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|Style||Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu, Judo|
|Child hold(s)||Body Triangle|
Back mount, or rear mount, is a dominant grappling position where the practitioner is behind his opponent in such a way that he has control of his opponent. Ideally, the opponent will be recumbent (prone), while the practitioner centers his weight atop the opponent, either in a seated or recumbent posture. Many consider back mount to be a very dominant, perhaps even the most advantageous position in grappling. This is due to the practitioner being able to attack with strikes and submissions with the opponent having a severely limited ability to see incoming attacks and defend against them.
A strike is a directed physical attack with either a part of the human body or with an inanimate object intended to cause blunt trauma or penetrating trauma upon an opponent.
A submission is a combat sports term for yielding to the opponent, and hence resulting in an immediate defeat. The submission - then also referred to as a "tap out" or "tapping out" - is often performed by visibly tapping the floor or the opponent with the hand or in some cases with the foot, to signal the opponent and/or the referee of the submission. In some combative sports where the fighter has cornermen, the cornerman can also stop the fight by "throwing in the towel", which may count as a submission.
In order to prevent the opponent from escaping the back mount, the position must have stability. This is generally accomplished by utilizing the practitioner’s own legs to hook the inside of the opponent's thighs, (commonly called hooks) while holding the opponent's neck or arms to maintain chest-to-back contact. Such a position can be very difficult to escape. The opponent may attempt to roll, but the hooks and chest-to-back contact will allow the practitioner to roll with the opponent. The practitioner that has the back mount is in a very advantageous position. He can strike with punches, elbows and headbutts, or alternatively attempt a rear naked choke, various collar-chokes as well as armlocks.
Hooks is a term in grappling martial arts that generally refers to the use of careful positioning of a practitioner’s feet and legs to control and manipulate the movement or position of their opponent. One of the most common uses of hooks is in the back mount position to prevent escape. However, a practitioner may alternatively use hooks to defend, sweep, or attack their opponent.
An elbow strike is a strike with the point of the elbow, the part of the forearm nearest to the elbow, or the part of the upper arm nearest to the elbow. Elbows can be thrown sideways similarly to a hook, upwards similarly to an uppercut, downwards with the point of the elbow, diagonally or in direct movement and in several other ways like during a jump etc.
A headbutt is a targeted strike with the head, typically involving the use of robust parts of the headbutter's cranium as the area of impact. The most effective headbutts strike the most sensitive areas of an opponent, such as the nose, using the stronger bones in the forehead or the back of the skull. It can be considered a quick, very effective but risky maneuver, as a misplaced strike can cause greater injury to the person delivering the headbutt than to the person receiving it. A headbutt does not have to be against another person's head, although this is usually the nearest and easiest target.
It is nearly impossible to attack an opponent who is mounted directly behind one's back. If the opponent does not have the legs hooked or chest to back contact, it is possible to roll into the mount; although this does not improve the positioning much, it is at least possible to see and block the opponent's strikes from the mounted position. If the opponent has the legs hooked in, those hooks need to be removed, for instance by pulling them out using the arms. Once they have been removed, there is an increase in mobility, making it possible to wriggle into the mount, or try to turn and entangle a leg into a half guard. Using the arms to pull out the hooks, however, leaves one's neck open to the rear naked choke. There are effective positional methods of escaping the back mount.
The mount, or mounted position, is a dominant ground grappling position, where one combatant sits on the other combatants torso with the face pointing towards the opponent's head. This is a favorable position for the top combatant in several ways. The top combatant can generate considerable momentum for strikes to the head of the opponent, while the bottom combatant is restricted by the ground and by the combatant on top. Other advantages include various chokeholds and joint locks that can be applied from the top. The bottom combatant will usually look to sweep the opponent or transition into a better position such as the guard.
A grappling position refers to the positioning and holds of combatants engaged in grappling. Combatants are said to be in a neutral position if neither is in a more favourable position. If one party has a clear advantage such as in the mount they are said to be in a "dominant position". Conversely, the other party is considered to be in an inferior position, in that case sometimes called the "under mount".
