United Nations Security Council Resolution 1546

Last updated

UN Security Council
Resolution 1546
20040609 CPAREG 10 Members of Designated Iraqi Interim Government with Annex A.pdf
Document detailing members of the Iraqi Interim Government
Date8 June 2004
Meeting no.4,987
CodeS/RES/1546 (Document)
SubjectThe situation in Iraq
Voting summary
15 voted for
None voted against
None abstained
ResultAdopted
Security Council composition
Permanent members
Non-permanent members

United Nations Security Council resolution 1546, adopted unanimously on 8 June 2004, after reaffirming previous resolutions on Iraq, the Council endorsed the formation of the Iraqi Interim Government, welcomed the end of the occupation and determined the status of the multinational force and its relationship with the Iraqi government. [1]

A United Nations Security Council resolution is a UN resolution adopted by the fifteen members of the Security Council; the UN body charged with "primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security".

Iraq Republic in Western Asia

Iraq, officially the Republic of Iraq, is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west. The capital, and largest city, is Baghdad. Iraq is home to diverse ethnic groups including Arabs, Kurds, Chaldeans, Assyrians, Turkmen, Shabakis, Yazidis, Armenians, Mandeans, Circassians and Kawliya. Around 95% of the country's 37 million citizens are Muslims, with Christianity, Yarsan, Yezidism and Mandeanism also present. The official languages of Iraq are Arabic and Kurdish.

The Iraqi Interim Government was created by the United States and its coalition allies as a caretaker government to govern Iraq until the drafting of the new constitution following the National Assembly election conducted on January 30, 2005. The Iraqi Interim Government itself took the place of the Coalition Provisional Authority on June 28, 2004, and was replaced by the Iraqi Transitional Government on May 3, 2005.

Contents

The resolution was co-sponsored by the United Kingdom and United States. [2]

Resolution

Observations

The Security Council welcomed the transition towards a democratically elected Iraqi government and looked forward to the end of the occupation by 30 June 2004 when authority would be held by the interim government. [3] It reaffirmed the right of the Iraqi people to determine their own political future and control their natural resources as well as the importance of support from Iraq's neighbours. The Iraqi Governing Council was dissolved and progress towards implementing arrangements in Resolution 1511 (2003) was welcomed.

Natural resource Resources that exist without actions of humankind

Natural resources are resources that exist without actions of humankind. This includes all valued characteristics such as magnetic, gravitational, electrical properties and forces etc. On Earth it includes sunlight, atmosphere, water, land along with all vegetation, crops and animal life that naturally subsists upon or within the heretofore identified characteristics and substances.

Iraqi Governing Council Wikimedia list article

The Iraqi Governing Council (IGC) was the provisional government of Iraq from July 13, 2003 to June 1, 2004. It was established by and served under the United States-led Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA). The IGC consisted of various Iraqi political and tribal leaders who were appointed by the CPA to provide advice and leadership of the country until the June 2004 transfer of sovereignty to the Iraqi Interim Government.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1511 United Nations Security Council resolution

United Nations Security Council resolution 1511 was adopted unanimously on 16 October 2003, after reaffirming previous resolutions on Iraq, particularly 1483 (2003), 1500 (2003), and Resolution 1373 (2001) on terrorism. The Council urged countries to contribute towards a multinational force to maintain security and called for power to be returned to the Iraqi people as soon as possible.

The preamble of the resolution also welcomed democratic commitments by the interim government and affirmed the importance of the rule of law, respect for human rights, national reconciliation and free and fair elections. It also stresed the need for all parties to respect Iraq's archaeological, historical, cultural, and religious heritage. There was a role for the United Nations Assistance Mission in Iraq (UNAMI) and the international community in the country's future in accordance with resolutions 1483 (2003) and 1511 (2003).

Rule of law Political situation where every citizen is subject to the law

The rule of law is defined in the Oxford English Dictionary as: "The authority and influence of law in society, especially when viewed as a constraint on individual and institutional behavior; (hence) the principle whereby all members of a society are considered equally subject to publicly disclosed legal codes and processes." The phrase "the rule of law" refers to a political situation, not to any specific legal rule.

The international community is a phrase used in geopolitics and international relations to refer to a broad group of people and governments of the world. It does not refer literally to all nations or states in the world. The term is typically used to imply the existence of a common point of view towards such matters as specific issues of human rights. Activists, politicians and commentators often use the term in calling for action to be taken; e.g., action against what is in their opinion political repression in a target country.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1483 United Nations Security Council resolution

United Nations Security Council resolution 1483, adopted on 22 May 2003, after recalling all previous resolutions on the situation between Iraq and Kuwait, the Council lifted trade sanctions against Iraq and terminated the Oil-for-Food Programme.

