Timeline of intercommunal conflict in Mandatory Palestine

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This is a timeline of intercommunal conflict in Mandatory Palestine .

















Intercommunal violence in Mandatory Palestine













The Congress Executive of Nationalist Youth established.





September 7 - An additional division of British troops arrives. General Dill becomes supreme military commander.













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<span class="mw-page-title-main">Irgun</span> Zionist paramilitary organization (1931–48)

The Irgun, or Etzel, was a Zionist paramilitary organization that operated in Mandate Palestine and then Israel between 1931 and 1948. It was an offshoot of the older and larger Jewish paramilitary organization Haganah. The Irgun has been viewed as a terrorist organization or organization which carried out terrorist acts.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Zionist political violence</span> Violence or terrorism motivated by Zionism

Zionist political violence refers to politically motivated violence or terrorism perpetrated by Zionists. The term is used to describe violence committed by those who support the political movement of Zionism, and violence committed against opponents of Zionism. The violence often takes the form of terrorist attacks and has been directed against both Jewish and Arab targets. The most active period of most notable Zionist political violence began on June 30, 1924, through the 1940s, and continues to the present day, usually for the purpose of expanding Zionist settlements in Palestine.

Haganah was the main Zionist paramilitary organization that operated for the Yishuv in the British Mandate for Palestine. It was founded in 1920 to defend the Yishuv's presence in the region, and was formally disbanded in 1948, when it became the core force integrated into the Israel Defense Forces shortly after the Israeli Declaration of Independence.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Amin al-Husseini</span> Palestinian Arab nationalist (1897–1974)

Mohammed Amin al-Husseini was a Palestinian Arab nationalist and Muslim leader in Mandatory Palestine. Al-Husseini was the scion of the al-Husayni family of Jerusalemite Arab nobles, who trace their origins to the Islamic Prophet Muhammad.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Killings and massacres during the 1948 Palestine war</span> Overview of massacres in the 1948 Palestine war

Killings and massacres during the 1948 Palestine war resulted in the deaths of hundreds of civilians and unarmed soldiers.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine</span> Nationalist uprising by Palestinian Arabs in Mandatory Palestine

A popular uprising by Palestinian Arabs in Mandatory Palestine against the British administration of the Palestine Mandate, later known as The Great Revolt or The Great Palestinian Revolt, lasted from 1936 until 1939, demanding Arab independence and the end of the policy of open-ended Jewish immigration and land purchases with the stated goal of establishing a "Jewish National Home". The uprising coincided with a peak in the influx of immigrant Jews, some 60,000 that year – the Jewish population having grown under British auspices from 57,000 to 320,000 in 1935 – and with the growing plight of the rural fellahin rendered landless, who as they moved to metropolitan centers to escape their abject poverty found themselves socially marginalized. Since the Battle of Tel Hai in 1920, Jews and Arabs had been involved in a cycle of attacks and counter-attacks, and the immediate spark for the uprising was the murder of two Jews by a Qassamite band, and the retaliatory killing by Jewish gunmen of two Arab laborers, incidents which triggered a flare-up of violence across Palestine. A month into the disturbances, Amin al-Husseini, president of the Arab Higher Committee and Mufti of Jerusalem, declared 16 May 1936 as 'Palestine Day' and called for a general strike. The revolt was branded by many in the Jewish Yishuv as "immoral and terroristic", often compared to fascism and Nazism. Ben Gurion, however, described Arab causes as fear of growing Jewish economic power, opposition to mass Jewish immigration and fear of the English identification with Zionism.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Yishuv</span> Jewish entity in Palestine before the establishment of the State of Israel

Yishuv, or HaYishuv HaIvri, or HaYishuv HaYehudi Be'Eretz Yisra'el, denote the body of Jewish residents in Palestine prior to the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948. The term came into use in the 1880s, when there were about 25,000 Jews living in that region, and continued to be used until 1948, by which time there were some 630,000 Jews there. The term is still in use to denote the pre-1948 Jewish residents in Palestine, corresponding to the southern part of Ottoman Syria until 1918, OETA South in 1917–1920, and Mandatory Palestine in 1920–1948.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1920 Nebi Musa riots</span> Anti-Zionist riots in and around Jerusalems Old City in British-controlled Palestine

The 1920 Nebi Musa riots or 1920 Jerusalem riots took place in British-controlled part of Occupied Enemy Territory Administration between Sunday, 4 April, and Wednesday, 7 April 1920 in and around the Old City of Jerusalem. Five Jews and four Arabs were killed, and several hundred were injured. The riots coincided with and are named after the Nebi Musa festival, which was held every year on Easter Sunday, and followed rising tensions in Arab-Jewish relations. The events came shortly after the Battle of Tel Hai and the increasing pressure on Arab nationalists in Syria in the course of the Franco-Syrian War.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Jaffa riots</span> 1921 riots in Jaffa, Mandatory Palestine

The Jaffa riots were a series of violent riots in Mandatory Palestine on May 1–7, 1921, which began as a confrontation between two Jewish groups but developed into an attack by Arabs on Jews and then reprisal attacks by Jews on Arabs. The rioting began in Jaffa and spread to other parts of the country. The riot resulted in the deaths of 47 Jews and 48 Arabs, 146 Jews and 73 Arabs were wounded, and hundreds more were made homeless.

