|UN Security Council |
|Date||12 February 2015|
|Subject||Threats to international peace and security caused by terrorist acts|
|15 voted for|
None voted against
|Security Council composition|
United Nations Security Council Resolution 2199 was unanimously approved on 12 February 2015 to combat terrorism. Drafted by Russia, its legally binding provisions gave the fifteen nations of the United Nations Security Council authority to enforce decisions with economic sanctions.The resolution, in particular, emphasized "the need to combat by all means, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations and international law, [...] threats to international peace and security caused by terrorist acts".
Terrorism is, in the broadest sense, the use of intentionally indiscriminate violence as a means to create terror among masses of people; or fear to achieve a religious or political aim. It is used in this regard primarily to refer to violence during peacetime or in war against non-combatants. The terms "terrorist" and "terrorism" originated during the French Revolution of the late 18th century but gained mainstream popularity in the 1970s in news reports and books covering the conflicts in Northern Ireland, the Basque Country and Palestine. The increased use of suicide attacks from the 1980s onwards was typified by the September 11 attacks in New York City and Washington, D.C. in 2001.
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), charged with ensuring international peace and security, accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its charter. Its powers include the establishment of peacekeeping operations and international sanctions as well as the authorization of military actions through resolutions – it is the only body of the United Nations with the authority to issue binding resolutions to member states. The council held its first session on 17 January 1946.
Economic sanctions are commercial and financial penalties applied by one or more countries against a targeted self-governing state, group, or individual. Economic sanctions may include various forms of trade barriers, tariffs, and restrictions on financial transactions. An embargo is similar, but usually implies a more severe sanction. Economic sanctions generally aim to change the behavior of elites in the target country. However, the efficacy of sanctions is debatable and sanctions can have unintended consequences. Economic sanctions are not necessarily imposed because of economic circumstances—they may also be imposed for a variety of political, military, and social issues. Economic sanctions can be used for achieving domestic and international purposes.
Resolution 2199 highlighted several financial measures to fight terrorism, such as asset freezing and closure of all financial sources of terrorism, including illegal drug trade and extraction of natural resources by terrorists.The resolution also noted that the provisions of Resolution 2161 unconditionally ban the payment of ransom to terrorist groups in exchange for hostages. The resolution also condemned the destruction of cultural heritage by ISIL and the Al-Nusrah Front.
Asset freezing is a legal process which prevents a defendant whether innocent or guilty to an action from dissipating their assets from beyond the jurisdiction of a court so as to frustrate a potential judgment. It is widely recognised in other common law jurisdictions and such orders can be made to have world-wide effect. It is variously construed as part of a court's inherent jurisdiction to restrain breaches of its process.
The illegal drug trade or drug trafficking is a global black market dedicated to the cultivation, manufacture, distribution and sale of drugs that are subject to drug prohibition laws. Most jurisdictions prohibit trade, except under license, of many types of drugs through the use of drug prohibition laws.
Deliberate destruction and theft of cultural heritage has been conducted by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant since 2014 in Iraq, Syria, and to a lesser extent in Libya. The destruction targets various places of worship under ISIL control and ancient historical artifacts. In Iraq, between the fall of Mosul in June 2014 and February 2015, ISIL had plundered and destroyed at least 28 historical religious buildings. Valuable items from some buildings were looted in order to smuggle and sell them to America to finance ISIS activities.
Under Resolution 2199 UN member states must report within 120 days to the Al-Qaida Sanctions Committee on their compliance with the resolution.The resolution also asked the United Nations counter-terrorism bodies to supervise progress on the document's implementation.
The Al-Qaida Sanctions Committee was established on 15 October 1999, pursuant to UN Security Council Resolution 1267. Initially dealing with both al-Qaeda and the Taliban, hence previously known as the Al-Qaida and Taliban Sanctions Committee, it was split on 17 June 2011, creating the new Taliban Sanctions Committee to separately deal with the Taliban.
Counter-terrorism incorporates the practice, military tactics, techniques, and strategy that government, military, law enforcement, business, and intelligence agencies use to combat or prevent terrorism. Counter-terrorism strategies include attempts to counter financing of terrorism.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1373, adopted unanimously on 28 September 2001, is a counter-terrorism measure passed following the 11 September terrorist attacks on the United States. The resolution was adopted under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter, and is therefore binding on all UN member states.
United Nations Security Council resolution 1566, adopted unanimously on 8 October 2004, after reaffirming resolutions 1267 (1999), 1373 (2001) and 1540 (2004), the Council condemned terrorism as a serious threat to peace and strengthened anti-terrorism legislation.
United Nations Security Council resolution 1267 was adopted unanimously on 15 October 1999. After recalling resolutions 1189 (1998), 1193 (1998) and 1214 (1998) on the situation in Afghanistan, the Council designated Osama bin Laden and associates as terrorists and established a sanctions regime to cover individuals and entities associated with Al-Qaida, Osama bin Laden and/or the Taliban wherever located.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1377 was adopted unanimously at a ministerial meeting on 12 November 2001; the Council adopted a declaration concerning efforts to eliminate international terrorism.