Furthermore, the interim government requested that the multinational force remain in Iraq and the situation continued to constitute a threat to international peace and security.

Acts

Acting under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter, the Council welcomed the assumption of responsibilities and authority by the Iraqi interim government by 30 June 2004 and the end of the occupation and Coalition Provisional Authority. [4] It endorsed a timetable for the political transition, including the convening of a national conference, and holding of elections in early 2005 leading to the establishment of a transitional government and called for their peaceful implementation. The United Nations was asked to assist in areas relating to the drafting of a new constitution, the co-ordination of humanitarian assistance and the promotion of human rights and reforms. The Iraqi government was also working to improve the security forces.

Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter sets out the UN Security Council's powers to maintain peace. It allows the Council to "determine the existence of any threat to the peace, breach of the peace, or act of aggression" and to take military and nonmilitary action to "restore international peace and security".

Coalition Provisional Authority former country

The Coalition Provisional Authority was a transitional government of Iraq established following the invasion of the country on 19 March 2003 by the U.S.-led Multinational Force and the fall of Ba'athist Iraq.

The Iraqi Transitional Government was the government of Iraq from May 3, 2005, when it replaced the Iraqi Interim Government, until May 20, 2006, when it was replaced by the first permanent government.

The resolution authorised the multinational force to take all measures to maintain security and stability in Iraq, and welcomed a partnership between the Iraqi government and the force. [5] At the same time, the mandate of the force was extended for a further period of twelve months and would be terminated if requested by Iraq. [6] The Council noted intentions by the United States to create a separate entity in the force to protect the United Nations presence in the country, and the international community was requested to contribute assistance towards the multinational force and to the development of the Iraq.

In international law, a mandate is a binding obligation issued from an inter-governmental organization to a country which is bound to follow the instructions of the organization.

The Security Council condemned all terrorism in Iraq and reaffirmed the obligations of all states under resolutions 1267 (1999), 1333 (2000), 1373 (2001), 1390 (2002), 1455 (2003) and 1526 (2004). The arms embargo against Iraq would not apply to the government or multinational force and the mandates for the International Atomic Energy Agency and the United Nations Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission.

Additionally, the provisions of the resolution stated that funds in the Development Fund for Iraq could be used at the discretion of the Iraqi government upon the termination of the Coalition Provisional Authority in a transparent manner. [7] Finally, the Secretary-General Kofi Annan was requested to report within three months on UNAMI operations in Iraq and on progress made towards elections on a quarterly basis thereafter. The United States, acting on behalf of the multinational force, was also required to report on progress made in similar intervals.

See also

Related Research Articles

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1700 United Nations Security Council resolution

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1700, adopted unanimously on August 10, 2006, after recalling previous resolutions on Iraq, particularly resolutions 1500 (2003), 1546 (2004), 1557 (2004) and 1619 (2005), the Council extended the mandate of the United Nations Assistance Mission in Iraq (UNAMI) for a further period of twelve months until August 10, 2007.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1723 United Nations Security Council resolution

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1723, adopted unanimously on November 28, 2006, after recalling previous resolutions on Iraq, the Council extended the mandate of the multinational force until the end of 2007.

United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq

The United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq (UNAMI) was formed by the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) Resolution 1500 on 14 August 2003 at the request of the Iraqi government to support national development efforts throughout the country.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1637 United Nations Security Council resolution

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1637, adopted unanimously on 8 November 2005, after reaffirming previous resolutions on Iraq, the Council extended the mandate of the multinational force until the end of 2006.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1371 United Nations Security Council resolution

United Nations Security Council resolution 1371, adopted unanimously on 26 September 2001, after reaffirming resolutions 1244 (1999) and 1345 (2001) on the situation in the former Yugoslavia including Macedonia, the Council called for the full implementation of its Resolution 1345 concerning violence and terrorist activities in Macedonia and southern Serbia.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1375 United Nations Security Council resolution

United Nations Security Council resolution 1375, adopted unanimously on 29 October 2001, after reaffirming all resolutions and statements by the President of the Security Council on the civil war in Burundi, endorsed efforts by South Africa and other states to implement the Arusha Agreement and supported the establishment of an interim multinational security presence in Burundi.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1386 United Nations Security Council resolution

United Nations Security Council resolution 1386, adopted unanimously on 20 December 2001, after reaffirming all resolutions on the situation in Afghanistan, particularly resolutions 1378 (2001) and 1383 (2001), the Council authorised the establishment of the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) to assist the Afghan Interim Authority in the maintenance of security in Kabul and surrounding areas. It was the final Security Council resolution adopted in 2001.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1410 United Nations Security Council resolution

United Nations Security Council resolution 1410, adopted unanimously on 17 May 2002, after recalling previous resolutions on East Timor (Timor-Leste), particularly resolutions 1272 (1999), 1338 (2001) and 1392 (2002), the Council established the United Nations Mission of Support to East Timor (UNMISET) to replace the United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET).