The 1947–1948 civil war in Mandatory Palestine was the first phase of the 1947–1949 Palestine war. It broke out after the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted a resolution on 29 November 1947 recommending the adoption of the Partition Plan for Palestine.

The Jewish Resistance Movement, also called the United Resistance Movement (URM), was an alliance of the Zionist paramilitary organizations Haganah, Irgun and Lehi in the British Mandate of Palestine. It was established in October 1945 by the Jewish Agency and operated for some ten months, until August 1946. The alliance coordinated acts of sabotage to undermine the British authority in Mandatory Palestine.

The Palestinian people are an ethnonational group with family origins in the region of Palestine. Since 1964, they have been referred to as Palestinians, but before that they were usually referred to as Palestinian Arabs. During the period of the British Mandate, the term Palestinian was also used to describe the Jewish community living in Palestine.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Intercommunal conflict in Mandatory Palestine</span> 1920–1948 conflict between Arabs and Jews in Palestine

The intercommunal conflict in Mandatory Palestine was the civil, political and armed struggle between Palestinian Arabs and Jewish Yishuv during the British rule in Mandatory Palestine, beginning from the violent spillover of the Franco-Syrian War in 1920 and until the onset of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War. The conflict shifted from sectarian clashes in the 1920s and early 1930s to an armed Arab Rebellion against British rule in 1936, armed Jewish Revolt primarily against the British in mid-1940s and finally open war in November 1947 between Arabs and Jews.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Jewish insurgency in Mandatory Palestine</span> 1944–1948 paramilitary terror campaign

A successful paramilitary campaign was carried out by Zionist underground groups against British rule in Mandatory Palestine from 1944 to 1948. The tensions between the Zionist underground and the British mandatory authorities rose from 1938 and intensified with the publication of the White Paper of 1939. The Paper outlined new government policies to place further restrictions on Jewish immigration and land purchases, and declared the intention of giving independence to Palestine, with an Arab majority, within ten years. Though World War II brought relative calm, tensions again escalated into an armed struggle towards the end of the war, when it became clear that the Axis powers were close to defeat.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Deir Yassin massacre</span> 1948 mass killing by Zionist militants

The Deir Yassin massacre took place on April 9, 1948, when around 130 fighters from the Zionist paramilitary groups Irgun and Lehi killed at least 107 Palestinian Arab villagers, including women and children, in Deir Yassin, a village of roughly 600 people near Jerusalem, despite having earlier agreed to a peace pact. The massacre occurred while Jewish militia sought to relieve the blockade of Jerusalem during the civil war that preceded the end of British rule in Palestine.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">1948 in Mandatory Palestine</span>

Events in the year 1948 in the British Mandate of Palestine.

The 1933 Palestine riots were a series of violent riots in Mandatory Palestine, as part of the intercommunal conflict in Mandatory Palestine. The riots erupted on 13 October 1933 when the police broke up a banned demonstration organized by the Arab Executive Committee. The riots came as the culmination of Arab resentment at Jewish migration after it surged to new heights following the rise of Nazi Germany, and at the British Mandate authorities for allegedly facilitating Jewish land purchases. The second mass demonstration, at Jaffa in October, turned into a bloodbath when police fired on the thousands-strong crowd, killing 19 and injuring some 70. The "Jaffa massacre", as Palestinians called it, quickly triggered further unrest, including a week-long general strike and urban insurrections that resulted in police killing 7 more Arabs and wounding another 130 with gunfire.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mandatory Palestine</span> British League of Nations mandate (1920–1948)

Mandatory Palestine was a geopolitical entity that existed between 1920 and 1948 in the region of Palestine under the terms of the League of Nations Mandate for Palestine.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Jaffa riots (April 1936)</span> Violent anti-Jewish riots perpetrated by Arabs in Mandatory Palestine

The Jaffa riots of April 1936, refers to a spate of violent attacks on Jews that began on 19 April 1936 in Jaffa. A total of 14 Jews and 2 Arabs were killed during the riots.


