United Nations Mission in Haiti

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The United Nations Mission in Haiti (UNMIH) was a peacekeeping operation carried out by the United Nations between September 1993 and June 1996. The Mission was reestablished ( MINUSTAH ) in April 2004, after a rebellion took over most of Haiti and President Bertrand Aristide resigned. [1] This mandate ended in 2017, replaced by United Nations Mission for Justice Support in Haiti (MINUJUSTH), which saw the end of UN peacekeepers in Haiti after its ending in 2019. [2]

Contents

Historical background

For most of the Cold War (from 1946 to 1986), Haiti was under dictatorial rule. After the February 1986 military ouster of Jean-Claude Duvalier, Haiti was ruled by a series of short-lived provisional governments (five presidents in six administrations from 1986 to 1991). The country's first democratic national election was held on 16 December 1990, and saw Jean-Bertrand Aristide elected president. Aristide assumed power on 7 February 1991, but was toppled by a military coup a few months later. Aristide controversially contends that he was forced from office and kidnapped into exile by agents of the United States. [3]

On September 23, 1993, UNMIH was established by the United Nations Security Council under Resolution 867. The first multinational force was sent to Haiti in 1994 composed of 20,000 members. [4]

February 2004 marks the reinstatement of the UN peace mission known as "Mission des Nation Unies pour la Stabilisation en Haiti" more commonly known as MINUSTAH. Earlier that month, the country of Haiti was experiencing conflict in the city of Gonavies which then led to armed fights breaking out throughout the country causing a loss of control by the Haitian government. This uprising consumed a great deal of the city and led to President Aristide and the Prime Minister stepping down and the new acting president, Boniface Alexandre took control. [4] After the resignations, the following backlash and conflict from the country led to the return of the UN peace-keeping mission as MINUSTAH.

The MINUSTAH mandate was present for providing security and aid during the aftermath of the 2010 Haiti earthquake, losing 96 peacekeepers during the disaster. [5] It was also plagued by controversies, including rape allegations and a Cholera outbreak.

MINUSTAH mission mandate

A Marrua truck of the Argentine contingent Marrua-UN-ARG.jpg
A Marruá truck of the Argentine contingent

From the years of 2004 to present the presence of MINUSTAH in Haiti has made significant contributions to the stability of the country. Many missions have been completed and new ones are still being sent in the aid of Haiti every year. With the devastating earth quake and the 2010-2011 presidential elections throughout those years the UN sent more troops in than ever to try and aid in their recovery. [6] The presence of the UN gave the government, police and many other aspects of society support which was very beneficial to the country and continues to be. The official arrival of the MINUSTAH task force in 2004 took action with many goals in mind. Their goals were focused in many different areas around the country for example, aid for the new government, development of their society, strengthening institutions and a large and essential part, the reformation and development of the Haitian National Police Force (HNP).

April 2004 the Security Council in Haiti implemented a resolution by the name of 1542 which established mission MINUSTAH in Haiti. Which then commenced the beginning of the reformation to the country. [4]

From the beginning of the mission police officers from around the world, all from different police forces were sent to Haiti by the UN to aid the HNP deal with the many form of corruption which take place in Haiti every day. The presence of the UN gives the HNP and outlet to gain knowledge on other successful tactics used by renowned police forces. UN Officers are located throughout Haiti and placed in areas that are in need of extra reinforcement. The HNP officers are sent on patrol with the UN police officers to gain insight on how to act and police properly to reform a bit of stability in the areas that are most lacking.

