|Extinct as a tribe|
|Regions with significant populations|
The Waxhaw (also referred to as Wisacky, the Gueça and possibly Wastana and Weesock ) was a tribe native to what are now the counties of Lancaster, in South Carolina; and Union and Mecklenburg in North Carolina, around the area of present-day Charlotte. The Waxhaw were related to other nearby Southeastern Siouian tribes, such as the Catawba and Sugeree. It is speculated that they were culturally influenced by the Mississippian culture
Lancaster County is a county located in the U.S. state of South Carolina. As of the 2017 census estimate, its population was 92,550. Its county seat is Lancaster, which has an urban population of 23,979. The county was created in 1785.
Union County is a county located in the U.S. state of North Carolina. As of the 2010 census, the population was 201,292. Its county seat is Monroe.
Mecklenburg County is a county located in the southwestern region of the state of North Carolina, in the United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 919,618. It increased to 1,034,070 as of the 2015 estimate, making it the most populous county in North Carolina and the first county in the Carolinas to surpass 1 million in population. Its county seat and largest city is Charlotte.
Some scholars suggest the Waxhaw may have been a band of the Catawba rather than a distinctly separate people, given the similarity in what is known of their language and customs. A distinctive custom which they shared was flattening the forehead of individuals as infants, the only other people group to do so in the southeastern United States is the Choctaw. Flattening of the head gave the Waxhaw a distinctive look, with wide eyes and sloping foreheads. They started the process at birth by binding the infant to a flat board. The wider eyes were said to give the Waxhaw a hunting advantage.
The Choctaw are a Native American people originally occupying what is now the Southeastern United States. Their Choctaw language belongs to the Muskogean language family group. Hopewell and Mississippian cultures, who lived throughout the east of the Mississippi River valley and its tributaries. About 1,700 years ago, the Hopewell people built Nanih Waiya, a great earthwork mound located in what is central present-day Mississippi. It is still considered sacred by the Choctaw. The early Spanish explorers of the mid-16th century in the Southeast encountered Mississippian-culture villages and chiefs. The anthropologist John R. Swanton suggested that the Choctaw derived their name from an early leader. Henry Halbert, a historian, suggests that their name is derived from the Choctaw phrase Hacha hatak.
The typical Waxhaw dwellings were similar to those of other peoples of the region. They were covered in bark. Ceremonial buildings, however, were usually thatched with reeds and bullgrass. The people held ceremonial dances, tribal meetings, and other important rites in these council houses.
Reed is a common name for several tall, grass-like plants of wetlands.
There is uncertainty concerning the time of the tribe's disbanding: historians Peter Moore and William Ramsey postulate that they disbanded immediately following the Yamasee War against English colonists of the early 18th century. Moore suggested that the surviving Waxhaw either merged with the Cheraw or traveled south with the Yamasee. There is another theory, originating with Robert Ney McNeely's history of Union County, published in 1912, that the Waxhaw continued on as an independent tribe until the but this seems to lack the backing of primary sources.
The Yamasee or Yemassee War (1715–1717) was a conflict between British settlers of colonial South Carolina and various Native American tribes, including the Yamasee, Muscogee, Cherokee, Catawba, Apalachee, Apalachicola, Yuchi, Savannah River Shawnee, Congaree, Waxhaw, Pee Dee, Cape Fear, Cheraw, and others. Some of the Native American Indian groups played a minor role while others launched attacks throughout South Carolina in an attempt to destroy the colony.
The Cheraw people, also known as the Saraw or Saura, were a Siouan-speaking tribe of indigenous people of the Southeastern Woodlands, in the Piedmont area of North Carolina near the Sauratown Mountains, east of Pilot Mountain and north of the Yadkin River. They lived in villages near the Catawba River. Their first European and African contact was with the Hernando De Soto Expedition in 1540. The early explorer John Lawson included them in the larger eastern-Siouan confederacy, which he called "the Esaw Nation."
In 1673 Gabriel Arthur stayed with the Tomahittans and claimed that they had members of the "Weesock" tribe living among them as warrior slaves. Historian John R. Swanton has suggested that the "Weesock" were in fact the Waxhaw Arthur stated "all ye wesocks children they take are brought up with them as ye Ianesaryes are amongst ye Turkes." referencing the Janissaries of the Ottoman Empire
The prehistory and history of Kentucky spans thousands of years, and has been influenced by the state's diverse geography and central location. It is not known exactly when the first humans arrived in what is now Kentucky. Around 1800 BCE, a gradual transition began from a hunter-gatherer economy to agriculturalism. Around 900 CE, a Mississippian culture took root in western and central Kentucky; by contrast, a Fort Ancient culture appeared in eastern Kentucky. While the two had many similarities, the distinctive ceremonial earthwork mounds constructed in the former's centers were not part of the culture of the latter.
