Waxhaw people

Last updated
Waxhaw
Waxhau
Total population
Extinct as a tribe
Regions with significant populations
Flag of the United States.svg  United States (historically Flag of North Carolina.svg  North Carolina, Flag of South Carolina.svg  South Carolina)
Languages
Siouan-Catawban languages
Religion
Indigenous

The Waxhaw (also referred to as Wisacky [1] , the Gueça [2] and possibly Wastana [3] and Weesock [4] ) was a tribe native to what are now the counties of Lancaster, in South Carolina; and Union and Mecklenburg in North Carolina, around the area of present-day Charlotte. The Waxhaw were related to other nearby Southeastern Siouian tribes, such as the Catawba and Sugeree. It is speculated that they were culturally influenced by the Mississippian culture [5]

Lancaster County, South Carolina County in the United States

Lancaster County is a county located in the U.S. state of South Carolina. As of the 2017 census estimate, its population was 92,550. Its county seat is Lancaster, which has an urban population of 23,979. The county was created in 1785.

Union County, North Carolina County in North Carolina, United States

Union County is a county located in the U.S. state of North Carolina. As of the 2010 census, the population was 201,292. Its county seat is Monroe.

Mecklenburg County, North Carolina County in the United States

Mecklenburg County is a county located in the southwestern region of the state of North Carolina, in the United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 919,618. It increased to 1,034,070 as of the 2015 estimate, making it the most populous county in North Carolina and the first county in the Carolinas to surpass 1 million in population. Its county seat and largest city is Charlotte.

Contents

Some scholars suggest the Waxhaw may have been a band of the Catawba rather than a distinctly separate people, given the similarity in what is known of their language and customs. A distinctive custom which they shared was flattening the forehead of individuals as infants, the only other people group to do so in the southeastern United States is the Choctaw. Flattening of the head gave the Waxhaw a distinctive look, with wide eyes and sloping foreheads. They started the process at birth by binding the infant to a flat board. The wider eyes were said to give the Waxhaw a hunting advantage.

Choctaw Native American people originally from the Southeastern United States

The Choctaw are a Native American people originally occupying what is now the Southeastern United States. Their Choctaw language belongs to the Muskogean language family group. Hopewell and Mississippian cultures, who lived throughout the east of the Mississippi River valley and its tributaries. About 1,700 years ago, the Hopewell people built Nanih Waiya, a great earthwork mound located in what is central present-day Mississippi. It is still considered sacred by the Choctaw. The early Spanish explorers of the mid-16th century in the Southeast encountered Mississippian-culture villages and chiefs. The anthropologist John R. Swanton suggested that the Choctaw derived their name from an early leader. Henry Halbert, a historian, suggests that their name is derived from the Choctaw phrase Hacha hatak.

The typical Waxhaw dwellings were similar to those of other peoples of the region. They were covered in bark. Ceremonial buildings, however, were usually thatched with reeds and bullgrass. The people held ceremonial dances, tribal meetings, and other important rites in these council houses.

Reed (plant) type of plant

Reed is a common name for several tall, grass-like plants of wetlands.

There is uncertainty concerning the time of the tribe's disbanding: historians Peter Moore and William Ramsey postulate that they disbanded immediately following the Yamasee War against English colonists of the early 18th century. Moore suggested that the surviving Waxhaw either merged with the Cheraw or traveled south with the Yamasee. There is another theory, originating with Robert Ney McNeely's history of Union County, published in 1912, that the Waxhaw continued on as an independent tribe until the 1740s but this seems to lack the backing of primary sources.

The Yamasee or Yemassee War (1715–1717) was a conflict between British settlers of colonial South Carolina and various Native American tribes, including the Yamasee, Muscogee, Cherokee, Catawba, Apalachee, Apalachicola, Yuchi, Savannah River Shawnee, Congaree, Waxhaw, Pee Dee, Cape Fear, Cheraw, and others. Some of the Native American Indian groups played a minor role while others launched attacks throughout South Carolina in an attempt to destroy the colony.

Cheraw ethnic group

The Cheraw people, also known as the Saraw or Saura, were a Siouan-speaking tribe of indigenous people of the Southeastern Woodlands, in the Piedmont area of North Carolina near the Sauratown Mountains, east of Pilot Mountain and north of the Yadkin River. They lived in villages near the Catawba River. Their first European and African contact was with the Hernando De Soto Expedition in 1540. The early explorer John Lawson included them in the larger eastern-Siouan confederacy, which he called "the Esaw Nation."

Possible Enslavement by Tomahittans

In 1673 Gabriel Arthur stayed with the Tomahittans and claimed that they had members of the "Weesock" tribe living among them as warrior slaves [6] . Historian John R. Swanton has suggested that the "Weesock" were in fact the Waxhaw [4] Arthur stated "all ye wesocks children they take are brought up with them as ye Ianesaryes are amongst ye Turkes." referencing the Janissaries of the Ottoman Empire

History of Kentucky aspect of history

The prehistory and history of Kentucky spans thousands of years, and has been influenced by the state's diverse geography and central location. It is not known exactly when the first humans arrived in what is now Kentucky. Around 1800 BCE, a gradual transition began from a hunter-gatherer economy to agriculturalism. Around 900 CE, a Mississippian culture took root in western and central Kentucky; by contrast, a Fort Ancient culture appeared in eastern Kentucky. While the two had many similarities, the distinctive ceremonial earthwork mounds constructed in the former's centers were not part of the culture of the latter.

The Tomahittan are Native Americans who Virginians James Needham and Gabriel Arthur tried to contact in order to bypass the taxes of the Occaneechi "middlemen" natives.

