Trochilinae

Last updated

Trochilinae
Violet-headed Hummingbird (f) JCB.jpg
Female violet-headed hummingbird (Klais guimeti)
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Apodiformes
Family: Trochilidae
Subfamily: Trochilinae
Reichenbach, 1854
Tribes

3, see text

Trochilinae is one of the six subfamilies that make up the hummingbird family Trochilidae.

Contents

The subfamily is divided into three tribes: Lampornithini (mountain gems) containing 18 species, Mellisugini (bees) containing 37 species and Trochilini (emeralds) containing 115 species. [1] [2]

Phylogeny

The hummingbirds were formerly divided into two subfamilies, the hermits (Phaethornithinae) and the nonhermits (Trochilinae). The results from a 2007 DNA hybridization study suggested that the hermits were basal to the rest of the family. [3]

A molecular phylogenetic study of the hummingbirds published in 2007 found that the family consisted of nine clades. [4] When Edward Dickinson and James Van Remsen Jr. updated the Howard and Moore Complete Checklist of the Birds of the World for the 4th edition in 2013, they divided the hummingbird family into six subfamilies based on the molecular results and redefined the subfamily Trochilinae to contain three clades, each of which they placed in a separate tribe: Lampornithini (mountain gems), Mellisugini (bees) and Trochilini (emeralds). [5] A comprehensive phylogenetic study that sampled 284 hummingbird species was published in 2014. It confirmed the nine clades found in the earlier study but found that the hermits were sister to the topazes clade (subfamily Florisuginae) containing the genera Topaza and Florisuga. Many of the traditional genera in the emerald clade (Trochilini) were shown to be polyphyletic. [1] As a result, many of the genera in this part of the tree have been revised. [2] [6]

Trochilidae

Florisuginae – topazes

Phaethornithinae – hermits

Polytminae – mangoes

Lesbiinae

Heliantheini – brilliants

Lesbiini – coquettes

Patagoninaegiant hummingbird

Trochilinae

Lampornithini – mountain gems

Mellisugini – bees

Trochilini – emeralds

The above cladogram of the hummingbird family is based on a molecular phylogenetic study by Jimmy McGuire and collaborators published in 2014. [1] The Latin names are those proposed by Dickinson and Remsen in 2013. [7]

Related Research Articles

The blue-vented hummingbird is a bird in the family Trochilidae. Some taxonomic authorities consider it conspecific with the steely-vented hummingbird, while others consider it distinct. It is found from western Nicaragua to central Costa Rica.

<i>Amazilia</i> Genus of birds

Amazilia is a hummingbird genus in the subfamily Trochilinae. It is found in tropical Central and South America.

White-bellied emerald Species of bird

The white-bellied emerald is a species of hummingbird in the family Trochilidae. It is found in Belize, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, and Nicaragua. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical dry forest and subtropical or tropical moist lowland forest.

White-bellied hummingbird Species of bird

The white-bellied hummingbird is a species of hummingbird in the family Trochilidae. It is found at forest edge, woodland, scrub and gardens in the Andes, ranging from northern Peru south through Bolivia to north-western Argentina. There are also lowland populations in Santa Cruz, Bolivia, and Mato Grosso, Brazil. It is generally fairly common.

Indigo-capped hummingbird Species of bird

The indigo-capped hummingbird is a species of hummingbird in the family Trochilidae.

Glittering-throated emerald Species of bird

The glittering-throated emerald, sometimes placed in the genus Polyerata, is a species of hummingbird in the family Trochilidae. It is found in the Amazon Basin, Venezuela, the Guianas, Brazil and Trinidad. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forest, subtropical or tropical dry shrubland, and heavily degraded former forest.

Plain-bellied emerald Species of bird

The plain-bellied emerald is a species of hummingbird in the family Trochilidae. It is found from north-eastern Venezuela, through the Guianas, to around São Luís in Brazil. Smaller disjunct populations are found in north-eastern Brazil as far south as Bahia. It occurs in a wide range of semi-open habitats, primarily in coastal regions. It is generally fairly common, and therefore considered to be of least concern by BirdLife International and consequently the IUCN.