The Tomahittan are Native Americans who Virginians James Needham and Gabriel Arthur tried to contact in order to bypass the taxes of the Occaneechi "middlemen" natives.
John Reed Swanton was an American anthropologist, folklorist, and linguist who worked with Native American peoples throughout the United States. Swanton achieved recognition in the fields of ethnology and ethnohistory. He is particularly noted for his work with indigenous peoples of the Southeast and Pacific Northwest.
During the Tuscarora War of 1711, South Carolinian colonist John Barnwell recorded 27 Waxhaw warriors under the command of a Captain Jack as taking part in his expedition to attack the Tuscarora along the Neuse River.Captain Jack's unit was referred to as the Essaw Company and contained Wateree, Sugaree, Catawba, Sutaree, Waxhaw, Congaree, and Sattee warriors, totaling 155 men. It was possibly the only company on the expedition to be commanded by a Native American. Barnwell describes using Captain Jack's company to conduct an enveloping maneuver through a swamp during his attack against the Tuscarora town of Kenta. This company was also listed as being involved in the taking of Fort Narhontes. Captain Jack's entire company (which would include the Waxhaw) abandoned John Barnwell's expedition in early February; they took advantage of an event that caused them to spend the night separated from Barnwell by a river. Barnwell claimed that they left in order to sell the slaves they had captured during the fighting with the Tuscarora.
The Tuscarora War was fought in North Carolina from September 22, 1711 until February 11, 1715 between the British, Dutch, and German settlers and the Tuscarora Native Americans. The Europeans enlisted the Yamasee and Cherokee as Indian allies against the Tuscarora, who had amassed several allies themselves. This was considered the bloodiest colonial war in North Carolina. Defeated, the Tuscarora signed a treaty with colonial officials in 1718 and settled on a reserved tract of land in what became Bertie County.
Historian William Ramsey has speculated that the Waxhaw's involvement in this war antagonized the Tuscarora's Iroquoian allies: the Seneca and Mohawk of New York, and led to the latter two tribes launching raids against the Waxhaw that may have continued to the Yamasee War in 1715. Ramsey cites the failure of the colonists to protect the Waxhaw from hostile attacks as a catalyst for the Waxhaw's decision to join the Yamasee in their war against the South Carolina colony.
During the Yamasee War of 1715, the Waxhaw were aligned with the Yamasee Confederation, as were their Catawba neighbors. Rev. Francis Le Jau, in his letters to a missionary organization based in London, recounted an attack launched by the Catawba and their neighbors on 17 May 1715 against the Goose Creek settlement in South Carolina. Though Le Jau did not mention the Waxhaw by name, it is likely they were included in the band he was referring to when he wrote "..that Body of Northern Indians being a mixture of Catabaws, Sarraws, Waterees &c"
The Native Americans first had success at Goose Creek, ambushing and defeating 90 men under the command of Thomas Barker, son-in-law of Col. James Moore. Barker and his men had been led into the ambush by a Native American slave who had been freed by Col. Moore. Barker and 26 of his men were killed. The defeat of Capt. Barker was quickly followed by the Yamasee and Waxhaw besieging a small fort garrisoned by 30 men, both white and black; it quickly fell. In July the Native American warriors were defeated and driven out of Goose Creek by George Chicken. Shortly after this defeat, the Catawba made peace with South Carolina. In the process they turned on the Waxhaw and most likely destroyed them as a tribe.
Waxhaw is a town in Union County, North Carolina, United States. The population was 9,859 according to the 2010 Census.
Waxhaws is a geographical area on the border of North and South Carolina.
The Cape Fear Indians were a small, coastal tribe of Native American who lived on the Cape Fear River in North Carolina.
The Winyaw were a Native American tribe living near Winyah Bay, Black River, and the lower course of the Pee Dee River in South Carolina. The Winyaw people disappeared as a distinct entity after 1720 and are thought to have merged with the Waccamaw.
The Pee Dee people, also Pedee and Peedee, are American Indians of the Southeast United States. Historically, their population has been concentrated in the Piedmont of present-day South Carolina. In the 17th and 18th centuries, English colonists named the Pee Dee River and the Pee Dee region of South Carolina for the tribe.
