Tropical Storm Wendy (1999)

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Tropical Storm Wendy (Mameng)
Tropical storm (JMA scale)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Tropical Storm Wendy 1999.jpg
Tropical Storm Wendy near peak intensity
FormedAugust 29, 1999
DissipatedSeptember 4, 1999
Highest winds 10-minute sustained:65 km/h (40 mph)
1-minute sustained:75 km/h (45 mph)
Lowest pressure995 hPa (mbar); 29.38 inHg
Fatalities133 total
Damage$309.4 million (1999 USD)
Areas affected Philippines, China
Part of the 1999 Pacific typhoon season

Tropical Storm Wendy, known in the Philippines as Tropical Storm Mameng, was a deadly tropical cyclone that affected China in early September 1999. [1] Wendy was first monitored on August 29, 1999, and was designated as a tropical depression by PAGASA the next day. Soon afterwards, the JTWC issued a Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert on the strengthening disturbance. On the first day of September, the JTWC designated the disturbance as Tropical Depression 20W. The storm reached its peak intensity late on September 2 and made landfall on China the next night dissipating not long afterward. Wendy caused 133 deaths and 309.3 million dollars (1999 USD) in damage. Despite this, the name Wendy was not retired.

China Country in East Asia

China, officially the People's Republic of China, is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion in 2017. Covering approximately 9,600,000 square kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third or fourth largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, and the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.

Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert

A Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert (TCFA) is a bulletin released by the U.S. Navy-operated Joint Typhoon Warning Center in Honolulu, Hawaii or the Fleet Weather Center in Norfolk, Virginia, warning of the possibility of a tropical cyclone forming from a tropical disturbance that has been monitored. Such alerts are generally always issued when it is fairly certain that a tropical cyclone will form and are not always released prior to cyclone genesis, particularly if the cyclone appears suddenly. The TCFA consists of several different checks that are performed by the on-duty meteorologist of the system and its surroundings. If the condition being checked is met, a certain number of points are given to the system.

Contents

Meteorological history

Map plotting the track and the intensity of the storm, according to the Saffir-Simpson scale Wendy 1999 track.png
Map plotting the track and the intensity of the storm, according to the Saffir–Simpson scale

On August 29, 1999, the JTWC began to monitor an area of thunderstorm activity northeast of Yap. [2] By the next day, a broad Lower-Level-Circulation-Center (LLC) had formed with the upper-level environment in the region favorable for additional strengthening. [2] That night, PAGASA began to issue warnings on the disturbance designating it as Tropical Depression Mameng while the system was 400 miles (645 km) northwest of Palau. [2] [3] The system had two primary clusters of strong thunderstorm activity with the highest winds at the edge of the circulation center. [2] The next morning, the JTWC issued a Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert on the developing disturbance because satellite imagery had suggested that a separate LLC was forming in one of the clusters of thunderstorm activity. [2] Early on September 1, the JTWC upgraded the disturbance to a tropical depression designating it "20W". [2]

Joint Typhoon Warning Center

The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) is a joint United States Navy – United States Air Force command located in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. The JTWC is responsible for the issuing of tropical cyclone warnings in the North-West Pacific Ocean, South Pacific Ocean, and Indian Ocean for all branches of the U.S. Department of Defense and other U.S. government agencies. Their warnings are intended for the protection of primarily military ships and aircraft as well as military installations jointly operated with other countries around the world.

Yap Island in Federated States of Micronesia

Yap or Wa′ab traditionally refers to an island group located in the Caroline Islands of the western Pacific Ocean, a part of Yap State. The name "Yap" in recent years has come to also refer to the state within the Federated States of Micronesia, inclusive of the Yap Main Islands and its various outer islands. For specifying the island group, the name Yap Main Islands is most exact.

PAGASA National Meteorological and Hydrological Services agency of the Republic of the Philippines

The Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration is the National Meteorological and Hydrological Services (NMHS) agency of the Republic of the Philippines mandated to provide protection against natural calamities and to insure the safety, well-being and economic security of all the people, and for the promotion of national progress by undertaking scientific and technological services in meteorology, hydrology, climatology, astronomy and other geophysical sciences. Created on December 8, 1972 by reorganizing the Weather Bureau, PAGASA now serves as one of the Scientific and Technological Services Institutes of the Department of Science and Technology.

