|Signed||22 February 1814|
The Treaty of Troyes was an agreement of 22 February 1814 by Austria, Russia and Prussia following a council of war with senior generals, Tsar Alexander I of Russia and King Frederick William III of Prussia. The treaty determined the movements of the Austrian and Prussian-Russian armies following a series of defeats during the invasion of north-east France (part of the War of the Sixth Coalition). Despite dissent from the Russian and Prussian leaders, Austrian General Karl Philipp, Prince of Schwarzenberg secured support for a withdrawal ahead of the French forces of Emperor Napoleon I who was seeking to bring the allies to battle.
The allied armies separated with the Army of Silesia under Field Marshal Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher heading north to join with other allied forces. Napoleon failed to defeat him at the 9 March Battle of Laon and Blücher captured Paris on 30–31 March; shortly afterwards Napoleon abdicated the French throne and the war ended.
The War of the Sixth Coalition was part of the Napoleonic Wars in which allied forces sought to defeat France and unseat Emperor Napoleon I. In January 1814 the allied nations of Austria, Prussia and Russia - who had decisively defeated a French force at the Battle of Leipzig in October 1813 - launched an invasion of the French Empire. This was carried out by three armies: the Army of Bohemia composed of Austrians under Field Marshal Karl Philipp, Prince of Schwarzenberg; the Army of Silesia, a Prussian-Russian force under Field Marshal Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher and the Army of the North, a Prussian-Russian-Dutch-Scandinavian force under Generals Ferdinand von Wintzingerode, Friedrich Wilhelm Freiherr von Bülow and Prince Bernadotte. 
The Army of the North remained fairly static whilst Blücher advanced into France on the northern flank and Schwarzenberg on the southern. Napoleon defeated Blücher's advance in the Six Days' Campaign of 10–15 February, forcing the Prussians to withdraw, before he was compelled to deal with the Austrian forces. He defeated the Austrians at the 18 February Battle of Montereau on 18 February after which they withdrew to Troyes. 
No sooner had Schwarzenberg's 50,000-strong army entered Troyes than it was threatened by Napoleon, who reached Chartres on the 22 February.   Blücher's force at this time were at Sommesous but he moved to join a Russian contingent at Méry-sur-Seine.  Napoleon switched his attention back to Blücher, intending to keep the allied armies separate.  Arriving at Méry-sur-Seine he launched an assault across the River Seine bridge. After some close quarters fighting the village was burned to the ground and Napoleon took the badly damaged bridge. A set-piece battle looked set to decide matters between the French and the Prussian-Russian force but Napoleon declined to enter into one, content to resume his march on Troyes.   It is believed that Napoleon sought to inflict a decisive defeat on the Austrians, hoping to persuade them to leave the coalition.  
A council of war met at Troyes on 22 February 1814 attended by Tsar Alexander I of Russia and King Frederick William III of Prussia as well as the senior allied generals to determine their next actions.   Schwarzenberg feared, perhaps justifiably, that his force was insufficient to defeat Napoleon and recommended a withdrawal.  This course of action was opposed by Blücher and General Diebitsch as well as Alexander and Frederick William who wished to engage the French in the field.   However, in the end a general withdrawal and separation of the two armies was agreed. 
The treaty was put into immediate effect and orders issued to the allied armies. Napoleon hoped to engage the Austrian army near to Troyes on 23 February, but the withdrawal deprived him of the decisive battle that he sought. 
Some commentators suggested that the decision to withdraw was made because the allied generals could not agree on a suitable battlefield near to Troyes on which to engage the French. However, it is considered likely that they instead feared losing a decisive engagement upon which hinged the future of Europe: either in the final defeat of Napoleon or the collapse of the Sixth Coalition. 
After the signing of the treaty, Blücher moved his forces north to join forces with Bülow and Wintzingerode. Some of Bernadotte's troops also moved to support him. Blücher was therefore strong enough to consider resuming the invasion. Napoleon occupied Troyes on 24 February and, leaving a force under Macdonald and Oudinot to observe the Austrians, moved north again against Blücher. 
Napoleon's attack on Blücher at the 9 March Battle of Laon was unsuccessful and he withdrew to Reims, where he defeated a Russian force on 12–13 March. Macdonald and Oudinot fell back before the Austrian march on Provins but Schwarzenberg decided to withdraw again to Troyes. Napoleon engaged him in the indecisive Battle of Arcis-sur-Aube of 20 March and was forced to withdraw ahead of a renewed advance. Napoleon was now too weak to fight either of the allied armies and Blücher captured Paris on 30–31 March. Napoleon retreated to Fontainebleau where he agreed to abdicate on 13 April, bringing the war to a close. 
