Tomato grafting

Last updated
Grafted tomato plants Mature-in-tray.gif
Grafted tomato plants

Tomato grafting is a horticulture technique that has been utilized worldwide in Asia and Europe for greenhouse and high tunnel production and is gaining popularity in the United States. [1] Typically, stock or rootstock are selected for their ability to resist infection by certain soilborne pathogens or their ability to increase vigor and fruit yield. The scion of the grafted tomato represents the upper portion of the plant and is selected for its fruit quality characteristics. There are several methods for grafting tomatoes and they have certain advantages and disadvantages. Once the grafts are made, the plants are moved into a chamber or environment with high relative humidity (>90%) and low light levels to reduce water stress in the scion while the graft union forms.

Contents

History of vegetable grafting

Grafting of woody plants has been common for centuries, but herbaceous grafting has only become popular recently in agricultural systems. The cultivation of grafted vegetable plants began in Korea and Japan at the end of the 1920s when watermelon plants were grafted onto squash rootstock[1]. Since this time, this technique has spread throughout Asia and Europe. Currently, 81% of Korean and 54% of Japanese vegetable cultivation uses grafting. [2] The use of this cultural technique is mainly carried out for intensive cropping systems like greenhouse and tunnel production. This method is especially popular for vegetable production in the orient, and the number of vegetables in 1998 was estimated to be 540 million transplants in Korea and 750 million in Japan. [3] This technique has moved to the Mediterranean region as well, where the use of grafting has been proposed as a major component of an integrated management strategy for managing soilborne disease and increasing crop productivity. Grafted tomato transplant production has increased in Spain from less than one million plants in 1999–2000 to over 45 million plants in 2003–2004. Grafted tomato is also cultivated in France and Italy, and over 20 million tomato plants were grafted in Morocco in 2004 as a way to reduce soilborne disease and increase crop production. [4]

Grafting can take place on a number of crops. However, because of the added expense, it is typically associated with melons, cucurbits, and members of the family Solanaceae such as eggplant and tomato. Tomato grafting became popular in the 1960s as a way to reduce certain diseases caused by soilborne plant pathogens such as Raletonia solanacearum[1]. Currently, however, grafting is used to offer not only protection from certain diseases, but also tolerance to abiotic stress like flooding, drought, and salinity [2].

Fruit yield

The first grafts in the early 20th century were made in order to diminish attacks by infectious organisms, such as Fusarium oxysporum on watermelons. [2] However, research has shown that this technique can be effective against a variety of fungal, bacterial, viral, and nematode diseases. [5] Furthermore, many researchers are looking to utilize specific rootstocks as an alternative to methyl bromide-a soil fumigant that has been widely used until recently.[4] Grafting has been highly effective at overcoming abiotic sources of stress, such as soil salinity, temperature extremes, and excessive soil moisture.[2] Grafting has also been utilized to reduce the effects of flooding in areas where a wet season may occur. [6]

Grafting tomatoes with tolerant rootstocks has been highly effective at producing a saline-tolerant plants. Research indicates that several rootstocks prevent the translocation of sodium and chloride into the shoot. [7] Many of the most economically important vegetable crops like tomato, squash, cucumber, and watermelon are highly sensitive to thermal stress in the roots throughout vegetative development and reproduction. Whether using rootstock tolerant of hot or cold temperatures, the use of temperature tolerant rootstocks often leads to the extension of the growing season in either direction, resulting in better yield and economic stability through the year.[2] Although the vegetable grafting is typically associated with reduction of disease or abiotic stress, yield is often increased without the presence of these identified sources of stress.

