Bahlul Lodi

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Bahlul Khan Lodi
Coin of Bahlul Lodi.jpg
Billon Tanka of 80 ratti of Bahlul Lodi
Sultan of the Lodi dynasty
Reign19 April 1451– 12 July 1489
Coronation 19 April 1451
Predecessor Alam Shah
Successor Sikandar Lodi
Bornc. 1406
Multan, Timurid Empire (modern Multan, Punjab, Pakistan)
Died12 July 1489
SpouseShams Khatun
Bibi Ambha
Bibi Sitti Maghula
House Lodi dynasty

Bahlul Khan Lodi (died 12 July 1489) was the chief of the Pashtun Lodi tribe. [1] Founder of Lodi dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate [2] upon the abdication of the last claimant from the previous Sayyid rule. [3] Bahlul became sultan of the dynasty on 19 April 1451 [4] (855 AH).

Pashtuns ethnic group belonging to Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India

The Pashtuns, historically known as ethnic Afghans and Pathans, are an Iranian ethnic group who mainly live in Pakistan and Afghanistan in South-Central Asia. They speak the Pashto language and adhere to Pashtunwali, which is a traditional set of ethics guiding individual and communal conduct. The ethnogenesis of the Pashtun ethnic group is unclear but historians have come across references to various ancient peoples called Pakthas (Pactyans) between the 2nd and the 1st millennium BC, who may be their early ancestors. Their history is mostly spread amongst the present-day countries of Afghanistan and Pakistan, centred on their traditional seat of power in that region.

Lodi or Lodhi is a sub-group of the Ghilzai tribe of Pashtuns of Afghanistan and Pakistan.

Lodi dynasty dynasty in northern India from 1451 to 1526

The Lodi dynasty was an Afghan dynasty that ruled the Delhi Sultanate from 1451 to 1526. It was the last dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate, and was founded by Bahlul Khan Lodi when he replaced the Sayyid dynasty.

Contents

Early life

Bahlul's grandfather, Malik Bahram Lodhi, was a Pashtun from Multan, he took service under the governor of Multan, Malik Mardan Daulat. Malik Bahram had a total of about five sons. His eldest son, Malik Sultan Shah Lodi, later served under the Sayyid dynasty ruler Khizr Khan and distinguished himself by killing in the battle later's worst enemy Mallu Iqbal Khan. He was rewarded with the title of Islam Khan and in 1419 appointed the governor of Sirhind. Bahlul, the son of Malik Kala, the younger brother of Malik Sultan was married to Malik Sultan's daughter.

Multan City in Punjab

Multan is a city in Punjab, Pakistan. Located on the banks of the Chenab River, Multan is Pakistan's 7th largest city, and is the major cultural and economic centre of southern Punjab.

Sayyid dynasty dynasty

The Sayyid dynasty was the fourth dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate, with four rulers ruling from 1414 to 1451. Founded by Khizr Khan a former governor of Multan, they succeeded the Tughlaq dynasty and ruled the sultanate until they were displaced by the Lodi dynasty. Members of the dynasty derived their title, Sayyid, or the descendants of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad, based on the claim that they belonged to his lineage through his daughter Fatima, and son-in-law and cousin Ali.

Khizr Khan 25th Sultan of the Delhi Sultanate and 1st from the Sayyid dynasty

Sayyid Khizr Khan ibn Malik Sulaiman was the founder of the Sayyid dynasty, the ruling dynasty of the Delhi sultanate, in northern India soon after the invasion of Timur and the fall of the Tughlaq dynasty.

In his youth, Bahlul was involved in the trading of horses and once sold his finely bred horses to the Sayyid dynasty Sultan Mohammad Shah. As a payment he was granted a pargana and raised to the status of amir. After the death of Malik Sultan, he became the governor of Sirhind. He was allowed to add Lahore to his charge. Once, Sultan Muhammad Shah asked for his help when the Malwa Sultan Mahmud Shah I invaded his territory. Bahlul joined the imperial army with 20,000 mounted soldiers. By his cleverness, he was able to project himself as a victor over the army of the Malwa Sultan and Sultan Muhammad Shah conferred on him the title of Khan-i-Khanan. He also accepted Bahlul's occupation over a large part of Punjab.