Fort Neoheroka, or Nooherooka, is the name of a stronghold constructed in what is now Greene County, North Carolina by the Tuscarora tribe during the Tuscarora War of 1711–1715. In March 1713, the fort was besieged and ultimately attacked by a colonial force consisting of an army from the neighboring Province of South Carolina, under the command of Colonel James Moore and made up mainly of Indians including Yamasee, Apalachee, Catawba, Cherokee, and many others. The 1713 siege lasted for more than three weeks, from around March 1 to March 22, 1713. Hundreds of men, women and children were burned to death in a fire that destroyed the fort. Approximately 170 more were killed outside the fort while approximately 400 were taken to South Carolina where they were sold into slavery. The defeat of the Tuscaroras, once the most powerful indigenous nation in the North Carolina Territory, opened up North Carolina's interior to further expansion by European settlers. The supremacy of the Tuscaroras in the state was broken forever. Most moved north to live among the Iroquois. On July 17, 2009, the Fort Neoheroka Site was added to the National Register of Historic Places.
The Wateree were a Native American tribe in the interior of the present-day Carolinas. They probably belonged to the Siouan-Catawba language family. First encountered by the Spanish in 1567 in western North Carolina, they migrated to the southeast by 1700, where English colonists noted them. They had settled along the Wateree River near what has become present-day Camden, South Carolina. Originally a large tribe, they were diminished by the Yamasee War of 1715 and became extinct as a tribe by the end of the century.
John Barnwell (1671–1724) emigrated to the Province of South Carolina in 1701. He led an army against the Tuscarora in 1711–1712. Later he served the colony as an official in talks with England in forming the government. He also worked to revive the relationship between the colony and its former allies the Yamasee.
The Congaree were a group of Native Americans who lived in what is now central South Carolina of the United States, along the Congaree River. They spoke a dialect distinct from, and not intelligible by, Siouan language speakers, the primary language family of the area.
The Cusabo or Corsaboy were a group of historic Native American tribes who lived along the coast of the Atlantic Ocean in what is now South Carolina, approximately between present-day Charleston and south to the Savannah River, at the time of European encounter. English colonists often referred to them as one of the Settlement Indians of South Carolina, tribes who settled among the colonists.
The Sissipahaw or Haw Tribe were most likely a Siouan tribe of North Carolina. They are also variously recorded as Saxahapaw, Sauxpa, Sissipahaus, etc. Their settlements were generally located in the vicinity of modern-day Saxapahaw, North Carolina on the Haw River in Alamance County upstream from Cape Fear. They are first recorded by the Spaniard Vendera in the 16th century as the Sauxpa. Their last mention in history is that the tribe joined the Yamasee against the English colonists in the Yamasee War of 1715.
The Cherokee people of the southeastern United States, and later Oklahoma and surrounding areas, have a long military history. Since European contact, Cherokee military activity has been documented in European records. Cherokee tribes and bands had a number of conflicts during the 18th century with European colonizing forces, primarily the English. The Eastern Band and Cherokees from the Indian Territory fought in the American Civil War, with bands allying with the Union or the Confederacy. Because many Cherokees allied with the Confederacy, the United States government required a new treaty with the nation after the war. Cherokees have also served in the United States military during the 20th and 21st centuries.
William Bull was a landowner and politician in the Province of South Carolina.
Native Americans living in the American Southeast were enslaved through warfare and purchased by English and French colonists throughout the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries, as well as held captive through Spanish-organized forced labor regimes in Florida. Emerging colonies in Virginia, Carolina, and Georgia imported Native Americans and incorporated them into chattel slavery systems, where they intermixed with slaves of African descent, who would come outnumber them. Their demand for slaves affected communities as far west as present-day Illinois and the Mississippi River and as far south as the Gulf Coast. The trade in enslaved Native Americans sent tens of thousands of them outside the region to New England and the Caribbean as a profitable export.
Francis Le Jau was a missionary to South Carolina with the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel (SPG). Born into a French Huguenot family in the La Rochelle region of France he later fled to England during the persecution of Huguenots after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685. He subsequently converted to Anglicanism and eventually graduated from Trinity College, Dublin. In 1700 he moved to St. Christopher's Island where he served for 18 months at the request of Bishop Henry Compton. From 1706 until his death in 1717 Le Jau served as a missionary to South Carolina based in Goose Creek.
The Ittiwan people are a Native American tribe, who lived near present-day Goose Creek. Today, the Etiwan (Ittiwan) Tribe of the Wassamasaw Indian Nation of SC claims to be descended from the original Ittiwan people and is located approximately 30 miles NW of Charleston. South Carolina.