In tomatoes, increases in fruit yield are typically the results of increased fruit size. [8] Research has shown that possible mechanisms for increased yield are likely due to increased water and nutrient uptake among vigorous rootstock genotypes. Conductance through the stoma was improved in tomato plants when grafted onto vigorous rootstock.[7] Nutrient uptake for the macronutrients, such as phosphorus and nitrogen, were enhanced by grafting. [9] [10]

Tomato grafting methods

There are a variety of methods for grafting vegetable crops. Cleft grafting occurs when a V-shape is cut into the rootstock and a complementing wedge-shaped scion is inserted. The graft is then held with a small clip until healing occurs. [11] Approach grafting involves notching opposing sides of the stems of the rootstock and scion, and then using a clip to hold the stems together while they fuse. Once the graft has healed, the original scion is then cut off of the desired rootstock and the unused rootstock is detached from the scion. [12] Micrografting is a new technique that has been recently integrated into micropropagation production for hybrid tomato. This method uses micropropagated scion shoots that grafted onto 3 week-old rootstock seedlings. [13] The most common commercial technique for grafting tomato is tube grafting. Tube grafting takes place when the scion and rootstock are severed as seedlings and reattached with a small, silicone tube or clip. [14] [15] This technique has been highly effective as it can be carried out when plants are very small, thereby eliminating the need for large healing chambers while increasing the output. Tube grafting has been adopted as the primary method for vegetable grafting on the farm as it can be easily carried out with small healing chambers with typical success rates ranging from 85 to 90 percent [14].

Related Research Articles

Abiotic stress is the negative impact of non-living factors on the living organisms in a specific environment. The non-living variable must influence the environment beyond its normal range of variation to adversely affect the population performance or individual physiology of the organism in a significant way.

Fruit tree propagation

Fruit tree propagation is usually carried out vegetatively (non-sexually) by grafting or budding a desired variety onto a suitable rootstock.

Dwarfing is a process in which a breed of animals or cultivar of plants is changed to become significantly smaller than standard members of their species. The effect can be induced through human intervention or non-human processes, and can include genetic, nutritional or hormonal means. Used most specifically, dwarfing includes pathogenic changes in the structure of an organism, in contrast to non-pathogenic proportional reduction in stature.

Brassinosteroid Class of plant hormones

Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a class of polyhydroxysteroids that have been recognized as a sixth class of plant hormones and may have utility as an anticancer drug for endocrine-responsive cancers to induce apoptosis and inhibit growth. These brassinosteroids were first explored during the 70s, when Mitchell et al. reported promotion in stem elongation and cell division by the treatment of organic extracts of rapeseed pollen. Brassinolide was the first isolated brassinosteroid in 1979, when pollen from Brassica napus was shown to promote stem elongation and cell divisions, and the biologically active molecule was isolated. The yield of brassinosteroids from 230 kg of Brassica napus pollen was only 10 mg. Since their discovery, over 70 BR compounds have been isolated from plants.

A rootstock is part of a plant, often an underground part, from which new above-ground growth can be produced. It could also be described as a stem with a well developed root system, to which a bud from another plant is grafted. It can refer to a rhizome or underground stem. In grafting, it refers to a plant, sometimes just a stump, which already has an established, healthy root system, onto which a cutting or a bud from another plant is grafted. In some cases, such as vines of grapes and other berries, cuttings may be used for rootstocks, the roots being established in nursery conditions before planting them out. The plant part grafted onto the rootstock is usually called the scion. The scion is the plant that has the properties that propagator desires above ground, including the photosynthetic activity and the fruit or decorative properties. The rootstock is selected for its interaction with the soil, providing the roots and the stem to support the new plant, obtaining the necessary soil water and minerals, and resisting the relevant pests and diseases. After a few weeks the tissues of the two parts will have grown together, eventually forming a single plant. After some years it may be difficult to detect the site of the graft although the product always contains the components of two genetically different plants.

Orange (fruit) Citrus fruit

The orange is the fruit of various citrus species in the family Rutaceae ; it primarily refers to Citrus × sinensis, which is also called sweet orange, to distinguish it from the related Citrus × aurantium, referred to as bitter orange. The sweet orange reproduces asexually ; varieties of sweet orange arise through mutations.

Pythium aphanidermatum is a soil borne plant pathogen. Pythium is a genus in the class Oomycetes, which are also known as water molds. Oomycetes are not true fungi, as their cell walls are made of cellulose instead of chitin, they are diploid in their vegetative state, and they contain coenocytic hyphae, called a protist. Also, they reproduce asexually with motile biflagelette zoospores that require water to move towards and infect a host. Sexually, they reproduce with structures called antheridia, oogonia, and oospores.