1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1814th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 814th year of the 2nd millennium, the 14th year of the 19th century, and the 5th year of the 1810s decade. As of the start of 1814, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
The Battle of Leipzig or Battle of the Nations was fought from 16 to 19 October 1813, at Leipzig, Saxony. The Coalition armies of Austria, Prussia, Sweden, and Russia, led by Emperor Alexander I and Karl von Schwarzenberg, decisively defeated the Grande Armée of French Emperor Napoleon I. Napoleon's army also contained Polish and Italian troops, as well as Germans from the Confederation of the Rhine. The battle was the culmination of the German Campaign of 1813 and involved 500,000 soldiers, 2,200 artillery pieces, the expenditure of 200,000 rounds of artillery ammunition, and 127,000 casualties, making it the largest battle in Europe prior to World War I.
The Battle of Arcis-sur-Aube saw an Imperial French army under Napoleon face a much larger Allied army led by Karl Philipp, Prince of Schwarzenberg during the War of the Sixth Coalition. On the second day of fighting, Emperor Napoleon suddenly realized he was massively outnumbered, and immediately ordered a masked retreat. By the time the Austrian Field Marshal Schwarzenberg realized Napoleon was retreating, most of the French had already disengaged and the Allied pursuit afterwards failed to prevent the remaining French army from safely withdrawing to the north. This was Napoleon's penultimate battle before his abdication and exile to Elba, the last being the Battle of Saint-Dizier.
The Battle of Brienne saw an Imperial French army led by Emperor Napoleon attack Prussian and Russian forces commanded by Prussian Field Marshal Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher. After heavy fighting that went on into the night, the French seized the château, nearly capturing Blü
The Battle of Champaubert was the opening engagement of the Six Days' Campaign. It was fought between a French army led by Napoleon and a small Russian corps commanded by Lieutenant General Count Zakhar Dmitrievich Olsufiev. After putting up a good fight, the Russian formation was effectively destroyed; the survivors escaped into the woods while Olsufiev became a French prisoner. Champaubert is located in France, 46 kilometres (29 mi) west of Châlons-en-Champagne and 69 kilometres (43 mi) east of Meaux.
The Battle of Craonne was a battle between an Imperial French army under Emperor Napoleon I opposing a combined army of Imperial Russians and Prussians led by Prussian Field Marshal Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher. The War of the Sixth Coalition engagement began when the bulk of Napoleon's army tried to drive Mikhail Semyonovich Vorontsov's 22,000 Russians off the Chemin des Dames plateau to the west of Craonne. After a bitter struggle, Napoleon's attacks compelled Vorontsov's force to withdraw, but French casualties exceeded Russian losses. While the battle raged, Blücher's attempt to turn Napoleon's east flank ended in failure due to poor planning.
The Battle of Mormant was fought during the War of the Sixth Coalition between an Imperial French army under Emperor Napoleon I and a division of Russians under Count Peter Petrovich Pahlen. Enveloped by cavalry led by François Étienne de Kellermann and Édouard Jean-Baptiste Milhaud and infantry led by Étienne Maurice Gérard, Pahlen's outnumbered force was nearly destroyed, with only about a third of its soldiers escaping. Later in the day, a French column led by Marshal Claude Perrin Victor encountered an Austrian-Bavarian rearguard under Anton Leonhard von Hardegg and Peter de Lamotte in the Battle of Valjouan. Attacked by French infantry and cavalry, the Allied force was mauled before it withdrew behind the Seine River. The Mormant-Valjouan actions and the Battle of Montereau the following day marked the start of a French counteroffensive intended to drive back Karl Philipp, Prince of Schwarzenberg's Allied Army of Bohemia. The town of Mormant is located 50 kilometres (31 mi) southeast of Paris.
In the War of the Sixth Coalition, sometimes known in Germany as the War of Liberation, a coalition of Austria, Prussia, Russia, the United Kingdom, Portugal, Sweden, Spain and a number of German States defeated France and drove Napoleon into exile on Elba. After the disastrous French invasion of Russia of 1812 in which they had been forced to support France, Prussia and Austria joined Russia, the United Kingdom, Sweden, Portugal and the rebels in Spain who were already at war with France.
The Six Days Campaign was a final series of victories by the forces of Napoleon I of France as the Sixth Coalition closed in on Paris.
The Battle of Paris was fought on March 30–31, 1814 between the Sixth Coalition, consisting of Russia, Austria, and Prussia, against the French Empire. After a day of fighting in the suburbs of Paris, the French surrendered on March 31, ending the War of the Sixth Coalition and forcing Emperor Napoleon to abdicate and go into exile.
The Battle of Château-Thierry saw the Imperial French army commanded by Emperor Napoleon attempt to destroy a Prussian corps led by Ludwig Yorck von Wartenburg and an Imperial Russian corps under Fabian Wilhelm von Osten-Sacken. The two Allied corps managed to escape across the Marne River, but suffered considerably heavier losses than the pursuing French. This action occurred during the Six Days' Campaign, a series of victories that Napoleon won over Prussian Field Marshal Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher's Army of Silesia. Château-Thierry lies about 75 kilometres (47 mi) northeast of Paris.
