In mathematics, the phrase * up to* is used to convey the idea that some objects in the same class — while distinct — may be considered to be equivalent under some condition or transformation.

- Examples
- Tetris
- Eight queens
- Polygons
- Group theory
- Nonstandard analysis
- Computer science
- See also
- References
- Further reading

If is some property or process, then the phrase "up to " can be taken to mean "disregarding a possible difference in ". For instance, the statement "an integer's prime factorization is unique *up to ordering*" means that the prime factorization is unique—when we disregard the order of the factors.^{ [2] } One might also say "the solution to an indefinite integral is , *up to addition by a constant *", meaning that the focus is on the solution rather than the added constant, and that the addition of a constant is to be regarded as a background information. Further examples include "up to isomorphism*"*, "up to permutations*"* and "up to rotations*",* which are described in the Examples section.

In informal contexts, mathematicians often use the word * modulo * (or simply "mod") for similar purposes, as in "modulo isomorphism".

A simple example is "there are seven reflecting tetrominoes, up to rotations", which makes reference to the seven possible contiguous arrangements of tetrominoes (collections of four unit squares arranged to connect on at least one side) and which are frequently thought of as the seven Tetris pieces (O, I, L, J, T, S, Z). This could also be written as "there are five tetrominoes, up to reflections and rotations", which would then take into account the perspective that L and J (as well as S and Z) can be thought of as the same piece when reflected. The Tetris game does not allow reflections, so the former notation is likely to seem more natural.

To add in the exhaustive count, there is no formal notation for the number of pieces of tetrominoes. However, it is common to write that "there are seven reflecting tetrominoes (= 19 total^{ [3] }) up to rotations". Here, Tetris provides an excellent example, as one might simply count 7 pieces × 4 rotations as 28, where some pieces (such as the 2×2 O) obviously have fewer than four rotation states.

In the eight queens puzzle, if the eight queens are considered to be distinct, then there are 3709440 distinct solutions. Normally, however, the queens are considered to be identical, and one usually says "there are 92 () unique solutions *up to* permutations of the queens", or that "there are 92 solutions *mod* the names of the queens", signifying that two different arrangements of the queens are considered equivalent if the queens have been permuted, but the same squares on the chessboard are occupied by them.

If, in addition to treating the queens as identical, rotations and reflections of the board were allowed, we would have only 12 distinct solutions *up to symmetry and the naming of the queens*, signifying that two arrangements that are symmetrical to each other are considered equivalent (for more, see Eight queens puzzle#Solutions).

The regular *n*-gon, for given *n*, is unique up to similarity. In other words, if all similar *n*-gons are considered instances of the same *n*-gon, then there is only one regular *n*-gon.

In group theory, one may have a group *G* acting on a set *X*, in which case, one might say that two elements of *X* are equivalent "up to the group action"—if they lie in the same orbit.

Another typical example is the statement that "there are two different groups of order 4 *up to* isomorphism",^{ [1] } or "*modulo* isomorphism, there are two groups of order 4". This means that there are two equivalence classes of groups of order 4—assuming that one considers groups to be equivalent if they are isomorphic.

A hyperreal *x* and its standard part st(*x*) are equal up to an infinitesimal difference.

In computer science, the term *up-to techniques* is a precisely defined notion that refers to certain proof techniques for (weak) bisimulation, and to relate processes that only behave similarly up to unobservable steps.^{ [4] }

Look up in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. up to |

The **eight queens puzzle** is the problem of placing eight chess queens on an 8×8 chessboard so that no two queens threaten each other; thus, a solution requires that no two queens share the same row, column, or diagonal. The eight queens puzzle is an example of the more general ** n queens problem** of placing

In abstract algebra, a **group isomorphism** is a function between two groups that sets up a one-to-one correspondence between the elements of the groups in a way that respects the given group operations. If there exists an isomorphism between two groups, then the groups are called **isomorphic**. From the standpoint of group theory, isomorphic groups have the same properties and need not be distinguished.

In mathematics, a **group action** on a space is a group homomorphism of a given group into the group of transformations of the space. Similarly, a group action on a mathematical structure is a group homomorphism of a group into the automorphism group of the structure. It is said that the group *acts* on the space or structure. If a group acts on a structure, it also acts on everything that is built on the structure. For example, the group of Euclidean isometries acts on Euclidean space and also on the figures drawn in it. In particular, it acts on the set of all triangles. Similarly, the group of symmetries of a polyhedron acts on the vertices, the edges, and the faces of the polyhedron.

In mathematics, an **isomorphism** is a mapping between two structures of the same type that can be reversed by an inverse mapping. Two mathematical structures are **isomorphic** if an isomorphism exists between them. The word isomorphism is derived from the Ancient Greek: ἴσος *isos* "equal", and μορφή *morphe* "form" or "shape".

In mathematics, a **group** is a set equipped with a binary operation that combines any two elements to form a third element in such a way that four conditions called group axioms are satisfied, namely closure, associativity, identity and invertibility. One of the most familiar examples of a group is the set of integers together with the addition operation, but groups are encountered in numerous areas within and outside mathematics, and help focusing on essential structural aspects, by detaching them from the concrete nature of the subject of the study.

In mathematics, **modular arithmetic** is a system of arithmetic for integers, where numbers "wrap around" when reaching a certain value, called the **modulus**. The modern approach to modular arithmetic was developed by Carl Friedrich Gauss in his book *Disquisitiones Arithmeticae*, published in 1801.