John Reed Swanton was an American anthropologist, folklorist, and linguist who worked with Native American peoples throughout the United States. Swanton achieved recognition in the fields of ethnology and ethnohistory. He is particularly noted for his work with indigenous peoples of the Southeast and Pacific Northwest.

Tuscarora War

During the Tuscarora War of 1711, South Carolinian colonist John Barnwell recorded 27 Waxhaw warriors under the command of a Captain Jack as taking part in his expedition to attack the Tuscarora along the Neuse River. [7] Captain Jack's unit was referred to as the Essaw Company and contained Wateree, Sugaree, Catawba, Sutaree, Waxhaw, Congaree, and Sattee warriors, totaling 155 men. It was possibly the only company on the expedition to be commanded by a Native American. [8] Barnwell describes using Captain Jack's company to conduct an enveloping maneuver through a swamp during his attack against the Tuscarora town of Kenta. This company was also listed as being involved in the taking of Fort Narhontes. Captain Jack's entire company (which would include the Waxhaw) abandoned John Barnwell's expedition in early February; they took advantage of an event that caused them to spend the night separated from Barnwell by a river. Barnwell claimed that they left in order to sell the slaves they had captured during the fighting with the Tuscarora.

The Tuscarora War was fought in North Carolina from September 22, 1711 until February 11, 1715 between the British, Dutch, and German settlers and the Tuscarora Native Americans. The Europeans enlisted the Yamasee and Cherokee as Indian allies against the Tuscarora, who had amassed several allies themselves. This was considered the bloodiest colonial war in North Carolina. Defeated, the Tuscarora signed a treaty with colonial officials in 1718 and settled on a reserved tract of land in what became Bertie County.

Historian William Ramsey has speculated that the Waxhaw's involvement in this war antagonized the Tuscarora's Iroquoian allies: the Seneca and Mohawk of New York, and led to the latter two tribes launching raids against the Waxhaw that may have continued to the Yamasee War in 1715. Ramsey cites the failure of the colonists to protect the Waxhaw from hostile attacks as a catalyst for the Waxhaw's decision to join the Yamasee in their war against the South Carolina colony.

Yamasee War

During the Yamasee War of 1715, the Waxhaw were aligned with the Yamasee Confederation, as were their Catawba neighbors. Rev. Francis Le Jau, in his letters to a missionary organization based in London, recounted an attack launched by the Catawba and their neighbors on 17 May 1715 against the Goose Creek settlement in South Carolina. Though Le Jau did not mention the Waxhaw by name, it is likely they were included in the band he was referring to when he wrote "..that Body of Northern Indians being a mixture of Catabaws, Sarraws, Waterees &c" [9]

The Native Americans first had success at Goose Creek, ambushing and defeating 90 men under the command of Thomas Barker, son-in-law of Col. James Moore. Barker and his men had been led into the ambush by a Native American slave who had been freed by Col. Moore. Barker and 26 of his men were killed. The defeat of Capt. Barker was quickly followed by the Yamasee and Waxhaw besieging a small fort garrisoned by 30 men, both white and black; it quickly fell. In July the Native American warriors were defeated and driven out of Goose Creek by George Chicken. Shortly after this defeat, the Catawba made peace with South Carolina. In the process they turned on the Waxhaw and most likely destroyed them as a tribe.

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Fort Neoheroka

Fort Neoheroka, or Nooherooka, is the name of a stronghold constructed in what is now Greene County, North Carolina by the Tuscarora tribe during the Tuscarora War of 1711–1715. In March 1713, the fort was besieged and ultimately attacked by a colonial force consisting of an army from the neighboring Province of South Carolina, under the command of Colonel James Moore and made up mainly of Indians including Yamasee, Apalachee, Catawba, Cherokee, and many others. The 1713 siege lasted for more than three weeks, from around March 1 to March 22, 1713. Hundreds of men, women and children were burned to death in a fire that destroyed the fort. Approximately 170 more were killed outside the fort while approximately 400 were taken to South Carolina where they were sold into slavery. The defeat of the Tuscaroras, once the most powerful indigenous nation in the North Carolina Territory, opened up North Carolina's interior to further expansion by European settlers. The supremacy of the Tuscaroras in the state was broken forever. Most moved north to live among the Iroquois. On July 17, 2009, the Fort Neoheroka Site was added to the National Register of Historic Places.

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Sissipahaw CDP

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References

Specific
  1. Lederer, John; Cumming, William (1958). The Discoveries of John Lederer: With Unpublished Letters by and about Lederer to Governor John Winthrop, Jr., and An Essay on the Indians of Lederer's Discoveries by Douglas L. Rights and William P. Cumming. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press.
  2. Beck, Robin (2013). Chiefdoms, Collapse, and Coalescence In the Early American South. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  3. Winsor, Justin (1884). Narrative and Critical History of America. Houghton, Mifflin and Company. p. 346.
  4. 1 2 "The Indian Tribes of North America".
  5. Moore, Peter (2007). World of Toil and Strife. Columbia, S.C.: University of South Carolina Press.
  6. "Calendar of State Papers: Colonial Series".
  7. Barnwell, John (1898). "Journal of John Barnwell". The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography. 5: 391–402.
  8. Beck, Robin (2013). Chiefdoms, Collapse, and Coalescence in the Early American South. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. p. 198.
  9. Le Jau, Francis (1956). The Carolina Chronicle of Dr. Francis Le Jau, 1706-1717. Berkeley: University of California. p. 163.