United Nations Security Council resolution 1390, adopted unanimously on 16 January 2002, after recalling resolutions 1267 (1999), 1333 (2000), 1363 (2001), 1368 (2001), 1373 (2001) 1378 (2001) and 1383 (2001) concerning the situation in Afghanistan and terrorism, the Council imposed further sanctions on Osama bin Laden, Al-Qaeda, the Taliban and others associated with them.
United Nations Security Council resolution 1452, adopted unanimously on 20 December 2002, after recalling resolutions 1267 (1999), 1333 (2000), 1363 (2001), 1368 (2001) and 1390 (2001) concerning Al-Qaeda, the Taliban and terrorism, the Council decided that financial sanctions against the organisations would not apply to expenses for food, rent, medicine and medical care, health insurance and professional fees.
United Nations Security Council resolution 1455, adopted unanimously on 17 January 2003, after recalling resolutions 1267 (1999), 1333 (2000), 1363 (2001), 1373 (2001), 1390 (2001) and 1452 (2002) concerning Al-Qaeda, the Taliban and terrorism, the Council improved the implementation of measures against the groups. It was the first Security Council resolution adopted in 2003.
United Nations Security Council resolution 1526, adopted unanimously on 30 January 2004, after recalling resolutions 1267 (1999), 1333 (2000), 1363 (2001), 1373 (2001), 1390 (2001), 1452 (2002) and 1455 (2003) concerning terrorism, the Council tightened sanctions against Al-Qaeda, the Taliban, Osama bin Laden and associated individuals and groups.
United Nations Security Council resolution 1617, adopted unanimously on 29 July 2005, after recalling resolutions 1267 (1999), 1333 (2000), 1363 (2001), 1373 (2001), 1390 (2001), 1452 (2002), 1455 (2003), 1526 (2004) and 1566 (2004) concerning terrorism, the Council renewed sanctions against Al-Qaeda, the Taliban, Osama bin Laden and associated individuals and groups for a further seventeen months.
United Nations Security Council resolution 1624, adopted unanimously at the 2005 World Summit on 14 September 2005, after reaffirming previous resolutions on terrorism, including resolutions 1267 (1999), 1373 (2001), 1535 (2004), 1540 (2004), 1566 (2004) and 1617 (2005), the Council called on all states to co-operate in order to strengthen the security of their international borders by enhancing terrorist screening and passenger security procedures.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1988, adopted unanimously on June 17, 2011, after recalling resolutions 1267 (1999), 1333 (2000), 1363 (2001), 1373 (2001), 1390 (2002), 1452 (2002), 1455 (2003), 1526 (2004), 1566 (2004), 1617 (2005), 1624 (2005), 1699 (2006), 1730 (2006), 1735 (2006), 1822 (2008) and 1904 (2009) on terrorism and the threat to Afghanistan, the Council imposed separate sanctions regimes on Al-Qaeda and the Taliban.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1989, adopted unanimously on June 17, 2011, after recalling resolutions 1267 (1999), 1333 (2000), 1363 (2001), 1373 (2001), 1390 (2002), 1452 (2002), 1455 (2003), 1526 (2004), 1566 (2004), 1617 (2005), 1624 (2005), 1699 (2006), 1730 (2006), 1735 (2006), 1822 (2008), 1904 (2009) and 1988 (2011) on terrorism and the threat to Afghanistan, the Council imposed separate sanctions regimes on Al-Qaeda and the Taliban.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1735, adopted unanimously on December 22, 2006, after recalling resolutions 1267 (1999), 1333 (2000), 1363 (2001), 1373 (2001), 1390 (2001), 1452 (2002), 1455 (2003), 1526 (2004), 1566 (2004), 1617 (2005), 1624 (2005) and 1699 (2005) on terrorism, the Council approved measures to improve the identification and control of terrorists.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1822 was unanimously adopted on 30 June 2008.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 2249 was unanimously adopted on 20 November 2015. It notably calls upon all Member States to redouble their efforts against both ISIL and the al-Nusra Front as well as other al-Qaeda affiliates as designated by the Security Council.
Sa’d bin Sa’d Muhammad Shariyan Al Ka’bi is a known Qatari financier and facilitator of financial services that support the Qatari branch of Al-Qaeda, as well as Al-Nusra Front (ANF) for the People of the Levant (ANF), an al-Qaeda Syria based affiliate, which is listed by the United States as a terrorist group.
The UN Counter-Terrorism Implementation Task Force (CTITF) is an instrument designed to roll out the UN Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy.
UN sanctions against the Taliban-controlled government of Afghanistan were enforced in November 1999. The sanctions were aimed at terrorists, Osama Bin Laden and members of Al-Qaida.