The 40th parallel south is a circle of latitude that is 40 degrees south of the Earth's equatorial plane. It crosses the Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean, Australasia, the Pacific Ocean and South America. Its long oceanic stretches are the northern domain of the Roaring Forties.
A circle of latitude on Earth is an abstract east–west circle connecting all locations around Earth at a given latitude.
A degree, usually denoted by °, is a measurement of a plane angle, defined so that a full rotation is 360 degrees.
South is one of the four cardinal directions or compass points. South is the opposite of north and is perpendicular to the east and west.
On 21 June 2018, the sun is at 26.17° in the sky and at 73.83° on 21 December, in King Island, Tasmania, which is near the 40th parallel.
The maximum altitude of the Sun is > 35.00º in April and > 28.00º in May.
The horizontal coordinate system, also known as topocentric coordinate system, is a celestial coordinate system that uses the observer's local horizon as the fundamental plane. Coordinates of an object in the sky are expressed in terms of altitude angle and azimuth.
Starting at the Prime Meridian and heading eastwards, the parallel 40° south passes through ! scope="col" width="125" | Co-ordinates ! scope="col" | Country, territory or ocean ! scope="col" | Notes |- | style="background:#b0e0e6;" |
Río Negro Province
Buenos Aires Province |- | style="background:#b0e0e6;" | ! scope="row" style="background:#b0e0e6;" | Atlantic Ocean | style="background:#b0e0e6;" | |}
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans, with an area of about 106,460,000 square kilometers. It covers approximately 20 percent of Earth's surface and about 29 percent of its water surface area. It separates the "Old World" from the "New World".
The Indian Ocean is the third-largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering 70,560,000 km2 (27,240,000 sq mi) or 19.8% of the water on the Earth's surface. It is bounded by Asia to the north, Africa to the west, and Australia to the east. To the south it is bounded by the Southern Ocean or Antarctica, depending on the definition in use.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands. It is the largest country in Oceania and the world's sixth-largest country by total area. The neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea, Indonesia, and East Timor to the north; the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east; and New Zealand to the south-east. The population of 26 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, and its largest city is Sydney. The country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, and Adelaide.
The 39th parallel south is a circle of latitude that is 39 degrees south of the Earth's equatorial plane. It crosses the Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean, Australasia, the Pacific Ocean and South America.
The 41st parallel south is a circle of latitude that is 41 degrees south of the Earth's equatorial plane. It crosses the Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean, Australasia, the Pacific Ocean and South America.
The Roaring Forties are strong westerly winds found in the Southern Hemisphere, generally between the latitudes of 40 and 50 degrees. The strong west-to-east air currents are caused by the combination of air being displaced from the Equator towards the South Pole, the Earth's rotation, and the scarcity of landmasses to serve as windbreaks.
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Southern Ocean in the south and is bounded by the continents of Asia and Australia in the west and the Americas in the east.
Bass Strait is a sea strait separating Tasmania from the Australian mainland, specifically the state of Victoria.
The Tasman Sea is a marginal sea of the South Pacific Ocean, situated between Australia and New Zealand. It measures about 2,000 km (1,200 mi) across and about 2,800 km (1,700 mi) from north to south. The sea was named after the Dutch explorer Abel Janszoon Tasman, who was the first recorded European to encounter New Zealand and Tasmania. British explorer Captain James Cook later extensively navigated the Tasman Sea in the 1770s as part of his first voyage of exploration.
The Arctic Archipelago, also known as the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, groups together all islands lying to the north of the Canadian continental mainland excluding Greenland.
The Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) is a mid-ocean ridge, a divergent tectonic plate or constructive plate boundary located along the floor of the Atlantic Ocean, and part of the longest mountain range in the world. In the North Atlantic, it separates the Eurasian and North American plates, and in the South Atlantic, it separates the African and South American plates. The ridge extends from a junction with the Gakkel Ridge northeast of Greenland southward to the Bouvet Triple Junction in the South Atlantic. Although the Mid-Atlantic Ridge is mostly an underwater feature, portions of it have enough elevation to extend above sea level. The section of the ridge that includes Iceland is known as the Reykjanes Ridge. The ridge has an average spreading rate of about 2.5 centimetres (0.98 in) per year.
The Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument is a group of unorganized, mostly unincorporated United States Pacific Island territories managed by the Fish and Wildlife Service of the United States Department of the Interior and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration of the United States Department of Commerce. These remote refuges are "the most widespread collection of marine- and terrestrial-life protected areas on the planet under a single country's jurisdiction". They protect many endemic species including corals, fish, shellfish, marine mammals, seabirds, water birds, land birds, insects, and vegetation not found elsewhere.