  1. "Chapter Two The Seven Years of Herzl". Zionisim – The First 120 Years. Jewish Agency. Archived from the original on 2010-09-22. Retrieved 2012-12-27.
  2. 1 2 Neville J. Mandel (1976). The Arabs and Zionism Before World War I. University of California Press. p. 22. ISBN   978-0-520-02466-3. In 1897, the year of the first Zionist Congress, a commission was set up in Jerusalem to scrutinise land sales to Jews... the commission effectively halted land sales to Jews in the Mutasarriflik for the next few years. Thus, when the Jewish Colonization Association (JCA — an organisation founded by Baron Maurice de Hirsch in 1891 and un-connected with the Zionist Movement) began to interest itself in Palestine in 1896, it very quickly discovered that the possibilities of buying land were wider in the north of the country... The breakthrough, from JCA's point of view, came in 1901 when the Council of Ministers ruled that JCA's President, Narcisse Leven, could, as a foreigner, buy land in the Vilayet of Beirut under the Ottoman Land Code of 1867, provided that he undertook not to install foreign Jews on it. The very fact that this concession could be granted shortly after the 1901 regulations went into force points to another weakness in the Government's handling of its own policy. Under this concession, JCA acquired 31,500 dunams of land near Tiberias in the early part of 1901, mainly from the Sursuq family of Beirut.
  3. Khalidi. Diaspora. p.38
  4. Beska, Emanuel (2014). "Political Opposition to Zionism in Palestine and Greater Syria: 1910–1911 as a Turning Point". Institute for Palestine Studies. Retrieved 2021-11-26.
  5. Choueiri, pp.166–168.
  6. Gavron, David (2000). The Kibbutz: Awakening from Utopia. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 30. ISBN   9780847695263 . Retrieved 14 October 2014.
  7. La Guardia, Anton (2002). War without end: Israelis, Palestinians, and the struggle for a promised land. Macmillan. p. 113.
  8. UK National Archives CAB 27/24, EC-41.
  9. Memorandum by the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs (Lord Halifax), January 1939, UK National Archives, CAB 24/282, CP 19 (39).
  10. Glass, Joseph B. (2018). From New Zion to Old Zion: American Jewish Immigration and Settlement in Palestine, 1917–1939. Wayne State University Press. pp. 196–197. ISBN   978-0-8143-4422-4.
  11. Isaiah Friedman,Palestine: A Twice-Promised Land? The British, the Arabs & Zionism, 1915–1920, Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick and London, 2000 vol. 1 pp. 239–40
  12. Eliezer Tauber, The Formation of Modern Iraq and Syria, Routledge, London 1994 pp. 79ff., esp. 96ff.
  13. 1 2 Cmd. 5479, 1937, p. 28.
  14. 1 2 3 Cmd. 5479, 1937, p. 29.
  15. Barbara J. Smith (1 July 1993). The Roots of Separatism in Palestine: British Economic Policy, 1920–1929. Syracuse University Press. pp. 96–. ISBN   978-0-8156-2578-0.
  16. Wasserstein, 1991, pp. 59–60.
  17. 1 2 Wasserstein, 1991, p. 60.
  18. The charge was for violating paragraphs 32, 57, and 63 of the Ottoman code, dealing with incitement to riot. See E. Elat Haj Amin el Husseini, Ex Mufti of Jerusalem,Tel Aviv 1968 (page no. required). In his memoirs, Sir Ronald Storrs wrote: 'The immediate fomenter of the Arab excesses had been one Haj Amin al-Husseini, the younger brother of Kāmel Effendi, The Mufti. Like most agitators, having incited the man in the street to violence and probable punishment, he fled.' (Sir R. Storrs, Orientations, Nicholson & Watson, London 1945 p. 331: cited also Yehuda Taggar, The Mufti of Jerusalem and Palestine Arab Politics 1930–1937, Garland Publishing, 1986 p. ? Ronald Storrs (reprint 1972) The Memoirs of Sir Ronald Storrs Ayer Publishing, ISBN   0-405-04593-X p. 349
  19. A Survey of Palestine - prepared in December 1945 and January 1946 for the information of the Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry. Reprinted 1991 by the Institute of Palestine Studies, Washington. Volume 1: ISBN   0-88728-211-3. p.17
  20. Safarix.com Archived 11 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine , pg. 49
  21. Kenneth W. Stein, The Land Question in Palestine, 1917–1939, UNC Press Books, 1987 p.60.
