|UN Security Council |
|Date||28 September 2001|
|Subject||Threats to international peace and security caused by terrorist acts|
|Security Council composition|
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1373, adopted unanimously on 28 September 2001, is a counter-terrorism measure passed following the 11 September terrorist attacks on the United States.The resolution was adopted under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter, and is therefore binding on all UN member states.
According to the official record of the meeting, [ citation needed ] once adopted unanimously, the resolution became a common act of the Security Council, and therefore all its members at the time had ownership over it.the meeting convoked at 9:55 pm and adjourned at 10:00 pm. The five-minute meeting exemplified the Security Council's working method, in which the meeting serves only as a public announcement of a decision that has already been reached in secret in "informal consultations". Although the United States is widely credited with initiating Resolution 1373,
The resolution aimed to hinder terrorist groups in various ways. It recalled provisions from resolutions 1189 (1998), 1269 (1999) and 1368 (2001) concerning terrorism. UN member states were encouraged to share their intelligence on terrorist groups in order to assist in combating international terrorism. The resolution also calls on all states to adjust their national laws so that they can ratify all of the existing international conventions on terrorism. It stated that all States "should also ensure that terrorist acts are established as serious criminal offences in domestic laws and regulations and that the seriousness of such acts is duly reflected in sentences served."
The resolution established the Security Council's Counter Terrorism Committee [CTC] to monitor state compliance with its provisions.
It also aimed at restricting immigration law, stating that "before granting refugee status, all States should take appropriate measures to ensure that the asylum seekers had not planned, facilitated or participated in terrorist acts. Further, States should ensure that refugee status was not abused by the perpetrators, organizers or facilitators of terrorist acts, and that claims of political motivation were not recognized as grounds for refusing requests for the extradition of alleged terrorists."
However, the resolution failed to define 'terrorism', and the working group initially only added Al-Qaeda and the Taliban regime of Afghanistan on the sanctions list. This also entailed the possibility that authoritarian regimes could label even non-violent activities as terrorist acts, thus infringing upon basic human rights.
The absence of any specific reference to human rights considerations was remedied in part by Resolution 1456 (2003) which declared that "States must ensure that any measure taken to combat terrorism comply with all their obligations under international law, and should adopt such measures in accordance with international law, in particular, international human rights, refugee, and humanitarian law."
UN Security Council Resolution 1566 picked up loose ends from resolution 1373 by actually spelling out what the Security Council sees as terrorism:
criminal acts, including against civilians, committed with the intent to cause death or serious bodily injury, or taking of hostages, with the purpose to provoke a state of terror in the general public or in a group of persons or particular persons, intimidate a population or compel a government or an international organization to do or to abstain from doing any act.
Although this definition has operative effect for the purposes of Security Council action, it does not represent a definition of "terrorism" which binds all states in international law. That is a task which could only be achieved by way of agreeing to an international treaty under the auspices of the UN General Assembly. Negotiations towards agreeing to such are ongoing, and a Comprehensive Convention exists in draft form, however agreement to its exact terms, most particularly the definition of "terrorism", remains elusive.
Resolution 1566 also called for the creation of a working group that will expand the list of terrorist entities under sanction beyond the Taliban and Al-Qaeda.
Most states complied with the resolution, with varying willingness (Mexico and Venezuela being quite reluctant, especially concerning the freezing of assets of persons or groups whom they had no evidence of involvement in terrorism), but only a few of them did so by explicitly referring to the UN resolution.
Russia implemented the resolution with great willingness – President of Russia Vladimir Putin translated the resolution into Russian and enacted it as domestic law by 10 January 2002 in the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation No 6 On Measures Towards the Implementation of UN Security Resolution 1373.
On 1st of April 2014, the Government of Sri Lanka signed an order designating 16 organisations functioning as terrorist fronts on foreign soil freezing all assets and economic resources of those, using this resolution.
Recommendations of the Counter Terrorism Committee 2008 reportincluded increased measures concerning illegal immigration (considered, without evidence, as a serious risk to security) as well as:
Oxford University public law professor Stefan Talmon argued that this resolution is an example of the United Nations Security Council veering into legislating law in the aftermath of the September 11 terrorist attacks when its role is to apply and interpret international law.
United Nations Security Council resolution 1566, adopted unanimously on 8 October 2004, after reaffirming resolutions 1267 (1999), 1373 (2001) and 1540 (2004), the Council condemned terrorism as a serious threat to peace and strengthened anti-terrorism legislation.
United Nations Security Council resolution 1267 was adopted unanimously on 15 October 1999. After recalling resolutions 1189 (1998), 1193 (1998) and 1214 (1998) on the situation in Afghanistan, the Council designated Osama bin Laden and associates as terrorists and established a sanctions regime to cover individuals and entities associated with Al-Qaida, Osama bin Laden and/or the Taliban wherever located.
The Al-Qaida Sanctions Committee was established on 15 October 1999, pursuant to UN Security Council Resolution 1267. Initially dealing with both al-Qaeda and the Taliban, hence previously known as the Al-Qaida and Taliban Sanctions Committee, it was split on 17 June 2011, creating the new Taliban Sanctions Committee to separately deal with the Taliban.
The Counter-Terrorism Committee is a subsidiary body of the United Nations Security Council.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1377 was adopted unanimously at a ministerial meeting on 12 November 2001; the Council adopted a declaration concerning efforts to eliminate international terrorism.