Grafting

Grafting or graftage is a horticultural technique whereby tissues of plants are joined so as to continue their growth together. The upper part of the combined plant is called the scion while the lower part is called the rootstock. The success of this joining requires that the vascular tissues grow together and such joining is called inosculation. The technique is most commonly used in asexual propagation of commercially grown plants for the horticultural and agricultural trades.

Napa cabbage

Napa or napa cabbage is a type of Chinese cabbage originating near the Beijing region of China and is widely used in East Asian cuisine. Since the 20th century, it has also become a widespread crop in Europe, the Americas and Australia. In much of the world, this is the vegetable referred to as "Chinese cabbage". In Australia it also is referred to as "wombok".

This glossary of viticultural terms list some of terms and definitions involved in growing grapes for use in winemaking.

Biotic stress is stress that occurs as a result of damage done to an organism by other living organisms, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, beneficial and harmful insects, weeds, and cultivated or native plants. It is different from abiotic stress, which is the negative impact of non-living factors on the organisms such as temperature, sunlight, wind, salinity, flooding and drought. The types of biotic stresses imposed on an organism depend the climate where it lives as well as the species' ability to resist particular stresses. Biotic stress remains a broadly defined term and those who study it face many challenges, such as the greater difficulty in controlling biotic stresses in an experimental context compared to abiotic stress.

Istituto di Genetica Vegetale

Istituto di Genetica Vegetale (IGV) is a research network om Plant Genetics and Breeding within the Italian Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche. IGV is headquartered in Bari and has four different Divisions in Portici, Palermo, Florence and Perugia. IGV started its activities on November 2002.

Genetically modified tomato

A genetically modified tomato, or transgenic tomato, is a tomato that has had its genes modified, using genetic engineering. The first trial genetically modified food was a tomato engineered to have a longer shelf life, but never made it to market. Currently there are no genetically modified tomatoes available commercially, but scientists are developing tomatoes with new traits like increased resistance to pests or environmental stresses. Other projects aim to enrich tomatoes with substances that may offer health benefits or be more nutritious. As well as aiming to produce novel crops, scientists produce genetically modified tomatoes to understand the function of genes naturally present in tomatoes.

Mulgoba

Malgova or Malgoa is an important mango cultivar mainly grown in Tamilnadu and Karnataka and also in other parts of South India. It is a large round fruit, it has a small hard seed inside and is very juicy and fragrant. It is generally considered to be one of the best mangoes. Its production area is centred on the districts of Salem, Dharmapuri and Krishnagiri in Tamil Nadu,gujrat, as well as neighbouring parts of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka.

Plant breeding The art and science of changing the traits of plants in order to produce desired characteristics

Plant breeding is the science of changing the traits of plants in order to produce desired characteristics. It has been used to improve the quality of nutrition in products for humans and animals. The goals of plant breeding are to produce crop varieties that boast unique and superior traits for a variety of agricultural applications. The most frequently addressed traits are those related to biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, grain or biomass yield, end-use quality characteristics such as taste or the concentrations of specific biological molecules and ease of processing. Plant breeding can be accomplished through many different techniques ranging from simply selecting plants with desirable characteristics for propagation, to methods that make use of knowledge of genetics and chromosomes, to more complex molecular techniques. Genes in a plant are what determine what type of qualitative or quantitative traits it will have. Plant breeders strive to create a specific outcome of plants and potentially new plant varieties.

Eggplant production in China

China is the world's leading producer and consumer of eggplants. The leading producers, after China, are India, Turkey, Japan, Egypt and Italy; a Mediterranean climate favours its production. China has produced eggplants since the 5th century BC for various reasons, not just for food. The eggplant is originally from India and reached coastal regions of mainland China first and then Taiwan; the long slender variety is the preferred one for cooking. Dark eggplant skins were historically used by aristocratic women to make black dye, which they often used to "stain their teeth to a black lustre". In Japan, this is called ohaguro.

Pomato Chimaera

The pomato is a grafted plant that is produced by grafting together a tomato plant and a potato plant, both of which are members of the Solanum genus in the Solanaceae (nightshade) family. Cherry tomatoes grow on the vine, while white potatoes grow in the soil from the same plant.

