Timeline of the Sasanian Empire

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Timeline of the Sasanian Empire
Sasanian Empire timeline including important events and territorial evolution. Sasanian Empire.gif
Sasanian Empire timeline including important events and territorial evolution.

The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty is the name used for the Persian dynasty which lasted from 224 to 651 AD.

Coin of Ardashir I. Ardashir I Coin.jpg
Coin of Ardashir I.
Cameo of Shapur I humiliating Emperor Valerian. Cameo Shapur Valerianus Bab360 CdM Paris.jpg
Cameo of Shapur I humiliating Emperor Valerian.
An inscription of Kartir, with a relief of him holding the text Naqshe Rajab Darafsh Ordibehesht 93 (1).jpg
An inscription of Kartir, with a relief of him holding the text
A small fragment of the Paikuli inscription; Middle Persian version Stone block with Paikuli inscription.JPG
A small fragment of the Paikuli inscription; Middle Persian version
Coin of Bahram V. BahramVCoinHistoryofIran.jpg
Coin of Bahram V.
Khosrow I seated on a throne. Kosrau 1.jpg
Khosrow I seated on a throne.
Scenes of the Abyssinian-Persian wars Khosrau I Textile.jpg
Scenes of the Abyssinian–Persian wars
Coin of Yazdegerd III. YazdegerdIIICoinCroppedHistoryofIran.jpg
Coin of Yazdegerd III.

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Khosrow II</span> Shah of the Sasanian Empire from 590 to 628

Khosrow II, also known as Khosrow Parviz, is considered to be the last great Sasanian king (shah) of Iran, ruling from 590 to 628, with an interruption of one year.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hormizd I</span> King of Kings of Iran from 270 to 271

Hormizd-Ardashir, better known by his dynastic name of Hormizd I, was the third Sasanian King of Kings (shahanshah) of Iran, who ruled from May 270 to June 271. He was the third-born son of Shapur I, under whom he was governor-king of Armenia, and also took part in his father's wars against the Roman Empire. Hormizd I's brief time as ruler of Iran was largely uneventful. He built the city of Hormizd-Ardashir, which remains a major city today in Iran. He promoted the Zoroastrian priest Kartir to the rank of chief priest (mowbed) and gave the Manichaean prophet Mani permission to continue his preaching.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hormizd II</span> Ruler of the Sasanian Empire 303–309

Hormizd II was king (shah) of the Sasanian Empire. He ruled for seven years and five months, from 303 to 309. He was a son and successor of Narseh.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hormizd IV</span> Sasanian emperor from 579 to 590

Hormizd IV was the Sasanian King of Kings of Iran from 579 to 590. He was the son and successor of Khosrow I and his mother was a Khazar princess.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Shapur I</span> Ruler of the Sasanian Empire from c.240 to c.270

Shapur I was the second Sasanian King of Kings of Iran. The dating of his reign is disputed, but it is generally agreed that he ruled from 240 to 270, with his father Ardashir I as co-regent until the death of the latter in 242. During his co-regency, he helped his father with the conquest and destruction of the Arab city of Hatra, whose fall was facilitated, according to Islamic tradition, by the actions of his future wife al-Nadirah. Shapur also consolidated and expanded the empire of Ardashir I, waged war against the Roman Empire, and seized its cities of Nisibis and Carrhae while he was advancing as far as Roman Syria. Although he was defeated at the Battle of Resaena in 243 by Roman emperor Gordian III, he was the following year able to win the Battle of Misiche and force the new Roman Emperor Philip the Arab to sign a favorable peace treaty that was regarded by the Romans as "a most shameful treaty".

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Shapur II</span> Sasanian emperor, 309–379

Shapur II, also known as Shapur the Great, was the tenth Sasanian King of Kings (Shahanshah) of Iran. The longest-reigning monarch in Iranian history, he reigned for the entirety of his 70-year life, from 309 to 379. He was the son of Hormizd II.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Narseh</span> Sasanian King of Kings of Iran from 293 to 303

Narseh, "Great King of Armenia", was the seventh Sasanian King of Kings of Iran from 293 to 303.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Rostam Farrokhzad</span> Iranian Sasanian military general

Rostam Farrokhzād was an Iranian dynast from the Ispahbudhan family, who served as the spahbed of the northwestern quarter (kust) of Adurbadagan during the reign of Boran and Yazdegerd III. Rostam is remembered as a historical figure, a character in the Persian epic poem Shahnameh, and as a touchstone of most Iranian nationalists.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bahram Chobin</span> Sasanian general and political leader (died 591)