Purple-chested hummingbird Species of bird

The purple-chested hummingbird is a species of hummingbird in the family Trochilidae. It is found in Colombia and Ecuador. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forest and heavily degraded former forest. It is commonly hunted for the supposed medicinal properties of its beak by indigenous peoples in the area.

Green-and-white hummingbird Species of bird

The green-and-white hummingbird is a species of hummingbird in the family Trochilidae. It is endemic to the East Andean slope in Peru, where generally restricted to areas near humid forest. It is commonly seen at Machu Picchu. It closely resembles the white-bellied hummingbird, but lacks white to the basal half of the tail.

<i>Chlorestes</i> Genus of birds

Chlorestes is a genus of hummingbirds.

<i>Chrysuronia</i> Genus of birds

Chrysuronia is a genus of hummingbirds in the family Trochilidae.

<i>Saucerottia</i> Genus of birds

Saucerottia is a genus of birds in the family Trochilidae, or hummingbirds.

<i>Leucolia</i> Genus of birds

Leucolia is a genus in the family of Hummingbirds.

<i>Chionomesa</i> Genus of birds

Chionomesa is a genus of South American hummingbirds in the family Trochilidae.

Polytminae Subfamily of birds

Polytminae is one of the six subfamilies of the hummingbird family Trochilidae. The subfamily contains 12 genera with a total of 29 species.

Florisuginae Subfamily of birds

Florisuginae is one of the six subfamilies in the hummingbird family Trochilidae.

Lesbiini Tribe of birds

Lesbiini is one of the two tribes that make up the subfamily Lesbiinae in the hummingbird family Trochilidae. The other tribe is Heliantheini (brilliants).

Mellisugini Tribe of the Trochilinae

Mellisugini is one of the three tribes that make up the subfamily Trochilinae in the hummingbird family Trochilidae. The other two tribes in the subfamily are Lampornithini and Trochilini (emeralds).

Lampornithini Tribe of birds

Lampornithini is one of the three tribes that make up the subfamily Trochilinae in the hummingbird family Trochilidae. The other two tribes in the subfamily are Mellisugini (bees) and Trochilini (emeralds).

Trochilini Tribe of birds

Trochilini is one of the three tribes that make up the subfamily Trochilinae in the hummingbird family Trochilidae. The other two tribes in the subfamily are Lampornithini and Mellisugini (bees).

References

  1. 1 2 3 McGuire, J.; Witt, C.; Remsen, J.V.; Corl, A.; Rabosky, D.; Altshuler, D.; Dudley, R. (2014). "Molecular phylogenetics and the diversification of hummingbirds". Current Biology. 24 (8): 910–916. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2014.03.016 . PMID   24704078.
  2. 1 2 Gill, Frank; Donsker, David; Rasmussen, Pamela, eds. (January 2021). "Hummingbirds". IOC World Bird List Version 11.1. International Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 25 January 2021.
  3. Bleiweiss, R.; Kirsch, J.A.; Matheus, J.C. (1997). "DNA hybridization evidence for the principal lineages of hummingbirds (Aves:Trochilidae)". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 14 (3): 325–343. doi: 10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a025767 . PMID   9066799.
  4. McGuire, J.A.; Witt, C.C.; Altshuler, Dg.L.; Remsen, J.V. (2007). "Phylogenetic systematics and biogeography of hummingbirds: Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses of partitioned data and selection of an appropriate partitioning strategy". Systematic Biology. 56 (5): 837–856. doi: 10.1080/10635150701656360 . PMID   17934998.
  5. Dickinson & Remsen 2013, p. 111.
  6. Stiles, F.G.; Remsen, J.V. Jr.; Mcguire, J.A. (2017). "The generic classification of the Trochilini (Aves: Trochilidae): Reconciling taxonomy with phylogeny". Zootaxa. 4353 (3): 401–424. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.4353.3. PMID   29245495.
  7. Dickinson & Remsen 2013, pp. 105–136.

Sources

{{ citebook I]| editor-last1=Cancella | editor-first=Calvino, M| year=2006 |title=Time-activity budgets and behaviour of the Amazilia hummingbird, Amazilia amazilia (Apodiformes : Trochilidae) in an urban environment. Revista de Biología Tropical |