United Nations Security Council resolution 1390, adopted unanimously on 16 January 2002, after recalling resolutions 1267 (1999), 1333 (2000), 1363 (2001), 1368 (2001), 1373 (2001) 1378 (2001) and 1383 (2001) concerning the situation in Afghanistan and terrorism, the Council imposed further sanctions on Osama bin Laden, Al-Qaeda, the Taliban and others associated with them.
United Nations Security Council resolution 1452, adopted unanimously on 20 December 2002, after recalling resolutions 1267 (1999), 1333 (2000), 1363 (2001), 1368 (2001) and 1390 (2001) concerning Al-Qaeda, the Taliban and terrorism, the Council decided that financial sanctions against the organisations would not apply to expenses for food, rent, medicine and medical care, health insurance and professional fees.
United Nations Security Council resolution 1455, adopted unanimously on 17 January 2003, after recalling resolutions 1267 (1999), 1333 (2000), 1363 (2001), 1373 (2001), 1390 (2001) and 1452 (2002) concerning Al-Qaeda, the Taliban and terrorism, the Council improved the implementation of measures against the groups. It was the first Security Council resolution adopted in 2003.
United Nations Security Council resolution 1456, adopted unanimously on 20 January 2003 in a meeting at the foreign minister level, the Council adopted a declaration calling on all states to prevent and suppress all support for terrorism. The resolution did not define terrorism, but unlike other previous resolutions, mentioned human rights for the first time.
United Nations Security Council resolution 1526, adopted unanimously on 30 January 2004, after recalling resolutions 1267 (1999), 1333 (2000), 1363 (2001), 1373 (2001), 1390 (2001), 1452 (2002) and 1455 (2003) concerning terrorism, the Council tightened sanctions against Al-Qaeda, the Taliban, Osama bin Laden and associated individuals and groups.
United Nations Security Council resolution 1535, adopted unanimously on 26 March 2004, after reaffirming resolutions 1373 (2001), 1377 (2001) and 1456 (2003), the Council restructured the Counter-Terrorism Committee to enhance the implementation of anti-terrorism measures.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1963, adopted unanimously on December 20, 2010, after reaffirming resolutions 1373 (2001), 1535 (2004), 1624 (2004), 1787 (2007) and 1805 (2008), the Council decided to continue the Counter-Terrorism Committee Executive Directorate (CTED) under the guidance of the Counter-Terrorism Committee (CTC) for another three years until December 31, 2013.
United Nations Security Council resolution 1617, adopted unanimously on 29 July 2005, after recalling resolutions 1267 (1999), 1333 (2000), 1363 (2001), 1373 (2001), 1390 (2001), 1452 (2002), 1455 (2003), 1526 (2004) and 1566 (2004) concerning terrorism, the Council renewed sanctions against Al-Qaeda, the Taliban, Osama bin Laden and associated individuals and groups for a further seventeen months.
United Nations Security Council resolution 1624, adopted unanimously at the 2005 World Summit on 14 September 2005, after reaffirming previous resolutions on terrorism, including resolutions 1267 (1999), 1373 (2001), 1535 (2004), 1540 (2004), 1566 (2004) and 1617 (2005), the Council called on all states to co-operate in order to strengthen the security of their international borders by enhancing terrorist screening and passenger security procedures.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1988, adopted unanimously on June 17, 2011, after recalling resolutions 1267 (1999), 1333 (2000), 1363 (2001), 1373 (2001), 1390 (2002), 1452 (2002), 1455 (2003), 1526 (2004), 1566 (2004), 1617 (2005), 1624 (2005), 1699 (2006), 1730 (2006), 1735 (2006), 1822 (2008) and 1904 (2009) on terrorism and the threat to Afghanistan, the Council imposed separate sanctions regimes on Al-Qaeda and the Taliban.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1989, adopted unanimously on June 17, 2011, after recalling resolutions 1267 (1999), 1333 (2000), 1363 (2001), 1373 (2001), 1390 (2002), 1452 (2002), 1455 (2003), 1526 (2004), 1566 (2004), 1617 (2005), 1624 (2005), 1699 (2006), 1730 (2006), 1735 (2006), 1822 (2008), 1904 (2009) and 1988 (2011) on terrorism and the threat to Afghanistan, the Council imposed separate sanctions regimes on Al-Qaeda and the Taliban.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1735, adopted unanimously on December 22, 2006, after recalling resolutions 1267 (1999), 1333 (2000), 1363 (2001), 1373 (2001), 1390 (2001), 1452 (2002), 1455 (2003), 1526 (2004), 1566 (2004), 1617 (2005), 1624 (2005) and 1699 (2005) on terrorism, the Council approved measures to improve the identification and control of terrorists.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 2199 was unanimously approved on 12 February 2015 to combat terrorism. Drafted by Russia, its legally binding provisions gave the fifteen nations of the United Nations Security Council authority to enforce decisions with economic sanctions. The resolution, in particular, emphasized "the need to combat by all means, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations and international law, [...] threats to international peace and security caused by terrorist acts".
The UN Counter-Terrorism Implementation Task Force (CTITF) was an instrument designed to roll out the UN Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy.
UN sanctions against the Taliban-controlled government of Afghanistan were enforced in November 1999. The sanctions were aimed at terrorists, Osama Bin Laden and members of Al-Qaeda.