Bahrām Chōbīn or Wahrām Chōbēn, also known by his epithet Mehrbandak, was a nobleman, general, and political leader of the late Sasanian Empire and briefly its ruler as Bahram VI.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sasanian Empire</span> Last pre-Islamic Iranian empire (224–651 AD)

The Sasanian or Sassanid Empire, officially known as the Empire of Iranians and also referred to by historians as the Neo-Persian Empire, was the last Iranian empire before the early Muslim conquests of the 7th-8th centuries AD. Named after the House of Sasan, it endured for over four centuries, from 224 to 651 AD, making it the longest-lived Persian imperial dynasty. The Sasanian Empire succeeded the Parthian Empire, and re-established the Persians as a major power in late antiquity alongside its neighbouring arch-rival, the Roman Empire.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Byzantine–Sasanian War of 572–591</span> War between the Sasanian Empire of Persia and the Eastern Roman Empire

The Byzantine–Sasanian War of 572–591 was a war fought between the Sasanian Empire of Persia and the Eastern Roman Empire, termed by modern historians as the Byzantine Empire. It was triggered by pro-Byzantine revolts in areas of the Caucasus under Persian hegemony, although other events also contributed to its outbreak. The fighting was largely confined to the southern Caucasus and Mesopotamia, although it also extended into eastern Anatolia, Syria, and northern Iran. It was part of an intense sequence of wars between these two empires which occupied the majority of the 6th and early 7th centuries. It was also the last of the many wars between them to follow a pattern in which fighting was largely confined to frontier provinces and neither side achieved any lasting occupation of enemy territory beyond this border zone. It preceded a much more wide-ranging and dramatic final conflict in the early 7th century.

Farrukhzad, was an Iranian aristocrat from the House of Ispahbudhan and the founder of the Bavand dynasty, ruling from 651 to 665. Originally a powerful servant of the Sasanian king Khosrow II, he, along with several other powerful aristocrats made a conspiracy against the latter and ended his tyrannical rule. They thereafter put Khosrow's son Kavadh II on the throne, whose rule lasted only a few months, before he was killed by a plague, being succeeded by his son Ardashir III, who was only after one year murdered by the rebellious former Sasanian army chief (spahbed) Shahrbaraz, who usurped the throne.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sasanian civil war of 589–591</span>

The Sasanian civil war of 589–591 was a conflict that broke out in 589, due to the great deal of dissatisfaction among the nobles towards the rule of Hormizd IV. The civil war lasted until 591, ending with the overthrow of the Mihranid usurper Bahram Chobin and the restoration of the Sasanian family as the rulers of Iran.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Farrukh Hormizd</span>

Farrukh Hormizd or Farrokh Hormizd, also known as Hormizd V, was an Iranian prince, who was one of the leading figures in Sasanian Iran in the early 7th-century. He served as the military commander (spahbed) of northern Iran. He later came in conflict with the Iranian nobility, "dividing the resources of the country". He was later killed by Siyavakhsh in a palace plot on the orders of Azarmidokht after he proposed to her in an attempt to usurp the Sasanian throne. He had two children, Rostam Farrokhzad and Farrukhzad.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Arbayistan</span> Province of the Sasanian Empire

Arbāyistān or Beth Arabaye was a Sasanian province in Late Antiquity. Due to its situation and its road systems, the province was a source of income from commercial traffic, as well as a constant area of contention during the Roman–Persian Wars.

Piruz Khosrow, also known as Piruzan or Firuzan, was a powerful Persian aristocrat who was the leader of the Parsig (Persian) faction that controlled much of the affairs of the Sasanian Empire during the Sasanian civil war of 628-632. He was killed at the Battle of Nahāvand in 642.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sasanian civil war of 628–632</span> Internal conflict within the Persian Sasanian Empire

The Sasanian civil war of 628–632, also known as the Sasanian Interregnum was a conflict that broke out after the execution of the Sasanian king Khosrau II between the nobles of different factions, notably the Parthian (Pahlav) faction, the Persian (Parsig) faction, the Nimruzi faction, and the faction of general Shahrbaraz. Rapid turnover of rulers and increasing provincial landholder power further diminished the empire. Over a period of 4 years and 14 successive kings, the Sasanian Empire weakened considerably, and the power of the central authority passed into the hands of its generals, contributing to its fall.

Wuzurgan, also known by its Modern Persian form of Bozorgan (بزرگان), was the name of the high nobility and the third class-rank of the four of the Sasanian aristocracy. After the fall of the Sasanian Empire, they reappear under the Dabuyid dynasty.