The United Nations Mission in Haiti (UNMIH) was a peacekeeping operation carried out by the United Nations between September 1993 and June 1996. The Mission was reestablished ( MINUSTAH ) in April 2004, after a rebellion took over most of Haiti and President Bertrand Aristide resigned.This mandate ended in 2017, replaced by United Nations Mission for Justice Support in Haiti (MINUJUSTH), which saw the end of UN peacekeepers in Haiti after its ending in 2019.
For most of the Cold War (from 1946 to 1986), Haiti was under dictatorial rule. After the February 1986 military ouster of Jean-Claude Duvalier, Haiti was ruled by a series of short-lived provisional governments (five presidents in six administrations from 1986 to 1991). The country's first democratic national election was held on 16 December 1990, and saw Jean-Bertrand Aristide elected president. Aristide assumed power on 7 February 1991, but was toppled by a military coup a few months later. Aristide controversially contends that he was forced from office and kidnapped into exile by agents of the United States.
On September 23, 1993, UNMIH was established by the United Nations Security Council under Resolution 867. The first multinational force was sent to Haiti in 1994 composed of 20,000 members.
February 2004 marks the reinstatement of the UN peace mission known as "Mission des Nation Unies pour la Stabilisation en Haiti" more commonly known as MINUSTAH. Earlier that month, the country of Haiti was experiencing conflict in the city of Gonavies which then led to armed fights breaking out throughout the country causing a loss of control by the Haitian government. This uprising consumed a great deal of the city and led to President Aristide and the Prime Minister stepping down and the new acting president, Boniface Alexandre took control.After the resignations, the following backlash and conflict from the country led to the return of the UN peace-keeping mission as MINUSTAH.
The MINUSTAH mandate was present for providing security and aid during the aftermath of the 2010 Haiti earthquake, losing 96 peacekeepers during the disaster.It was also plagued by controversies, including rape allegations and a Cholera outbreak.
From the years of 2004 to present the presence of MINUSTAH in Haiti has made significant contributions to the stability of the country. Many missions have been completed and new ones are still being sent in the aid of Haiti every year. With the devastating earth quake and the 2010-2011 presidential elections throughout those years the UN sent more troops in than ever to try and aid in their recovery.The presence of the UN gave the government, police and many other aspects of society support which was very beneficial to the country and continues to be. The official arrival of the MINUSTAH task force in 2004 took action with many goals in mind. Their goals were focused in many different areas around the country for example, aid for the new government, development of their society, strengthening institutions and a large and essential part, the reformation and development of the Haitian National Police Force (HNP).
April 2004 the Security Council in Haiti implemented a resolution by the name of 1542 which established mission MINUSTAH in Haiti. Which then commenced the beginning of the reformation to the country.
From the beginning of the mission police officers from around the world, all from different police forces were sent to Haiti by the UN to aid the HNP deal with the many form of corruption which take place in Haiti every day. The presence of the UN gives the HNP and outlet to gain knowledge on other successful tactics used by renowned police forces. UN Officers are located throughout Haiti and placed in areas that are in need of extra reinforcement. The HNP officers are sent on patrol with the UN police officers to gain insight on how to act and police properly to reform a bit of stability in the areas that are most lacking.
Another important aspect which aids in the future of the HNP and future stability of Haiti as a whole in the presence of the UN Officers in Haiti's Police Academy. The Haitian Academy students are being taught by the UN officers how to police, and taught essential tools for their future police duties. These UN officers are very important for the future of Haiti's security. Since 2004 the MINUSTAH mission, more specifically dealing with the HNP has been very beneficial and has aided in the growth of the Police Force. Although it has a ways to go, along with many other infrastructure that the UN is involved in, due to its progression in 2012 the number of Police officers being sent has been downsized, but still present.
Nepal Army send 140 troops to serve in the mission in August 1995.
Peacekeeping comprises activities intended to create conditions that favour lasting peace. Research generally finds that peacekeeping reduces civilian and battlefield deaths, as well as reduces the risk of renewed warfare.
A United Nations Medal is an international decoration awarded by the United Nations (UN) to the various world countries members for participation in joint international military and police operations such as peacekeeping, humanitarian efforts, and disaster relief. The medal is ranked in militaries and police forces as a service medal. The United Nations awarded its first medal during the Korean War (1950–1953). Since 1955, many additional United Nations medals have been created and awarded for participation in various United Nations missions and actions around the world.
The United Nations Stabilisation Mission in Haiti, also known as MINUSTAH, an acronym of the French name, was a UN peacekeeping mission in Haiti that was in operation from 2004 to 2017. The mission's military component was led by the Brazilian Army and the force commander was Brazilian. The force was composed of 2,366 military personnel and 2,533 police, supported by international civilian personnel, a local civilian staff and United Nations Volunteers.
Cité Soleil is an extremely impoverished and densely populated commune located in the Port-au-Prince metropolitan area in Haiti. Cité Soleil originally developed as a shanty town and grew to an estimated 200,000 to 400,000 residents, the majority of whom live in extreme poverty. The area is generally regarded as one of the poorest and most dangerous areas of the Western Hemisphere and it is one of the biggest slums in the Northern Hemisphere. The area has virtually no sewers and has a poorly maintained open canal system that serves as its sewage system, few formal businesses but many local commercial activities and enterprises, sporadic but largely unpaid for, electricity, a few hospitals, and two government schools, Lycee Nationale de Cite Soleil, and Ecole Nationale de Cite Soleil. For several years until 2007, the area was ruled by a number of gangs, each controlling their own sectors. But government control was reestablished after a series of operations in early 2007 by the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH) with the participation of the local population.
