Timothy P. Lodge
|Born||11 April 1954 68) (age|
|Alma mater|| Harvard University |
University of Wisconsin–Madison
|Known for||Advances in polymer chain dynamics; block copolymer self-assembly; polymer education|
|Awards||Elected to American Academy of Arts and Sciences (2016), Herman F. Mark Polymer Chemistry Award (2015), Regents Professorship (2013 - Present), ACS Award in Polymer Chemistry (2010), APS Polymer Physics Prize (2004)|
|Fields||Chemistry, Polymer Science|
|Institutions||University of Minnesota|
|Doctoral advisor||John Schrag|
Timothy P. Lodge (born 11 April 1954) is an American polymer scientist.
Lodge is a Regents Professor (2013–present),an Institute of Technology Distinguished Professor (2004–present), and a Distinguished McKnight University Professor (2001–present) in the Department of Chemistry and the Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science at the University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, Minneapolis-Saint Paul, Minnesota where he has been a faculty member since 1982. He served as the Editor-in-Chief of the American Chemical Society journal Macromolecules for 17 years (2001–2017) and as the founding editor of ACS Macro Letters (2011–2018).
He is recognized for his research in polymer science, especially fundamental explorations of polymer chain dynamics in miscible blends, block polymers, multicompartment micelles and polymers in ionic liquids. According to Web of Science, he has produced 331 published works that have been cited over 12,400 times, with an h-index of 62 as of April 6, 2014. He is also co-author, with Paul Hiemenz, of the textbook, Polymer Chemistry, 2nd edition.
Timothy P. Lodge was born in Manchester, England, a son of Helen and Arthur S. Lodge. He moved permanently to the United States in 1968. He received his A. B. degree in applied mathematics from Harvard University in 1975. [ citation needed ]Working under the mentorship of Professor John Schrag at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, Lodge received his Ph.D. in chemistry in 1980. His dissertation was titled, “Oscillatory Flow Birefringence of Dilute Polymer Solutions: Concentration Dependence and High Frequency Behavior.” Upon graduation, Lodge collaborated with Dr. Charles Han as a National Research Council Postdoctoral Associate at the National Bureau of Standards (now the National Institute of Standards and Technology). Lodge and his wife have two children.
Lodge is internationally recognized for his seminal contributions in numerous areas of polymer science.The focus of his work has been on achieving a molecular-level understanding of polymer structure and dynamics in multicomponent systems and mixtures, and to understand how these are affected by the thermodynamic interactions amongst the components.
Polymer chain dynamics: Lodge's early work focused on the chain dynamics of polymers in solution and in miscible blends. In particular, Lodge and McLeish (2000) discussed the effect of local composition on the dynamics of polymers in a miscible blend.Their model was based on two simple assumptions. First, that dynamic heterogeneity occurs over a length scale on the order of a Kuhn length of the chain. Second, that each polymer in the blend experiences a ‘self-concentration’ that is higher than the bulk (average) composition, due to chain connectivity over this length scale. The impact is that the local dynamics of the two polymers in the blend may exhibit different dependencies on temperature and overall composition due to differences in local composition. This leads to a breakdown in time-temperature superposition, and the appearance of two distinct glass transition temperatures in the mixture.
Block copolymer solutions: Lodge's research group has maintained long-standing interest in the self-assembly of block copolymers in solutions. Studying the phase behavior of polystyrene-block-polyisoprene in solvents of varying selectivity, the concept of phase trajectories was introduced to explain the phase sequences observed as a function of concentration in neutral and selective solvents connecting the solution behavior to that seen in block copolymer melts.From this foundation, the thermodynamics and kinetics of polymorphic order-order transitions were investigated. One paper of note demonstrated the thermoreversible, epitaxial face-centered cubic to body-centered cubic transition in highly ordered, micellar block copolymer solutions and its similarity to transitions observed in atomic systems (e.g. metals and alloys) supporting the general nature of the occurrence of this phase transition in materials.
Miktoarm Star Polymers: In 2004, Lodge published the seminal paper on the self-assembly of miktoarm star terpolymers in solution;a paper that has been cited over 600 times. Using ABC miktoarm star polymers the first example of multicomponent block copolymer micelles was shown, driven by the mutual incompatibility of the hydrophilic A and hydrophobic B and C blocks. In a subsequent paper the simultaneous, segregated storage of two different chromophores in the different micelle domains was demonstrated, offering potential for use in chemical delivery in fields such as pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and foodstuffs.
Polymers in Ionic Liquids: Lodge's recent work has focused on the self-assembly of block copolymers in ionic liquids.Ionic liquids are considered by many to be “green” solvents due to their vanishing vapor pressure, fire resistance, as well as their excellent chemical and thermal stability over wide temperature ranges. Besides elucidating the assembly properties of block copolymers in ionic liquids, Lodge has used these materials to produce molecular shuttles, gas separation membranes, and ion gel gate dielectrics for use in polymer thin film transistors.
