the ability to repair errors, [57] is released as part of the Linux kernel version 2.6.29. [58] [59]
2009May 15Web archivingThe WARC file format is published as the standard ISO 28500:2009 1st edition. [60]
2009October 26Web archiving Yahoo! GeoCities, a web hosting service founded in 1994, closes its United States branch. [61] Various attempts at archiving GeoCities are made. The site would continue to be available only in Japan.
2010April 14Web archiving Twitter announces that it will donate its archive of public Tweets to the Library of Congress. [23] [62]
2010December 1Web archivingThe Memento Project provides a standard for interoperability between web archives and the live web. Memento wins the Digital Preservation Award 2010 because "Memento offers an elegant and easily deployed method that reunites web archives with their home on the live web. It opens web archives to tens of millions of new users and signals a dramatic change in the way we use and perceive digital archives." [63]
2011June 28Web archiving Google Takeout is launched by the Google Data Liberation Front. [64]
2012August 1File system Microsoft introduces ReFS. [65] ReFS has a number of features related to digital preservation including integrity checking and data scrubbing, protection against data degradation, built-in handling of hard disk drive failure and redundancy, and integration of the RAID functionality.
2012August 21Cloud storage Amazon Web Services launches Amazon Glacier, an addition to its S3 offerings with lower storage costs than S3 (initially 1 cent per GB). Glacier is intended for long-term archival in cases where retrieval is rare; therefore retrieval is costly and slow. Glacier offers the same durability as the standard S3 offering. [66] [67] In December 2016, the price of Glacier is reduced to 0.4 cents per GB. [36] Glacier has been used by governments, corporations, and libraries for low-cost long-term archival. [39] It has also been recommended for use for personal backups when frequent access is not needed. [68] [69]
2013April 6Web archivingIn the United Kingdom, the Legal Deposit Libraries (Non-Print Works) Regulations come into force, bringing digital and online material under the scope of the UK's legal deposit. Previously, the Legal Deposit Libraries Act 2003 had given the Secretary of State the powers to make regulations governing the deposit of non-print publications, but such regulations were never made at that time. [23] [70] [71] :5
2013April 18DigitizingThe Digital Public Library of America launches. [72]
2013July 1Web archiving Google Reader, an RSS/Atom feed aggregator operated by Google, shuts down after having launched in 2005. [73] The shutdown prompts an effort to archive the feed data from the service. [74] [75]
2013DecemberWeb archivingThe Memento Project is published as a standard in RFC 7089. [76]
2017AugustWeb archivingThe WARC file format is published as the standard ISO 28500:2017 2nd edition. [77]

See also

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