The United Nations Integrated Mission in East Timor (UNMIT) was established on 25 August 2006 by UN Security Council Resolution 1704. Its objectives are "to support the Government in consolidating stability, enhancing a culture of democratic governance, and facilitating political dialogue among Timorese stakeholders, in their efforts to bring about a process of national reconciliation and to foster social cohesion". In its most recent resolution on UNMIT, the Council extended its mandate until 26 February 2012. UNMIT and ISF troops left the country at the end of 2012.
Latin American involvement in international peacekeeping dates back to the start of United Nations peacekeeping efforts with the Organization's founding in the 1940s but has seen a sharp acceleration in recent years.
United Nations (UN) peacekeeping missions involving Pakistan cover about 70 operations throughout different parts of the world. Pakistan joined the United Nations on 30 September 1947, despite opposition from Afghanistan because of the Durand Line issue. The Pakistan Armed Forces are the third largest contributor of troops towards UN peacekeeping efforts, behind India and Ethiopia.
The United Nations Peacekeeping efforts began in 1948. Its first activity was in the Middle East to observe and maintain the ceasefire during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War. Since then, United Nations peacekeepers have taken part in a total of 72 missions around the globe, 14 of which continue today. The peacekeeping force as a whole received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1988.
The Bangladesh Armed Forces and the Bangladesh Police have been actively involved in a number of United Nations Peace Support Operations (UNPSO) since 1988. Currently Bangladesh is the largest contributor in the UN peacekeeping missions.
Canada–Haiti relations are relations between Canada and the Republic of Haiti. Both nations are the only independent French speaking countries in the Americas. During the unsettled period from 1957 to 1990, Canada received many Haitian refugees, who now form a significant minority in Quebec. Canada participated in various international interventions in Haiti between 1994 and 2004, and continues to provide substantial aid to Haiti. Both nations are members of the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, Organization of American States and the United Nations.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1908, adopted unanimously on January 19, 2010, after endorsing the Secretary-General's recommendation, the Council increased the size of the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH) established under Resolution 1542 (2004), in the aftermath of the 2010 Haiti earthquake. The resolution authorised an additional 3,500 peacekeepers for Haiti, bringing the total number of MINUSTAH troops to 8,940 and a police component to 3,711.
United Nations Security Council resolution 1007, adopted unanimously on 31 July 1995, after recalling resolutions 841 (1993), 861 (1993), 862 (1993), 867 (1993), 873 (1993), 875 (1993), 905 (1994), 917 (1994), 933 (1994), 940 (1994), 944 (1994), 948 (1994), 964 (1994) and 975 (1995), the Council discussed the election process and extended the mandate of the United Nations Mission in Haiti (UNMIH) for a further seven months.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1927, adopted unanimously on June 4, 2010, after recalling previous resolutions on Haiti, including resolutions 1542 (2004), 1576 (2004), 1608 (2005), 1658 (2006), 1702 (2006), 1743 (2006), 1780 (2007), 1840 (2008), 1892 (2009) and 1908 (2010), the Council authorised an additional deployment of 680 police as part of the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH).
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1529, adopted unanimously on 29 February 2004, after expressing concern about the situation in Haiti, the council authorised the deployment of an international force to the country to stabilise the situation following a coup d'état that resulted in the removal of President Jean-Bertrand Aristide from office.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1944, adopted unanimously on October 14, 2010, after recalling previous resolutions on Haiti, including resolutions 1542 (2004), 1576 (2004), 1608 (2005), 1658 (2006), 1702 (2006), 1743 (2006), 1780 (2007), 1840 (2008), 1892 (2009), 1908 (2010) and 1927 (2010), the Council renewed the mandate of the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH) until October 15, 2011.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1658, adopted unanimously on February 14, 2006, after recalling resolutions 1542 (2004), 1576 (2004) and 1608 (2005) on the situation in Haiti, the Council extended the mandate of the United Nations Stabilisation Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH) until August 15, 2006.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1702, adopted unanimously on August 15, 2006, after recalling resolutions 1542 (2004), 1576 (2004), 1608 (2005) and 1658 (2006) on the situation in Haiti, the Council extended the mandate of the United Nations Stabilisation Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH) until February 15, 2007.
United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in the Central African Republic is a UN peacekeeping mission, which started on April 10, 2014, to protect Central African Republic civilians under Chapter VII of the UN Charter. It transformed the 6,000-strong African Union-led peacekeeping force known as MISCA into a UN peacekeeping mission and became operational on September 15, 2014. The UN deployed a transition team to set up MINUSCA and prepare for a seamless transition of authority from MISCA to MINUSCA. As of 2016, it has more than 10,000 troops on the ground. Its role is to:
Haiti–India relations refers to the international relations between Haiti and India. The Embassy of India in Havana, Cuba is concurrently accredited to Haiti.
The United Nations Mission for Justice Support in Haiti (MINUJUSTH) was a peacekeeping mission in Haiti mandated by the United Nations Security Council through Resolutions 2350 (2017) and 2410 (2018). It was the successor to MINUSTAH.