The Oyster Rocks are a close pair of small granite islands, with a combined area of about 6 ha, in south-eastern Australia. They are part of Tasmania’s Tin Kettle Island Group, lying in eastern Bass Strait between Flinders and Cape Barren Islands in the Furneaux Group. They are a conservation area. The islands are part of the Franklin Sound Islands Important Bird Area, identified as such by BirdLife International because it holds over 1% of the world populations of six bird species.
Night Island is a small granite island, with an area of 2.59 ha, is part of the Preservation Island Group, lying in eastern Bass Strait south of Cape Barren Island in the Furneaux Group, Tasmania, Australia.
Key Island, with the adjacent Key Reef, is a granite island, with an area of 6 ha, in south-eastern Australia. It is part of Tasmania’s Long Island Group, lying in eastern Bass Strait west of Cape Barren Island in the Furneaux Group. The ketch 'Grace Victoria Holyman' was wrecked near here in Thunder & Lightning Bay in 1897.
Tin Kettle Island is a long, sandy island, with an area of 176 ha, in south-eastern Australia. It is part of Tasmania’s Tin Kettle Island Group, lying in eastern Bass Strait between Flinders and Cape Barren Islands in the Furneaux Group. The island is joined at low tide to nearby Anderson and Little Andersons by extensive intertidal mudflats. The island is farmed, mainly cattle grazing. The island is part of the Franklin Sound Islands Important Bird Area, identified as such by BirdLife International because it holds over 1% of the world populations of six bird species.
Puncheon Island is an island, with an area of 17.56 ha, in south-eastern Australia. It is part of Tasmania’s Vansittart Island Group, lying in eastern Bass Strait between Flinders and Cape Barren Islands in the Furneaux Group. It is surrounded by mudflats. It is privately owned and used for farming. It has been extensively burnt and grazed.
Pelican Island is an island, with an area of 6.8 ha including an associated reef joined to it at low tide, in south-eastern Australia. It is part of Tasmania’s Vansittart Island Group, lying in eastern Bass Strait between Flinders and Cape Barren Islands in the Furneaux Group. Until 1984 it was leased for grazing. The island is part of the Franklin Sound Islands Important Bird Area, identified as such by BirdLife International because it holds over 1% of the world populations of six bird species.
The Southern Ocean, also known as the Antarctic Ocean or the Austral Ocean, and the "Southern Icy Ocean".</ref> comprises the southernmost waters of the World Ocean, generally taken to be south of 60° S latitude and encircling Antarctica. As such, it is regarded as the second-smallest of the five principal oceanic divisions: smaller than the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Oceans but larger than the Arctic Ocean. This oceanic zone is where cold, northward flowing waters from the Antarctic mix with warmer subantarctic waters.
The borders of the oceans are the limits of the Earth's oceanic waters. The definition and number of oceans can vary depending on the adopted criteria.
The Marshall Archipelago is an extensive group of large ice-covered islands within the Sulzberger Ice Shelf off Antarctica. Several of the islands were discovered and plotted by the Byrd Antarctic Expeditions and by the United States Antarctic Service (1939–41), all led by Admiral Richard E. Byrd. The full extent of the archipelago was mapped by the United States Geological Survey from surveys and U.S. Navy air photos (1959–65). The name was proposed by Admiral Byrd for General of the Army George C. Marshall, who made financial contributions as a private individual and also, on the same basis, provided advisory assistance to the Byrd expedition of 1933–35.
The Chalky, Big Green and Badger Island Groups Important Bird Area lies in eastern Bass Strait west of Flinders in the Furneaux Group of Tasmania, Australia. Its component islands collectively form a 21 km2 Important Bird Area (IBA) which supports more than 1% of the global populations of the Cape Barren goose, black-faced cormorant, little penguin, white-faced storm-petrel, short-tailed shearwater, Pacific gull, and sooty oystercatcher. It also supports significant numbers of fairy terns.
Musicians Seamounts are a chain of seamounts in the Pacific Ocean, north of the Hawaiian Ridge. There are about 65 seamounts, some of which are named after musicians. These seamounts exist in two chains, one of which has been attributed to a probably now-extinct hotspot called the Euterpe hotspot. Others may have formed in response to plate tectonics associated with the boundary between the Pacific Plate and the former Farallon Plate.