  22. Barbara Jean Smith, The Roots of Separatism in Palestine: British Economic Policy, 1920–1929, Syracuse University Press, 1993 pp.96–97;
  23. ESCO Foundation (1947), Palestine – A Study Of Jewish Arab And British Policies, vol. II, Yale University Press
  24. Hadawi, Sami (1970). Village Statistics, 1945: A Classification of Land and Area Ownership in Palestine, with Explanatory Notes. PLO Research Center.
  25. List of villages sold by Sursocks and their partners to the Zionists since British occupation of Palestine, evidence to the Shaw Commission, 1930, p.1074, exhibit 71
  26. "Buying the Emek by Arthur Ruppin, 1929 (with an introduction)". Zionism-israel.com. Retrieved 24 March 2013.
  27. The above two books are quoted in David Gilmour: Dispossessed: the Ordeal of the Palestinians. Sphere Books, Great Britain, 1983, pp. 44–45.
  28. Khalidi, Walid (Ed.) (1992) All That Remains. The Palestinian Villages Occupied and Depopulated by Israel in 1948. IoPS, Washington. ISBN   0-88728-224-5. p.573
  29. Report of the Commission of Enquiry into the disturbances in Palestine in May, 1921, with correspondence relating thereto (Disturbances), 1921, Cmd. 1540, p. 60.
  30. 1 2 Khalidi. Remains. p.573
  31. Nicosia, Francis R. "Hajj Amin al-Husayni: The Mufti of Jerusalem." United States Holocaust Memorial Museum . May 20, 2008. June 17, 2008.
  32. Survey. p.18
  33. Survey. p.19
  34. Survey. p.21
  35. Cmd. 5479, 1937, p. 37.
  36. Survey. pp.21,22
  37. Cmd. 5479, 1937, p. 43.
  38. 1 2 Survey p.22
  39. Shepherd, Naomi (1999) Ploughing Sand. British Rule in Palestine 1917–1948. John Murray. ISBN   0-7195-5707 0. p.197
  40. Segev, Tom (2000). One Palestine, Complete . Metropolitan Books. pp.  314–327. ISBN   0-8050-4848-0.
  41. Survey. p.24
  42. "United Nations Maintenance Page". maintenance.un.org. Retrieved 2022-03-28.
  43. Khalidi. Diaspora. p.90
  44. Survey. p, 30
  45. Survey. pp.31,32
  46. Horne, Edward (1982). A Job Well Done (Being a History of The Palestine Police Force 1920–1948). The Anchor Press. ISBN   0-9508367-0-2. pp.193.194,199
  47. Survey. p.33
  48. Khalidi. Diaspora. p.91
  49. Survey. p.35
  50. Survey. p.37
  51. Khalidi. Remains. p.574
  52. Survey. p.38
  53. William Roger Louis, Ends of British Imperialism: The Scramble for Empire, Suez, and Decolonization, 2006, p.391
  54. Benny Morris, One state, two states:resolving the Israel/Palestine conflict, 2009, p. 66
  55. Benny Morris, The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem Revisited, p. 48; p. 11 "while the Zionist movement, after much agonising, accepted the principle of partition and the proposals as a basis for negotiation"; p. 49 "In the end, after bitter debate, the Congress equivocally approved –by a vote of 299 to 160 – the Peel recommendations as a basis for further negotiation."
  56. "Britain Drops Partition, Maps Peace Parleys; Agency Rejects Woodhead Report As Talks Basis". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. 1938-11-10. Retrieved 2016-09-03.
  57. "League of Nations Archives". Archived from the original on 2019-06-08. Retrieved 2013-10-11.
  58. Motti Golini, Palestine Between Politics and Terror, 1945-1947], Brandeis University Press, 2013, p.192.
  59. Haim Levenberg, [Military Preparations of the Arab Community in Palestine, 1945-1948], Psychology Press, 1993, pp.83-84.
  60. A/RES/106 (S-1) Archived 2012-08-06 at the Wayback Machine of 15 May 1947 General Assembly Resolution 106 Constituting the UNSCOP
  61. UNSCOP Report Archived 2012-06-10 at the Wayback Machine . Doc.nr. A/364 d.d. 3 September 1947
  62. A/RES/181(II) of 29 November 1947". United Nations. 1947. Retrieved 30 December 2012
  63. Benny Morris. 1948 : The First Arab-Israel War. Yale University Press. pp. 107–108.
  64. James Cameron, (British journalist), "The making of Israel", published by Martin Secker & Warburgh Ltd, 1976. SBN 436 08230 6. Page 51. "Seventy Jews were killed, many of them after surrendering, many of them finished off most barbarously by Arab villagers instructed by legionaries."
  65. Moshe Dayan, 'The Story of My Life'. ISBN   0-688-03076-9. Page 130. Out of a total of 670 prisoners released.