The Battle of Laon was the victory of Blücher's Prussian army over Napoleon's French army near Laon. During the Battle of Craonne on 7 March, Blücher's army was forced to retreat into Laon after a failed attempt to halt Napoleon's east flank. Along the way to Laon, reinforcements from Russian forces under Ferdinand von Wintzingerode and a Prussian corps led by Friedrich Wilhelm Freiherr von Bülow joined the defensive. Blücher opted to face Napoleon at Laon because it was the site of a strategically important road junction, and because of its highly defensible position.
The Battle of La Rothière was fought on the 1st of February 1814 between the French Empire and allied army of Austria, Prussia, Russia, and German States previously allies with France. The French were led by Emperor Napoleon and the coalition army was under the command of Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher. The battle took place in severe weather conditions. The French were defeated but managed to hold until they could retreat under cover of darkness.
The Battle of Bar-sur-Aube was fought on 27 February 1814, between the First French Empire and the Austrian Empire. French forces were led by Jacques MacDonald, while the Austrians and their Bavarian allies, forming the Army of Bohemia, were led by Karl Philipp Fürst zu Schwarzenberg. The Austrians were victorious.
The Battle of Fère-Champenoise was fought between two Imperial French corps led by Marshals Auguste de Marmont and Édouard Mortier, duc de Trévise and a larger Coalition force composed of cavalry from the Austrian Empire, Kingdom of Prussia, Kingdom of Württemberg, and Russian Empire. Caught by surprise by Field Marshal Karl Philipp, Prince of Schwarzenberg's main Coalition army, the forces under Marmont and Mortier were steadily driven back and finally completely routed by aggressive Allied horsemen and gunners, suffering heavy casualties and the loss of most of their artillery. Two divisions of French National Guards under Michel-Marie Pacthod escorting a nearby convoy were also attacked and wiped out in the Battle of Bannes. The battleground was near the town Fère-Champenoise located 40 kilometres (25 mi) southwest of Châlons-en-Champagne.
The 1814 campaign in north-east France was Napoleon's final campaign of the War of the Sixth Coalition. Following their victory at Leipzig in 1813, the Austrian, Prussian, Russian, and other German armies of the Sixth Coalition invaded France. Despite the disproportionate forces in favour of the Coalition, Napoleon managed to inflict many defeats, especially during the Six Days' Campaign. However, the Coalition kept advancing towards Paris, which capitulated in late March 1814. As a result, Napoleon was deposed and exiled to Elba and the victorious powers started to redraw the map of Europe during the First Treaty of Paris and during the early stages of the Congress of Vienna.
The German Campaign was fought in 1813. Members of the Sixth Coalition, including the German states of Austria and Prussia, plus Russia and Sweden, fought a series of battles in Germany against the French Emperor Napoleon, his Marshals, and armies of the Confederation of the Rhine - an alliance of most of the other German states - which ended the domination of the First French Empire.
The VI Cavalry Corps of the Grande Armée was a French military unit that had an ephemeral existence during the Napoleonic Wars. The corps was created on 9 February 1814 and General François Étienne de Kellermann was appointed as its commander. The corps was formed by combining a newly arrived dragoon division from the Spanish front, a second dragoon division, and a light cavalry division made up of hussars and Chasseurs-à-Cheval. The latter two divisions included units from the former III Cavalry Corps. Kellermann led the VI Cavalry Corps at Mormant, Troyes, Bar-sur-Aube, Laubressel, and Saint-Dizier. After Emperor Napoleon I abdicated in early April, the corps ceased to exist.
The Battle of Gué-à-Tresmes was fought between 14,500 French troops led by Marshals Auguste de Marmont and Édouard Mortier and 12,000 Prussians commanded by Friedrich Graf Kleist von Nollendorf and Friedrich von Katzler. On 28 February the French attacked and drove the Prussians to the north along the west bank of the Ourcq River. That evening and the next day Kleist tried to push the French back while Russian units under Peter Mikhailovich Kaptzevich tried to cross from the east to the west bank of the Ourcq; the Allies were unsuccessful. Gué-à-Tresmes is located where Route D405 crosses the Thérouanne stream about 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) northeast of Meaux.
The Battle of Laubressel saw the main Allied army of Field Marshal Karl Philipp, Prince of Schwarzenberg mount a three-pronged converging attack on the weaker army of Marshal Jacques MacDonald. The French forces under Marshal Nicolas Oudinot bore the brunt of the fighting, in which the Allies tried to turn their left flank. The French abandoned Troyes and retreated west as a result of the action. The village of Laubressel is located 10 kilometres (6 mi) east of Troyes.