The Wagalla massacre was a massacre of ethnic Somalis by Kenyan security forces on 10 February 1984 A.D in Wajir County, Kenya.
A massacre is a killing, typically of multiple victims, considered morally unacceptable, especially when perpetrated by a group of political actors against defenseless victims. The word is a loan of a French term for "butchery" or "carnage".
Somalis are an ethnic Cushitic peoples inhabiting the Horn of Africa. The overwhelming majority of Somalis speak the Somali language, which is part of the Cushitic branch of the Afroasiatic family. They are predominantly Sunni Muslim. Ethnic Somalis number around 28-30 million and are principally concentrated in Somalia, Ethiopia, Kenya, and Djibouti (534,000). A Somali diaspora is also found in parts of the Middle East, African Great Lakes region, Southern Africa, North America, Oceania, and Western Europe.
Wajir County is a county in the former North Eastern Province of Kenya. Its capital and largest town is Wajir. The county has a population of 661,941 and an area of 55,840.6 km². Wajir County has only one local authority: Wajir county council. The county has six constituencies: Eldas, Tarbaj, Wajir North, Wajir West, Wajir East, and Wajir South. Wajir County is divided into fourteen administrative divisions:
The Wagalla massacre took place on 10 February 1984 at the Wagalla Airstrip. The facility is situated approximately 15 km (9 mi) west of the county capital of Wajir in the North Eastern Province, a region primarily inhabited by ethnic Somalis. Kenyan troops had descended on the area to reportedly help defuse clan-related conflict. However, according to eye-witness testimony, about 5,000 Somali men were then taken to an airstrip and prevented from accessing water and food for five days before being executed by Kenyan soldiers.
Wagalla Airstrip is an airstrip in the former North Eastern Province of Kenya. It is situated around 12 kilometers west of Wajir. The airstrip was the site of the Wagalla massacre in February 1984.
The North Eastern Province is one of the former provinces in Kenya. It has a land area of 127,358.5 km², with its capital at Garissa. Previously known as the Northern Frontier District (NFD), the territory was carved out of the Jubaland region of present-day southern Somalia during the colonial period. It is and has historically been exclusively inhabited by ethnic Somalis.
According to a commissioner with The Truth, Justice and Reconciliation Commission of Kenya, a government oversight body that had been formed in response to the 2008 Kenyan post-election violence, the Wagalla massacre represents the worst human rights violation in Kenya's history.
The Truth, Justice and Reconciliation Commission of Kenya (TJRC) was established in 2008. Kenya’s modern history has been marked not only by liberation struggles but also by ethnic conflicts, semi-despotic regimes, marginalization and political violence, including the coup d'état of 1982, the Shifta War, and the 2007 Post-election violence.
The exact number of people killed in the massacre is unknown.However, eyewitnesses place the figure at around 10,000 deaths.
For years the Kenyan government denied that a massacre had taken place and insisted that "only 57 people were killed in a security operation to disarm the [area's] residents".It was not until October 2000 that the government publicly acknowledged wrongdoing on the part of its security forces.
In 2010, Bethuel Kiplagat stepped aside as chairman of the Truth, Justice, and Reconciliation Commission because of his alleged involvement in authorising the action that led to the massacre.Reports of the number of men from the Somali Degodia sub-clan, in particular, that were detained by security forces and brought to the airstrip range from 381 to upward of ten thousand.
In April 2012, Kiplagat was reinstated as TJRC chairman after the Justice Minister Eugene Wamalwa brokered a truce between him and the other commissioners.
The same year, the former Kenyan Prime Minister Raila Odinga ordered an official probe into the atrocities and indicated that the national attorney general should bring to justice those responsible for the killings. Odinga also ordered a museum to be constructed in honour of the victims.
In February 2015, the Wajir County governor Ahmed Abdullahi said his government would partner with local and international human rights organisations in seeking justice for the victims of the massacre, saying that the Truth Commission report offered such an opportunity which remained squandered. "Those mentioned by the TJRC report and witnesses must be prosecuted. The people who afflicted the pain to our people remain unpunished and are still with us," Abdullahi said.
The film/documentary Scarred: The Anatomy of a Massacre, directed by Judy Kibinge, is the first independent visual attempt to chronicle the history of the massacre as experienced by both the victims and survivors – some of whom were government officials themselves. The documentary was launched at the National Museum in Nairobi in February 2015.
The politics of Kenya take place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President of Kenya is both head of state and head of government, and of a multi-party system in accordance with a new constitution passed in 2010.
Uhuru Muigai Kenyatta is a Kenyan politician and businessman who is the fourth and current President of the Republic of Kenya. He served as the Member of Parliament (MP) for Gatundu South from 2002 to 2013. Currently the party leader and a member of the Jubilee Party of Kenya, he was previously involved with The National Alliance and before that the Kenya African National Union.
Stephen Kalonzo Musyoka is a Kenyan politician who was the tenth Vice-President of Kenya from 2008 to 2013. Musyoka served in the government under President Daniel arap Moi and was Minister for Foreign Affairs from 1993 until 1998; subsequently, under President Mwai Kibaki, he was Minister of Foreign Affairs again from 2003 to 2004, then Minister of the Environment from 2004 to 2005. He was an unsuccessful candidate in the 2007 presidential election, after which he was appointed as Vice-President by Kibaki in January 2008.