Another important aspect which aids in the future of the HNP and future stability of Haiti as a whole in the presence of the UN Officers in Haiti's Police Academy. The Haitian Academy students are being taught by the UN officers how to police, and taught essential tools for their future police duties. These UN officers are very important for the future of Haiti's security. Since 2004 the MINUSTAH mission, more specifically dealing with the HNP has been very beneficial and has aided in the growth of the Police Force. Although it has a ways to go, along with many other infrastructure that the UN is involved in, due to its progression in 2012 the number of Police officers being sent has been downsized, but still present. [6]

Mission history

Nepal Army send 140 troops to serve in the mission in August 1995. [7]

See also

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United Nations Security Council Resolution 1908

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United Nations Security Council Resolution 1007

United Nations Security Council resolution 1007, adopted unanimously on 31 July 1995, after recalling resolutions 841 (1993), 861 (1993), 862 (1993), 867 (1993), 873 (1993), 875 (1993), 905 (1994), 917 (1994), 933 (1994), 940 (1994), 944 (1994), 948 (1994), 964 (1994) and 975 (1995), the Council discussed the election process and extended the mandate of the United Nations Mission in Haiti (UNMIH) for a further seven months.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1927

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1927, adopted unanimously on June 4, 2010, after recalling previous resolutions on Haiti, including resolutions 1542 (2004), 1576 (2004), 1608 (2005), 1658 (2006), 1702 (2006), 1743 (2006), 1780 (2007), 1840 (2008), 1892 (2009) and 1908 (2010), the Council authorised an additional deployment of 680 police as part of the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH).

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1529

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1529, adopted unanimously on 29 February 2004, after expressing concern about the situation in Haiti, the council authorised the deployment of an international force to the country to stabilise the situation following a coup d'état that resulted in the removal of President Jean-Bertrand Aristide from office.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1944

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1944, adopted unanimously on October 14, 2010, after recalling previous resolutions on Haiti, including resolutions 1542 (2004), 1576 (2004), 1608 (2005), 1658 (2006), 1702 (2006), 1743 (2006), 1780 (2007), 1840 (2008), 1892 (2009), 1908 (2010) and 1927 (2010), the Council renewed the mandate of the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH) until October 15, 2011.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1658

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1658, adopted unanimously on February 14, 2006, after recalling resolutions 1542 (2004), 1576 (2004) and 1608 (2005) on the situation in Haiti, the Council extended the mandate of the United Nations Stabilisation Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH) until August 15, 2006.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1702

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1702, adopted unanimously on August 15, 2006, after recalling resolutions 1542 (2004), 1576 (2004), 1608 (2005) and 1658 (2006) on the situation in Haiti, the Council extended the mandate of the United Nations Stabilisation Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH) until February 15, 2007.

MINUSCA

United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in the Central African Republic is a UN peacekeeping mission, which started on April 10, 2014, to protect Central African Republic civilians under Chapter VII of the UN Charter. It transformed the 6,000-strong African Union-led peacekeeping force known as MISCA into a UN peacekeeping mission and became operational on September 15, 2014. The UN deployed a transition team to set up MINUSCA and prepare for a seamless transition of authority from MISCA to MINUSCA. As of 2016, it has more than 10,000 troops on the ground. Its role is to:

Haiti–India relations Bilateral diplomatic relations

Haiti–India relations refers to the international relations between Haiti and India. The Embassy of India in Havana, Cuba is concurrently accredited to Haiti.

United Nations Mission for Justice Support in Haiti

The United Nations Mission for Justice Support in Haiti (MINUJUSTH) was a peacekeeping mission in Haiti mandated by the United Nations Security Council through Resolutions 2350 (2017) and 2410 (2018). It was the successor to MINUSTAH.

References

  1. "Haiti - MINUSTAH - Facts and Figures". un.org. Retrieved 2007-08-14.
  2. "Security Council approves 'historic' political Haiti mission, ending UN peacekeeping role in the country". UN News. 2019-06-25. Retrieved 2021-08-26.
  3. Democracy Now! | Exclusive: Aristide and His Bodyguard Describe the U.S. Role In His Ouster Archived December 23, 2005, at the Wayback Machine
  4. 1 2 3 "MIssion des Nations Unies pour la Stabilisation en Haiti". United Nations. Retrieved 17 August 2021.
  5. "MINUSTAH". United Nations Peacekeeping. Retrieved 2021-08-26.
  6. 1 2 "MINUSTAH Mandate". United Nations. Archived from the original on 17 November 2017. Retrieved 26 February 2013.
  7. "India - Haiti Relations" (PDF). Ministry of External Affairs. January 2016. Retrieved 20 April 2017.