Propagation of grapevines

The propagation of grapevines is an important consideration in commercial viticulture and winemaking. Grapevines, most of which belong to the Vitis vinifera family, produce one crop of fruit each growing season with a limited life span for individual vines. While some centenarian old vine examples of grape varieties exist, most grapevines are between the ages of 10 and 30 years. As vineyard owners seek to replant their vines, a number of techniques are available which may include planting a new cutting that has been selected by either clonal or mass (massal) selection. Vines can also be propagated by grafting a new plant vine upon existing rootstock or by layering one of the canes of an existing vine into the ground next to the vine and severing the connection when the new vine develops its own root system.

Indian Institute of Horticultural Research

The Indian Institute of Horticultural Research (IIHR) is an autonomous organization acting as a nodal agency for basic, strategic, anticipatory and applied research on various aspects of horticulture such as fruits, vegetable, ornamental, medicinal and aromatic plants and mushrooms in India. The institute has its headquarters in Bengaluru, Karnataka, India and is a subsidiary of Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), New Delhi, under the Ministry of Agriculture, India.

Citrus rootstock are plants used as rootstock for citrus plants. A rootstock plant must be compatible for scion grafting, and resistant to common threats, such as drought, frost, and common citrus diseases.

References

  1. Kubota, C., McClure, M. A., Kokalis-Burelle, N., Bausher, M. G., and Rosskopf, E. N. 2008. Vegetable grafting: History, use, and current technology status in North America. HortScience. Pages 1664-1669
  2. Rivero, R. M., J. M. Ruiz, et al. (2003). "Role of Grafting in Horticultural Plants Under Stress Conditions." Food, Agriculture, & Environment 1(1): 70-74
  3. Lee, J. M., H. J. Bang, et al. (1998). "Grafting of vegetables." Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science 67(6): 1098-1104
  4. Besri, M. (2005). Current Situation of Tomato Grafting as Alternative to Methyl Bromide for Tomato Production in the Mediterranean Region. 2005 Annual International Research Conference on Methyl Bromide Alternatives and Emissions Reductions San Diego, CA USA.
  5. King, S. R., Davis, A. R., Liu, W. G., and Levi, A. 2008. Grafting for disease resistance. HortScience. Pg 1673-1676
  6. Black, L.L., D.L. Wu, J.F. Wang, T. Kalb, D. Abbass, and J.H. Chen. 2003 Grafting tomatoes for production in the hot-wet season. Asian Vegetable Research & Development Center
  7. Fernandez-Garcia, N., V. Martinez, A. Cerda, and M. Carvajal. 2002. Water and nutrient uptake of grafted tomato plants grown under saline conditions. Journal of Plant Physiology 159 (8):899-905
  8. Pogonyi, A., Z. Pek, L. Helyes, and A. Lugasi 2005 Grafting tomatoes for early forcing in spring has a major impact on the overall quality of main fruit components. Acta Alimentaria 34:453-462
  9. Leonardi, C., and F. Giuffrida. 2006 Variation of plant growth and macro-nutrient uptake in grafted tomatoes and eggplants on three different rootstocks. European Journal of Horticultural Science 71:97-101
  10. Ruiz, J. M., and L. Romero. 1999. Nitrogen efficiency and metabolism in grafted melon plants. Scientia Horticulturae 81:113-123
  11. Oda, 1999. Grafting of Vegetables to Improve Greenhouse Production. College of Agricultural Education. pg 1-11. Osaka Prefecture University. Japan.
  12. Lee, J. M. 2003. Advances in Vegetable Grafting. Chronica Horticulturae 43 (2):13-19
  13. Grigoriadis, I., I. Nianiou-Obeidat, and A. S. Tsaftaris. 2005. Shoot regeneration and micrografting of micropropagated hybrid tomatoes. Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology 80:183-186
  14. Oda, M. 1995. New grafting methods for fruit-bearing vegetables in Japan. Japan Agricultural Research Quarterly 29:187-194
  15. Rivard, C. L., and Louws, F. J. 2006. Grafting for Disease Resistance in Heirloom Tomatoes College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, ed. North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service.