A **pentomino** is a polyomino of order 5, that is, a polygon in the plane made of 5 equal-sized squares connected edge-to-edge. When rotations and reflections are not considered to be distinct shapes, there are 12 different *free* pentominoes. When reflections are considered distinct, there are 18 *one-sided* pentominoes. When rotations are also considered distinct, there are 63 *fixed* pentominoes.

In mathematics, a **permutation group** is a group *G* whose elements are permutations of a given set *M* and whose group operation is the composition of permutations in *G*. The group of *all* permutations of a set *M* is the symmetric group of *M*, often written as Sym(*M*). The term *permutation group* thus means a subgroup of the symmetric group. If *M* = {1,2,...,*n*} then, Sym(*M*), the *symmetric group on n letters* is usually denoted by S_{n}.

In abstract algebra, the **symmetric group** defined over any set is the group whose elements are all the bijections from the set to itself, and whose group operation is the composition of functions. In particular, the finite symmetric group **S _{n}** defined over a finite set of

A **tetromino** is a geometric shape composed of four squares, connected orthogonally. This, like dominoes and pentominoes, is a particular type of polyomino. The corresponding polycube, called a **tetracube**, is a geometric shape composed of four cubes connected orthogonally.

In mathematics and abstract algebra, **group theory** studies the algebraic structures known as groups. The concept of a group is central to abstract algebra: other well-known algebraic structures, such as rings, fields, and vector spaces, can all be seen as groups endowed with additional operations and axioms. Groups recur throughout mathematics, and the methods of group theory have influenced many parts of algebra. Linear algebraic groups and Lie groups are two branches of group theory that have experienced advances and have become subject areas in their own right.

In mathematics, the **Klein four-group** is a group with four elements, in which each element is self-inverse (composing it with itself produces the identity) and in which composing any two of the three non-identity elements produces the third one. It can be described as the symmetry group of a non-square rectangle (with the three non-identity elements being horizontal and vertical reflection and 180-degree rotation), as the group of bitwise exclusive or operations on two-bit binary values, or more abstractly as Z_{2} × Z_{2}, the direct product of two copies of the cyclic group of order 2. It was named * Vierergruppe* (meaning four-group) by Felix Klein in 1884. It is also called the

In mathematics, a **permutation** of a set is, loosely speaking, an arrangement of its members into a sequence or linear order, or if the set is already ordered, a rearrangement of its elements. The word "permutation" also refers to the act or process of changing the linear order of an ordered set.

The **imaginary unit** or **unit imaginary number** is a solution to the quadratic equation *x*^{2} + 1 = 0. Although there is no real number with this property, i can be used to extend the real numbers to what are called complex numbers, using addition and multiplication. A simple example of the use of i in a complex number is 2 + 3*i*.

In mathematics, **Galois theory** provides a connection between field theory and group theory. Using Galois theory, certain problems in field theory can be reduced to group theory, which is in some sense simpler and better understood. It has been used to solve classic problems including showing that two problems of antiquity cannot be solved as they were stated ; showing that there is no quintic formula; and showing which polygons are constructible.

In the mathematics of the real numbers, the logarithm log_{b}*a* is a number *x* such that *b*^{x} = *a*, for given numbers *a* and *b*. Analogously, in any group *G*, powers *b*^{k} can be defined for all integers *k*, and the **discrete logarithm** log_{b}*a* is an integer *k* such that *b*^{k} = *a*. In number theory, the more commonly used term is **index**: we can write *x* = ind_{r}*a* (mod *m*) for *r*^{x} ≡ *a* (mod *m*) if *r* is a primitive root of *m* and gcd(*a*,*m*) = 1.

In mathematics, **D _{3}** (sometimes alternatively denoted by

**Symmetry** occurs not only in geometry, but also in other branches of mathematics. Symmetry is a type of invariance: the property that a mathematical object remains unchanged under a set of operations or transformations.

In mathematics, the term **essentially unique** is used to describe a weaker form of uniqueness, where an object satisfying a property is "unique" only in the sense that all objects satisfying the property are equivalent to each other. The notion of essential uniqueness presupposes some form of "sameness", which is often formalized using an equivalence relation.

In mathematics, particularly in the area of number theory, a **modular multiplicative inverse** of an integer a is an integer x such that the product ax is congruent to 1 with respect to the modulus m. In the standard notation of modular arithmetic this congruence is written as

- 1 2 "The Definitive Glossary of Higher Mathematical Jargon — Up to".
*Math Vault*. 2019-08-01. Retrieved 2019-11-21. - ↑ Nekovář, Jan (2011). "Mathematical English (a brief summary)" (PDF).
*Institut de mathématiques de Jussieu – Paris Rive Gauche*. Retrieved 2019-11-21. - ↑ Weisstein, Eric W. "Tetromino".
*mathworld.wolfram.com*. Retrieved 2019-11-21. - ↑ Damien Pous,
*Up-to techniques for weak bisimulation*, Proc. 32th ICALP, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 3580, Springer Verlag (2005), pp. 730–741

This page is based on this Wikipedia article

Text is available under the CC BY-SA 4.0 license; additional terms may apply.

Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.

Text is available under the CC BY-SA 4.0 license; additional terms may apply.

Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.