Half guard is a ground grappling position where one combatant is lying on the other, with the bottom combatant having one leg entangled. Sometimes the bottom combatant is said to be in half guard, while the top combatant is in a half mount. In wrestling and catch wrestling half mount is called Turk ride. The half guard is the position that is in between a full guard and side control or full mount. The combatant on top will try to untangle the leg and obtain side control or mount, while the bottom combatant will try to transition into a full guard or alternatively attempt a sweep or submission. The combatant on top is however in a better position, and can strike or attempt submission holds, although not as well as in side control.
To remove chest to back contact, the mounted opponent can grab an attacker's wrist with two hands and move it over his head to the other side. If the mounted opponent is much larger/stronger than the mounting fighter, he may actually be able to stand up and slam his opponent into a nearby wall or fall backwards onto his back (and opponent). Doing this with enough force may knock the wind out of the dominant opponent, or at least enable one to break free.
Another standard escape involves the mounted opponent touching his head to the ground to temporarily prevent against a choke while also attempting to roll into the dominant opponent's guard. Alternatively, while basing with the head on the ground, the mounted opponent can use his/her legs or arms to remove one of the hooks to make rolling into the guard easier.
If the mounting opponent has their ankles crossed while holding the rear mount (similar to the positioning in closed guard), the opponent being mounted can use a Figure 4 leglock to apply a submission against the dominant fighter. This can result in a tapout or possible injury, depending on the circumstances.Generally, opponents skilled in ground fighting will not cross their ankles or not cross them long enough to allow this to happen.
A figure-four is a Catch wrestling term for a joint-lock that resembles the number "4". A keylock or toe hold can be referred to as a figure-four hold, when it involves a figure-four formation with the legs or arms. If the figure-four involves grabbing the wrists with both hands, it is called a double wrist lock; known as kimura in MMA circles. A figure-four hold done with the legs around the neck and (usually) arm of an opponent is called figure-four (leg-)choke, better known as a triangle choke these days, and is a common submission in modern mixed martial arts, Submission wrestling and Brazilian jiu jitsu, and of course Catch wrestling from where it originates. The leg figure-four choke is also part of Japanese martial arts, where it is known as Sankaku-Jime.
Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu is a martial art and combat sport system that focuses on grappling with particular emphasis on ground fighting. Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu was developed from Kodokan judo ground fighting (newaza) fundamentals that were taught by a number of Japanese individuals including Takeo Yano, Mitsuyo Maeda, Soshihiro Satake, and Isao Okano. Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu eventually came to be its own defined combat sport through the innovations, practices, and adaptation of judo.
Professional wrestling holds include a number of set moves and pins used by performers to immobilize their opponents or lead to a submission. This article covers the various pins, stretches and transition holds used in the ring. Some wrestlers use these holds as their finishing maneuvers, often nicknaming them to reflect their character or persona. Moves are listed under general categories whenever possible.
The guard is a ground grappling position in which one combatant has their back to the ground while attempting to control the other combatant using their legs. In pure grappling combat sports, the guard is considered an advantageous position, because the bottom combatant can attack with various joint locks and chokeholds, while the top combatant's priority is the transition into a more dominant position, a process known as passing the guard. In the sport of mixed martial arts, as well as hand-to-hand combat in general, it is possible to effectively strike from the top in the guard, even though the bottom combatant exerts some control. There are various types of guard, with their own advantages and disadvantages.
A pinfall is a victory condition in various forms of professional wrestling that is met by holding (pinning) an opponent's shoulders on the wrestling mat, usually until the referee counts to three. In professional wrestling, a pinfall is a common method of winning a match.
A triangle choke, or sankaku-jime (三角絞) in judo, is a type of figure-four chokehold that strangles the opponent by encircling the opponent's neck and one arm with the legs in a configuration similar to the shape of a triangle. The technique is a type of lateral vascular restraint that constricts the blood flow from the carotid arteries to the brain.
An armlock in grappling is a single or double joint lock that hyperextends, hyperflexes or hyperrotates the elbow joint or shoulder joint. An armlock that hyperflexes or hyperrotates the shoulder joint is referred to as a shoulder lock, and an armlock that hyperextends the elbow joint is called an armbar. Depending on the joint flexibility of a person, armlocks that hyperrotate the shoulder joint can also hyperrotate the elbow joint, and vice versa.