Education in Polymer Science: Lodge is a co-author of Polymer Chemistry, 2nd Edition, written with Paul Hiemenz (2007). In 2012 he was elected to the University of Minnesota Academy of Distinguished Teachers, and he received the Postbaccalaureate, Graduate, and Professional Education Award.
Lodge is the co-holder of four patents.
For his research and education efforts, Lodge has received numerous awards including:
Lodge has been a Visiting Professor at the University of California, Santa Barbara (1991-2, Chemical Engineering), University of Mainz, Germany (1998, Institute for Physical Chemistry) and Kyoto University (1985; 1992; 1994, Department of Polymer Chemistry)
Since 2005, Lodge has been the director of the NSF-funded Materials Research Science and Engineering Center at Minnesota.The Center currently focuses on materials development in: (1) Engineered Multiblock Polymers, (2) Organic Optoelectronic Interfaces, (3) Magnetic Heterostructures, and (4) Nanoparticle-based Materials.
Lodge has served the broader scientific community as the Editor-in-Chief for the American Chemical Society journals Macromolecules and ACS Macro Letters. He has served as Chair Elect, Vice Chair, Chair (1995-1998) and Councilor (2001-2006) for the American Physical Society Division of Polymer Physics.
A polymer is a substance or material consisting of very large molecules called macromolecules, composed of many repeating subunits. Due to their broad spectrum of properties, both synthetic and natural polymers play essential and ubiquitous roles in everyday life. Polymers range from familiar synthetic plastics such as polystyrene to natural biopolymers such as DNA and proteins that are fundamental to biological structure and function. Polymers, both natural and synthetic, are created via polymerization of many small molecules, known as monomers. Their consequently large molecular mass, relative to small molecule compounds, produces unique physical properties including toughness, high elasticity, viscoelasticity, and a tendency to form amorphous and semicrystalline structures rather than crystals.
A micelle or micella is an aggregate of surfactant amphipathic lipid molecules dispersed in a liquid, forming a colloidal suspension. A typical micelle in water forms an aggregate with the hydrophilic "head" regions in contact with surrounding solvent, sequestering the hydrophobic single-tail regions in the micelle centre.
In polymer chemistry, a copolymer is a polymer derived from more than one species of monomer. The polymerization of monomers into copolymers is called copolymerization. Copolymers obtained from the copolymerization of two monomer species are sometimes called bipolymers. Those obtained from three and four monomers are called terpolymers and quaterpolymers, respectively. Copolymers can be characterized by a variety of techniques such as NMR spectroscopy and size-exclusion chromatography to determine the molecular size, weight, properties, and composition of the material.
Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) is a small-angle scattering technique by which nanoscale density differences in a sample can be quantified. This means that it can determine nanoparticle size distributions, resolve the size and shape of (monodisperse) macromolecules, determine pore sizes, characteristic distances of partially ordered materials, and much more. This is achieved by analyzing the elastic scattering behaviour of X-rays when travelling through the material, recording their scattering at small angles. It belongs to the family of small-angle scattering (SAS) techniques along with small-angle neutron scattering, and is typically done using hard X-rays with a wavelength of 0.07 – 0.2 nm.. Depending on the angular range in which a clear scattering signal can be recorded, SAXS is capable of delivering structural information of dimensions between 1 and 100 nm, and of repeat distances in partially ordered systems of up to 150 nm. USAXS can resolve even larger dimensions, as the smaller the recorded angle, the larger the object dimensions that are probed.
Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) is a temperature-responsive polymer that was first synthesized in the 1950s. It can be synthesized from N-isopropylacrylamide which is commercially available. It is synthesized via free-radical polymerization and is readily functionalized making it useful in a variety of applications.
Temperature-responsive polymers or thermoresponsive polymers are polymers that exhibit drastic and discontinuous changes in their physical properties with temperature. The term is commonly used when the property concerned is solubility in a given solvent, but it may also be used when other properties are affected. Thermoresponsive polymers belong to the class of stimuli-responsive materials, in contrast to temperature-sensitive materials, which change their properties continuously with environmental conditions. In a stricter sense, thermoresponsive polymers display a miscibility gap in their temperature-composition diagram. Depending on whether the miscibility gap is found at high or low temperatures, either an upper critical solution temperature (UCST) or a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) exists.
Grazing-incidence small-angle scattering (GISAS) is a scattering technique used to study nanostructured surfaces and thin films. The scattered probe is either photons or neutrons. GISAS combines the accessible length scales of small-angle scattering and the surface sensitivity of grazing incidence diffraction (GID).
N,N′-Methylenebisacrylamide (MBAm or MBAA) is the organic compound with the formula CH2[NHC(O)CH=CH2]2. A colorlesss solid, this compound is a crosslinking agent in polyacrylamides, e.g., as used for SDS-PAGE.