Wycliffe Musalia Mudavadi is a Kenyan politician, who served as the seventh Vice President of Kenya in 2002 and as Deputy Prime Minister from 2008- 2012 May when he resigned officially to join the presidential race. He is the current Party Leader of Amani National Congress (ANC) after decamping from the Orange Democratic Movement (ODM) led by the prime minister Raila Odinga in 2012 where before his resignation he served as the deputy party leader.He was third in the Kenyan general election, 2013.
Raila Amolo Odinga is a Kenyan politician who served as Prime Minister of Kenya from 2008 to 2013, and has served as Leader of the Opposition since 2013. He was Member of Parliament (MP) for Langata from 1992 to 2013. He served in the Cabinet of Kenya as Minister of Energy from 2001 to 2002, and as Minister of Roads, Public Works and Housing from 2003 to 2005. Odinga was appointed High Representative for Infrastructure Development at the African Union Commission in 2018.
Annalena Tonelli was an Italian lawyer and social activist. She worked for 33 years in East Africa, where she focused on tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment, campaigns for eradication of female genital mutilation, and special schools for hearing-impaired, blind and disabled children. In June 2003, Tonelli was awarded the Nansen Refugee Award, which is given annually by the UNHCR to recognize outstanding service to the cause of refugees. In October 2003, she was killed inside her hospital by two gunmen. Her murder remains unsolved.
Mohammed Said Hersi Morgan is a Somali military and faction leader. He is the son-in-law of Siad Barre and Minister of Defense of Somalia. Said Hersi. His military campaign in Southern Somalia in 1992 was one of the main causes of the famine in Somalia.
The Shifta War (1963–1967) was a secessionist conflict in which ethnic Somalis in the Northern Frontier District (NFD) of Kenya attempted to join with their fellow Somalis in a Greater Somalia. The Kenyan government named the conflict "shifta", after the Somali word for "bandit", as part of a propaganda effort. The Kenyan counter-insurgency General Service Units forced civilians into "protected villages" as well as killing a large number of livestock kept by the pastoralist Somalis. The war ended in 1967 when Muhammad Haji Ibrahim Egal, Prime Minister of the Somali Republic, signed a ceasefire with Kenya at the Arusha Conference on October 23, 1967. However, the violence in Kenya deteriorated into disorganised banditry, with occasional episodes of secessionist agitation, for the next several decades. The war and violent clampdowns by the Kenyan government caused large-scale disruption to the way of life in the district, resulting in a slight shift from pastoralist and transhumant lifestyles to sedentary, urban lifestyles. Government records put the official death toll in the thousands but NGO's say more than 10,000 lives were lost.
The Wiper Democratic Movement–Kenya (WDM-K) refers to a political party in Kenya, which originated as a result of the 2005 Kenyan constitutional referendum. It grew out of the Orange Democratic Movement Party of Kenya (ODM). It is headed by Kalonzo Musyoka, who ran for president in 2007 and served as the vice-president in the Grand Coalition of Mwai Kibaki and Raila Odinga. It is now a member of the main opposition NASA.
General elections were held in Kenya on 27 December 2007, electing the President, National Assembly and local councils.
The 2007–08 Kenyan crisis was a political, economic, and humanitarian crisis that erupted in Kenya after former President Mwai Kibaki was declared the winner of the presidential election held on December 27, 2007. Supporters of Kibaki's opponent, Raila Odinga of the Orange Democratic Movement, alleged electoral manipulation. This was widely confirmed by international observers, as being perpetrated by both parties in the election.
The Waki Commission, officially The Commission of Inquiry on Post Election Violence (CIPEV), was an international commission of inquiry established by the Government of Kenya in February 2008 to investigate the clashes in Kenya following the disputed Kenyan presidential election of 2007.
A list of happenings in 2011 in Kenya:
Nyayo House is a skyscraper in Nairobi, Kenya. It hosts several government departments such as immigration and also serves as the headquarters of Nairobi Province. The building is located at the corner of Uhuru Highway and Kenyatta Avenue. It is 84 metres high and has 27 floors
The Fake PPO Probe is an investigation ordered by Kenyan President Mwai Kibaki into claims that an individual, Mr Joshua Waiganjo, had for 10 years passed off as a top policeman. He is alleged to have sacked and abused junior officers, and attended top security meetings.
Somali-Kenyan conflict within Kenya has been a consistent issue since the colonial period. Problems have ranged from petty skirmishes between the two communities, to police harassment, extortion, home invasions, physical violence, and massacres perpetrated against the Somali-Kenyan community.
The Kenya Presidential Election Petition of 2013 was an election petition aiming to declare the Kenya presidential election 2013 invalid. The Petition was filed at the Supreme Court of Kenya on 16 March 2013.
The Raila Doctrine simply states .....a presidential election, which is not free and fair, should never be acceptable in a democratic country. It was coined if reference to Raila Odinga reacting to his losses in elections in Kenya, which he has termed as fraudulent. The phrase was coined in a legal argument by Senior Counsel Ahmednasir Abdullahi representing the IEBC during the Kenyan Presidential elections petition that was heard by the Supreme Court of Kenya in March 2013. The doctrine simply states .....a presidential election, which is not free and fair, should never be acceptable in a democratic country.
On 2 April 2015, gunmen stormed the Garissa University College in Garissa, Kenya, killing 148 people, and injuring 79 or more. The militant group and Al-Qaeda offshoot, Al-Shabaab, which the gunmen claimed to be from, took responsibility for the attack. The gunmen took over 700 students hostage, freeing Muslims and killing those who identified as Christians. The siege ended the same day, when all four of the attackers were killed. Five men were later arrested in connection with the attack, and a bounty was placed for the arrest of a suspected organizer.