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1936 United Nations Security Council resolution

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1936, adopted unanimously on August 5, 2010, after recalling all previous resolutions on the situation in Iraq, including resolutions 1500 (2003), 1546 (2004), 1557 (2004), 1619 (2005), 1700 (2006), 1770 (2007), 1830 (2008) and 1883 (2009), the Council extended the mandate of the United Nations Assistance Mission in Iraq (UNAMI) for a further period of 12 months, until July 31, 2011.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1471 United Nations Security Council resolution

United Nations Security Council resolution 1471, adopted unanimously on 28 March 2003, after reaffirming all resolutions on the situation in Afghanistan, the Council extended the mandate of the United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA) for an additional period of twelve months until 28 March 2004.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1500 United Nations Security Council resolution

United Nations Security Council resolution 1500, adopted on 14 August 2003, after reaffirming previous resolutions on Iraq, particularly Resolution 1483 (2003), the Council established the United Nations Assistance Mission in Iraq (UNAMI) and welcomed the creation of the Iraqi Governing Council.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1937 United Nations Security Council resolution

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1937 was a resolution passed in the wake of the recent 2010 Israel–Lebanon border clash, requested by the Lebanese government and adopted unanimously on August 30, 2010, that extended the mandate of the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL) for a further twelve months—until August 31, 2011—and called upon all parties to respect the Blue Line.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1938 United Nations Security Council resolution

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1938, adopted unanimously on September 15, 2010, after recalling previous resolutions on the situation in Liberia, including resolutions 1509 (2003), 1626 (2005), 1836 (2005) and 1885 (2009), the Council extended the mandate of the United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL) for a further twelve months until September 30, 2011 and required it to provide electoral assistance.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1536 United Nations Security Council resolution

United Nations Security Council resolution 1536, adopted unanimously on 26 March 2004, after reaffirming all resolutions on the situation in Afghanistan, particularly Resolution 1471 (2003), the Council extended the mandate of the United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA) for an additional period of twelve months until 26 March 2005.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1557 United Nations Security Council resolution

United Nations Security Council resolution 1557, adopted unanimously on 12 August 2004, after reaffirming previous resolutions on Iraq, particularly resolutions 1500 (2003) and 1546 (2004), the Council extended the mandate of the United Nations Assistance Mission in Iraq (UNAMI) for a further period of twelve months. The resolution was drafted by the United Kingdom and United States.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1619 United Nations Security Council resolution

United Nations Security Council resolution 1619, adopted unanimously on 11 August 2005, after reaffirming previous resolutions on Iraq, particularly resolutions 1500 (2003), 1546 (2004) and 1557 (2004), the Council extended the mandate of the United Nations Assistance Mission in Iraq (UNAMI) for a further period of twelve months.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 2001 United Nations Security Council resolution

United Nations Security Council Resolution 2001, adopted unanimously on July 28, 2011, after recalling all previous resolutions on the situation in Iraq, including resolutions 1500 (2003), 1546 (2004), 1557 (2004), 1619 (2005), 1700 (2006), 1770 (2007), 1830 (2008), 1883 (2009) and 1936 (2010), the Council extended the mandate of the United Nations Assistance Mission in Iraq (UNAMI) for a further period of 1 year.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1830 was unanimously adopted on 7 August 2008.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1883 was unanimously adopted on 7 August 2009.

References

  1. "Security Council endorses formation of sovereign interim government in Iraq; welcomes end of occupation by 30 June, democratic elections by January 2005". United Nations. 8 June 2004.
  2. Hoge, Warren (8 June 2004). "Security Council Unanimously Backs Revised Iraq Resolution". The New York Times .
  3. Roberts, Adam (2005). "The end of the occupation: Iraq 2004" (PDF). International and Comparative Law Quarterly. Cambridge University Press. 54: 27–48. doi:10.1093/iclq/54.1.27.
  4. Cowen, Deborah; Gilbert, Emily (2008). War, citizenship, territory. Routledge. p. 164. ISBN   978-0-415-95513-3.
  5. Costel, Steven J. (2008). Surging out of Iraq?. Nova Publishers. p. 68. ISBN   978-1-60456-023-7.
  6. Malone, David M. (2007). The International Struggle Over Iraq: Politics in the UN Security Council 1980–2005. Oxford University Press US. p. 232. ISBN   978-0-19-923868-2.
  7. Zedalis, Rex J. (2010). Claims Against Iraqi Oil and Gas: Legal Considerations and Lessons Learned. Cambridge University Press. p. 58. ISBN   978-0-521-19350-4.