In 1443, Bahlul attacked Delhi but he did not succeed. During the reign of last Sayyid ruler Sultan Alam Shah, Bahlul again made another unsuccessful attempt to capture Delhi in 1447. Finally, when Alam Shah retired to Badaun in 1448, a minister of Alam Shah, Hamid Khan invited him to occupy the throne of Delhi. After the voluntary abdication of the throne by Alam Shah, Bahlul Shah ascended the throne of Delhi on 19 April 1451 and adopted the title of Bahlul Shah Ghazi. Alam Shah continued to live in Badaun till his death in July 1478. [5] [6]

Tomb of Bahlol Lodi at Chirag Delhi in Delhi Tomb of Bahlol Lodi.JPG
Tomb of Bahlol Lodi at Chirag Delhi in Delhi

Reign

After ascending to the throne, Bahlul decided to dispose of Hamid Khan. His cousin and brother-in-law Malik Mahmud Khan alias Qutb-ud-din Khan (Governor Of Samana) imprisoned Hamid Khan. [6]

In 1479, Sultan Bahlul Lodi defeated and annexed Sharqi dynasty based at Jaunpur. Bahlul did much to stop rebellions and uprisings in his territories, and extended his holdings over Gwalior, Jaunpur and upper Uttar Pradesh. Just like the previous Delhi Sultans, he kept Delhi the capital of his kingdom. In 1486, he appointed his son, Babrak Shah as viceroy of Jaunpur. In time, this proved to be problematic, as his second son, Nizam Khan (Sikandar Lodi) was named successor, and a power struggle ensued[ citation needed ] upon his death in July 1489. [7] His tomb lies close to the shrine of the noted Sufi saint, Nasiruddin Chirag-e-Delhi, in a locality that goes by his name, 'Chirag Delhi'. [8]

Jaunpur, Uttar Pradesh City in Uttar Pradesh, India

Jaunpur (Hindustani pronunciation: [dʒɔːnpʊr] is a city and a municipal board in Jaunpur district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is located 228 km southeast of state capital Lucknow.

Gwalior Metropolis in Madhya Pradesh, India

Gwalior is a major city in the central Indian state of Madhya Pradesh and one of the Counter-magnet cities. Located 343 kilometres (213 mi) south of Delhi, the capital city of India, 120 kilometres (75 mi) from Agra and 414 kilometres (257 mi) from Bhopal, the state capital, Gwalior occupies a strategic location in the Gird region of India. The city and its fortress have been ruled by several historic northern Indian kingdoms. From the Kachchhapaghatas in the 10th century, Tomars in the 13th century, it was passed on to the Mughal Empire, then to the Maratha in 1754, followed by the Scindia in the 18th century. A study of urban pollution in 2016 found the city to have the highest level of air pollution in India, and the second highest in the world.

Uttar Pradesh State in India

Uttar Pradesh is a state in northern India. With roughly 200 million inhabitants, it is the most populous state in India as well as the most populous country subdivision in the world. It was created on 1 April 1937 as the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh during British rule, and was renamed Uttar Pradesh in 1950. The state is divided into 18 divisions and 75 districts with the capital being Lucknow. The main ethnic group is the Hindavi people, forming the demographic plurality. On 9 November 2000, a new state, Uttarakhand, was carved out from the state's Himalayan hill region. The two major rivers of the state, the Ganga and Yamuna, join at Allahabad (Prayagraj) and then flow as the Ganga further east. Hindi is the most widely spoken language and is also the official language of the state.

Marriages

Bahlul married two times:

See also

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Muhammad Shah or Mohammad Shah may refer to:

The following is a timeline of the history of Delhi, including New Delhi. Changes in ruling nation are in bold, with a flag to represent the country where available.

Shish Gumbad building in India

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References

  1. C.E. Bosworth, The New Islamic Dynasties, (Columbia University Press, 1996), 304.
  2. Catherine B. Asher and Cynthia Talbot, India Before Europe, (Cambridge University Press, 2006), 116.
  3. History & Civics 9, by Sudeshna Sengupta, p126.
  4. Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. pp. 122–125. ISBN   978-9-38060-734-4.
  5. Majumdar, R.C. (ed.) (2006). The Delhi Sultanate, Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, pp.134-36, 139-142
  6. 1 2 Mahajan, V.D. (1991, reprint 2007). History of Medieval India, New Delhi: S. Chand, ISBN   81-219-0364-5, pp.245-51
  7. Sultan Bahlul Khan Lodi Archived 25 May 2014 at the Wayback Machine The Muntakhabu-’rūkh by Al-Badāoni (16th-century historian), Packard Humanities Institute.
  8. Delhi's Valley of Kings The Tribune, 1 March 2004.
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Ala-ud-Din
Sultan of Delhi
1451–1489
Succeeded by
Sikandar Lodi
New dynasty Lodi dynasty
1451–1525