At the time of the upgrade, the depression had winds of 30 mph (55 km/h) while 175 miles (280 km) east-southeast of Catanduanes Island in the Philippines. [2] [4] Late on September 1, PAGASA upgraded Tropical Depression Mameng (20W) to a tropical storm. [3] Early the next morning, the JTWC relocated the circulation center 200 miles (320 km) to the north as the depression began to approach the island of Luzon. [2] [4] Soon after the storm began to move away from Luzon after its closest approach, the JTWC upgraded Tropical Depression 20W to a tropical storm and assigned it the name Wendy. [2] [4] At 0000 UTC on September 3, the JTWC, PAGASA, and the JMA, the official warning center for the region reported that Wendy (Mameng) had reached its peak intensity with PAGASA issuing its final advisory as it moved out of its area of responsibility. The JTWC reported that peak intensity was 45 mph (70 km/h) (1-min winds), PAGASA reported that peak intensity was 50 mph (80 km/h) (10-min winds), and the JMA reported that peak intensity was 40 mph (65 km.h) (10-min winds). [3] [4] [5] Twelve hours later, the JMA downgraded the tropical storm to a depression. [5] Tropical Storm Wendy continued to move towards the Chinese coast for the next day. [2] [4] As it was nearing land, a Central Dense Overcast, an area of very strong thunderstorms, formed and the tropical storm made landfall about 140 miles (225 km) east-northeast of Hong Kong, [2] and promptly weakened into a tropical depression. [4] The tropical depression dissipated early on September 4 while over the mountains of China. [4] [5]

Luzon largest island of the Philippines

Luzon is the largest and most populous island in the Philippines. It is ranked 15th largest in the world by land area. Located in the northern portion of the archipelago, it is the economic and political center of the nation, being home to the country's capital city, Manila, as well as Quezon City, the country's most populous city. With a population of 53 million as of 2015, it is the fourth most populous island in the world, containing 52.5% of the country's total population.

Japan Meteorological Agency meteorological service of Japan

The Japan Meteorological Agency, JMA, is an agency of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. It is charged with gathering and providing results for the public in Japan that are obtained from data based on daily scientific observation and research into natural phenomena in the fields of meteorology, hydrology, seismology and volcanology, among other related scientific fields. Its headquarters is located in Chiyoda, Tokyo.

Hong Kong Special administrative region of China

Hong Kong, officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is a special administrative region on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in southern China. With over 7.4 million people of various nationalities in a 1,104-square-kilometre (426 sq mi) territory, Hong Kong is one of the most densely populated places in the world.

Impact and aftermath

Tropical Storm Wendy killed at least 133 people in Wenzhou, China, left 59 missing, and injured 2600 more. [1] The storm was labeled "the most serious storm of the century" by the local government. [1] 2.21 million people were effected and 277 million dollars (1999 USD) in direct economic losses due to the storm. [1] The tropical storm flooded over 20,000 hectares of farmland, killed 38,000 livestock and caused 35 million dollars (1999 USD) of direct economic losses in agriculture, forestry, fishing and livestock husbandry. [1] The storm also flooded 54 large companies, causing losses of 4.3 million dollars (1999 USD). [1] Rains from the storm destroyed 2000 houses and damaged 8326 more, and disrupting electric power, communication and traffic in some areas of the region. [1]

Wenzhou Prefecture-level city in Zhejiang, Peoples Republic of China

Wenzhou is a prefecture-level city in southeastern Zhejiang province in the People's Republic of China. Wenzhou is located at the extreme south east of Zhejiang Province with its borders connecting to Lishui on the west, Taizhou on the north, and Fujian to the south. It is surrounded by mountains, the East China Sea, and 436 islands, while its lowlands are almost entirely along its East China Sea coast, which is nearly 355 kilometres long. Most of Wenzhou's area is mountainous as almost 76 percent of its 11,784-square-kilometre (4,550 sq mi) surface area is classified as mountains and hills. It is said that Wenzhou has 7/10 mountains, 1/10 water, and 2/10 farmland. At the time of the 2010 Chinese census, 3,039,500 people lived in Wenzhou's urban area; the area under its jurisdiction held a population of 9,122,100 of which 31.16% are non-local residents from outside of Wenzhou.

See also

1999 Pacific typhoon season typhoon season in the Pacific Ocean

The 1999 Pacific typhoon season was the last Pacific typhoon season to use English names as storm names. It had no official bounds; it ran year-round in 1999, but most tropical cyclones tend to form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean between May and November. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean.

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2004 Pacific typhoon season typhoon season in the Pacific Ocean

The 2004 Pacific typhoon season was a very active season; it ran year-round in 2004, but most tropical cyclones tend to form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean between May and November. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean.

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References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 "Wendy Death Toll hits 133". China Daily. September 7, 1999. Retrieved 2009-08-31.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Padgett, Gary. "Monthly Global Weather Summary for August 1999". Australia Severe Weather.com. Retrieved 2009-08-31.
  3. 1 2 3 "PAGASA Best Track for Tropical Storm "Mameng" (Wendy)". PAGASA . Retrieved 2009-08-31.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 "JTWC Best Track for Tropical Storm 20W (Wendy)". Joint Typhoon Warning Center . Retrieved 2009-08-31.
  5. 1 2 3 "JMA Best Track for 1999 Tropical Cyclones". Japan Meteorological Agency. Archived from the original on 2011-03-23. Retrieved 2009-08-31.