Egbert (Bert) Willem Meijer is a Dutch organic chemist, known for his work in the fields of supramolecular chemistry, materials chemistry and polymer chemistry. Meijer, who is distinguished professor of Molecular Sciences at Eindhoven University of Technology (TU/e) and Academy Professor of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, is considered one of the founders of the field of supramolecular polymer chemistry. Meijer is a prolific author, sought-after academic lecturer and recipient of multiple awards in the fields of organic and polymer chemistry.
In polymer chemistry, chain walking (CW) or chain running or chain migration is a mechanism that operates during some alkene polymerization reactions. CW can be also considered as a specific case of intermolecular chain transfer. This reaction gives rise to branched and hyperbranched/dendritic hydrocarbon polymers. This process is also characterized by accurate control of polymer architecture and topology. The extent of CW, displayed in the number of branches formed and positions of branches on the polymers are controlled by the choice of a catalyst. The potential applications of polymers formed by this reaction are diverse, from drug delivery to phase transfer agents, nanomaterials, and catalysis.
A sequence-controlled polymer is a macromolecule, in which the sequence of monomers is controlled to some degree. This control can be absolute but not necessarily. In other words, a sequence-controlled polymer can be uniform or non-uniform (Ð>1). For example, an alternating copolymer synthesized by radical polymerization is a sequence-controlled polymer, even if it is also a non-uniform polymer, in which chains have different chain-lengths and slightly different compositions. A biopolymer with a perfectly-defined primary structure is also a sequence-controlled polymer. However, in the case of uniform macromolecules, the term sequence-defined polymer can also be used.
Timothy M. Swager is an American Scientist and the John D. MacArthur Professor of Chemistry at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the director of the Deshpande Center for Technological Innovation. His research is at the interface of chemistry and materials science, with specific interests in carbon nanomaterials, polymers, and liquid crystals. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
Anne J. McNeil is an American chemist who currently works at the University of Michigan, where she holds the position of Arthur F. Thurnau Professor of Chemistry and Macromolecular Science and Engineering. In 2017, McNeil was named a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS).
Frank Steven Bates is an American chemical engineer and materials scientist. Bates is a Regent's Professor (2007–present), a Distinguished McKnight University Professor (1996–present), and department head (1999-2014) in the Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science at the University of Minnesota, where he has been a faculty member since 1989. Prior to his appointment at the University of Minnesota, Bates was a member of the technical staff at AT&T Bell Laboratories from 1982-1989.
Eilaf Egap is an Assistant Professor of Materials Science at Rice University. She works on imaging techniques and biomaterials for early diagnostics and drug delivery. She was a Massachusetts Institute of Technology MLK Visiting Scholar in 2011.
Amalie L. Frischknecht is an American theoretical polymer physicist at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. She was elected a fellow of the American Physical Society (APS) in 2012 for "her outstanding contributions to the theory of ionomers and nanocomposites including the development and application of density functional theory to polymers". Her research focuses on understanding the structure, phase behavior, and self-assembly of polymer systems, such as complex fluids polymer nanocomposites, lipid bilayer assemblies, and ionomers.
So-Jung Park 박소정(朴昭靜) is a Professor of Chemistry at Ewha Womans University, Republic of Korea. Her research considers the self-assembly of nanoparticles and functional molecules for biomedical and optoelectronic devices. She serves as Associate Editor of ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces and Nanoscale.
Ronald G. Larson is George G. Brown Professor of Chemical Engineering and Alfred H. White Distinguished University Professor at the University of Michigan, where he holds joint appointments in Macromolecular Science and Engineering, Biomedical Engineering, and Mechanical Engineering. He is internationally recognized for his research contributions to the fields of polymer physics and complex fluid rheology, especially in the development of theory and computational simulations. Notably, Larson and collaborators discovered new types of viscoelastic instabilities for polymer molecules and developed predictive theories for their flow behavior. He has written numerous scientific papers and two books on these subjects, including a 1998 textbook, “The Structure and Rheology of Complex Fluids”.
Polysulfobetaines are zwitterionic polymers that contain a positively charged quaternary ammonium and a negatively charged sulfonate group within one constitutional repeat unit. In recent years, polysulfobetaines have received increasing attention owing to their good biotolerance and ultralow-fouling behavior towards surfaces. These properties are mainly referred to a tightly bound hydration layer around each zwitterionic group, which effectively suppresses protein adsorption and thus, improves anti-fouling behavior. Therefore, polysulfobetaines have been typically employed as ultrafiltration membranes, blood-contacting devices, and drug delivery materials.
Cononsolvency is a phenomenon where two solvents that can typically readily dissolve a polymer, when mixed, at certain ratios of these two solvents, are no longer able to dissolve the polymer. This is in contrast to cosolvency where two solvents that are both poor at dissolving a material, but when the two poor solvents admixed, form a mixed solvent capable of dissolving the material.