Clinch fighting is the part of stand-up fighting where the combatants are grappling in a clinch, typically using clinch holds. Clinching the opponent can be used to eliminate the opponent's effective usage of some kicks, punches, and melee weapons. The clinch can also be used as a medium to switch from stand-up fighting to ground fighting by using takedowns, throws or sweeps.
In grappling, side control is a dominant ground grappling position where the top combatant is lying perpendicularly over the face-up bottom combatant in such a way that the legs are free and he or she exerts no control over the combatant on the bottom. The top combatant is referred to as having side control, and is in a stable position, with the other combatant pinned beneath him or her. From there the top combatant can proceed with elbows, knees, various submissions, or transition into a mounted position. It is high priority for the bottom combatant to sweep the top combatant or otherwise escape the position, for instance by entangling the opponent's free legs and trying to obtain the half guard or guard.
A grappling hold commonly referred to simply as a hold and in Japanese referred to as katame-waza is a specific grappling, wrestling, judo or other martial arts grip that is applied to an opponent. Holds are principally used to control the opponent, and to advance in points or positioning. Holds may be categorized by their function such as clinching, pinning or submission, while others can be classified by their anatomical effect: chokehold, joint-lock or compression lock.
In combat sports, the north–south position is a ground grappling position where one combatant is supine, with the other combatant invertedly lying prone on top, normally with his or her head over the bottom combatant's chest. The north–south position is a dominant position, where the top combatant can apply effective strikes such as knee strikes to the head, or easily transition into various grappling holds or more dominant positions. Transitioning into side control can be done by first switching into a particular hold known as ushiro-kesa-gatame (後袈裟固) or reverse scarf hold, where the chest points to the side, and the opponent's arm is controlled similarly to kesa-gatame. The north–south choke is employed exclusively from this position.
Knee-on-stomach, or knee-on-belly, knee-on-chest, knee-ride, knee mount, is a dominant ground grappling position where the top combatant places a knee on the bottom combatant's torso, and usually extends the other leg to the side for balance. This position is typically obtained from side control, simply by rising up slightly and putting a knee on the opponent's stomach or chest.
The crucifix position is a ground grappling position that involves being perpendicularly behind the opponent, chest against back, and controlling the opponent's arms. One of the opponent's arms is controlled using the legs, and the other using the arms, hence effectively putting the opponent in a position resembling a crucifix. This position allows for elbow strikes to the head, or if the opponent is wearing a gi, it allows for a collar strangle called the crucifix choke. It is also possible to have the crucifix position in such a way that a crucifix neck crank can be applied.
Tate-Shiho-Gatame (縦四方固) is one of the seven mat holds, Osaekomi-waza, of Kodokan Judo. In grappling terms, it is categorized as a mounted position.
A sweep is either of two categories of martial arts techniques. From standing, sweeps are throws or takedowns that primarily use the legs to attack an opponent's legs. On the ground, sweeps are techniques for reversing a grappling position.
The Guillotine, is an amateur wrestling move named after the decapitation device. It was developed in the 1920s by Cornell 1928 NCAA champion Ralph Leander Lupton. It is mostly taught in high schools. It is a pinning move that is deployed from upper referee position. It uses pain to force an opponent to go to their back. It is a combination of leg riding and an open side hook. In mixed martial arts and submission grappling, it is sometimes referred to as the Twister and has been taught extensively by Eddie Bravo in his 10th planet jiu-jitsu system. It is not to be confused with the guillotine choke, a move from the front headlock position that is used in submission grappling.
A Body Triangle also known as a Figure-four body lock, is a technique in grappling that is employed from the back, back mount, or less frequently from the closed guard, whose purpose is to securely lock the practitioner’s opponent in position. This technique is very similar to one of the four forbidden techniques in Judo, the Do-Jime or Trunk hold. The main characteristic of the Body Triangle that distinguishes it from hooks is the commitment to the position, i.e. once executed the position is difficult to escape; however, it also severely limits the offensive options of the practitioner employing it.
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