Typical pulmonary carcinoid tumour

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Typical pulmonary carcinoid tumour
SynonymsTypical lung carcinoid tumour, lung carcinoid, typical lung carcinoid
Lung carcinoid - high mag.jpg
Micrograph of a typical pulmonary carcinoid tumour.
Specialty Oncology

Typical pulmonary carcinoid tumour is a subtype of pulmonary carcinoid tumour. It is an uncommon low-grade malignant lung mass that is most often in the central airways of the lung. [1]

Pulmonary carcinoid tumour is a neuroendocrine tumour of the lung.

Lung essential respiration organ in many air-breathing animals

The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails. In mammals and most other vertebrates, two lungs are located near the backbone on either side of the heart. Their function in the respiratory system is to extract oxygen from the atmosphere and transfer it into the bloodstream, and to release carbon dioxide from the bloodstream into the atmosphere, in a process of gas exchange. Respiration is driven by different muscular systems in different species. Mammals, reptiles and birds use their different muscles to support and foster breathing. In early tetrapods, air was driven into the lungs by the pharyngeal muscles via buccal pumping, a mechanism still seen in amphibians. In humans, the main muscle of respiration that drives breathing is the diaphragm. The lungs also provide airflow that makes vocal sounds including human speech possible.

Contents

Signs and symptoms

Lung carcinoids typically present with a cough or hemoptysis. [2] Findings may closely mimic malignant tumours of the lung, i.e. lung cancer.

Cough medical symptom, reflex to clear large breathing passages

A cough is a sudden, and often repetitively occurring, protective reflex which helps to clear the large breathing passages from fluids, irritants, foreign particles and microbes. The cough reflex consists of three phases: an inhalation, a forced exhalation against a closed glottis, and a violent release of air from the lungs following opening of the glottis, usually accompanied by a distinctive sound.

Hemoptysis is the coughing up of blood or blood-stained mucus from the bronchi, larynx, trachea, or lungs. This can occur with lung cancer, infections such as tuberculosis, bronchitis, or pneumonia, and certain cardiovascular conditions. Hemoptysis is considered massive at 300 mL. In such cases, there are always severe injuries. The primary danger comes from choking, rather than blood loss.

Lung cancer cancer in the lung

Lung cancer, also known as lung carcinoma, is a malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung. This growth can spread beyond the lung by the process of metastasis into nearby tissue or other parts of the body. Most cancers that start in the lung, known as primary lung cancers, are carcinomas. The two main types are small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) and non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). The most common symptoms are coughing, weight loss, shortness of breath, and chest pains.

Diagnosis

CT-guided biopsy of peripheral typical carcinoid tumor Peripheral typical carcinoid tumor - CT scan - Case 266 (8583455406).jpg
CT-guided biopsy of peripheral typical carcinoid tumor

The definitive diagnosis is rendered by a microscopic examination, after excision. Typical carcinoids have cells with stippled chromatin and a moderate quantity of cytoplasm. They typically have few mitoses and lack necrosis. By definition, they are greater than 4 mm in largest dimension; smaller lesions are referred to as pulmonary carcinoid tumourlets.

Cytoplasm all of the contents of a cell excluding the plasma membrane and nucleus, but including other subcellular structures

In cell biology, the cytoplasm is all of the material within a cell, enclosed by the cell membrane, except for the cell nucleus. The material inside the nucleus and contained within the nuclear membrane is termed the nucleoplasm. The main components of the cytoplasm are cytosol – a gel-like substance, the organelles – the cell's internal sub-structures, and various cytoplasmic inclusions. The cytoplasm is about 80% water and usually colorless.

Necrosis premature cell death

Necrosis is a form of cell injury which results in the premature death of cells in living tissue by autolysis.

The differential diagnosis of typical pulmonary carcinoid tumour includes: atypical pulmonary carcinoid tumour , pulmonary carcinoid tumourlet and lung adenocarcinoma .

Atypical pulmonary carcinoid tumour

Atypical pulmonary carcinoid tumour is a subtype of pulmonary carcinoid tumor. It is an uncommon low-grade malignant lung mass that is most often in the central airways of the lung. It is also known as "atypical lung carcinoid tumour", " atypical lung carcinoid" or "moderately differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma".

Treatment

Typical carcinoids are usually treated with surgical excision.

See also

Pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors are neuroendocrine tumors localized to the lung: bronchus or pulmonary parenchyma.

Related Research Articles

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Pleuropulmonary blastoma (PPB) is a rare cancer originating in the lung or pleural cavity. It occurs most often in infants and young children but also has been reported in adults. In a retrospective review of 204 children with lung tumors, pleuropulmonary blastoma and carcinoid tumor were the most common primary tumors. Pleuropulmonary blastoma is regarded as malignant. The male:female ratio is approximately one.

Phyllodes tumor

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Neuroendocrine tumor endocrine gland cancer that has material basis in neuroendocrine cells

Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are neoplasms that arise from cells of the endocrine (hormonal) and nervous systems. Many are benign, while some are malignant. They most commonly occur in the intestine, where they are often called carcinoid tumors, but they are also found in the pancreas, lung and the rest of the body.

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Small-blue-round-cell tumor

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Solitary pulmonary nodule small lesion in the lung

A solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN) or coin lesion is a mass in the lung smaller than 3 centimeters in diameter. It can be an incidental finding found in up to 0.2% of chest X-rays and around 1% of CT scans.

Atypical ductal hyperplasia

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Kidney tumour

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Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma of the lung is a very rare histologic form of malignant epithelial neoplasm ("carcinoma") arising from lung tissue.

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Diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (DIPNECH) is a diffuse parenchymal lung disease which often presents with symptoms of cough and shortness of breath. The pathological definition published by the World Health Organization is “a generalized proliferation of scattered single cells, small nodules, or linear proliferations of pulmonary neuroendocrine (PNE) cells that may be confined to the bronchial and bronchiolar epithelium.” The true prevalence of this disease is not known. To date, just under 200 cases have been reported in the literature. However, with an increase in recognition of this disease by radiologists and pulmonologists, the number of cases has been increasing. DIPNECH predominantly affects middle-aged women with slowly progressive lung obstruction. DIPNECH is usually discovered in one of two ways: 1) as an unexpected finding following a lung surgery; or 2) by evaluation of a patient in a pulmonary clinic with longstanding, unexplained symptoms.

References

  1. Meisinger, QC.; Klein, JS.; Butnor, KJ.; Gentchos, G.; Leavitt, BJ. (Nov 2011). "CT features of peripheral pulmonary carcinoid tumors". AJR Am J Roentgenol. 197 (5): 1073–80. doi:10.2214/AJR.10.5954. PMID   22021498.
  2. Gungor, S.; Damadoglu, E.; Aybatli, A.; Yilmaz, A.; Kir, A.; Akkaya, E. (Jul 2006). "Typical pulmonary carcinoid tumors: presentation and outcome of 24 cases". Med Sci Monit. 12 (7): CR315–8. PMID   16810137.
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