Barons' Letter of 1301

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Barons' Letter, 1301, exemplar A
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Letter A
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Seals A
Barons' Letter, 1301, exemplar B
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Letter B
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Seals B

The Barons' Letter of 1301 was written by seven English earls and 96 English barons to Pope Boniface VIII as a repudiation of his claim of feudal overlordship of Scotland (expressed in the Bull Scimus Fili), and as a defence of the rights of King Edward I of England as overlord of Scotland. It was, however, never sent. The letter survives in two copies, known as A and B, both held in the National Archives at Kew under the reference E 26. Historically they were held amongst the documents in the Exchequer, Treasury of the Receipt department.

Contents

Creation

The occasion of the letter was a meeting of the Parliament of England held at Lincoln. It is addressed to the Pope, referred to as "most Holy Father", and dated from Lincoln on 12 February 1300. [1] The letter explains in its text

At a general Parliament lately summoned at Lincoln by the most serene Lord Edward, by the grace of God, illustrious King of England, the same our Lord the King caused lately to be displayed in our midst and to be explained to us certain Apostolic letters which he had received on your part concerning certain matters affecting the condition and state of the kingdom... [1]

The seals of the signatories to the letter survive in excellent condition. Although they are now detached from the document, they form the earliest contemporary group of true coats of arms, the rules of heraldry having only been established at around the start of the 13th century, and were stated for that reason by Lord Howard de Walden to be of very great value to students of heraldry. [2] Many of the armorials also appear in the near contemporary Falkirk Roll of Arms made before the Battle of Falkirk in 1298 and in the near contemporaneous stained glass shields in Dorchester Abbey, Oxfordshire. [3] Many are also Blazoned in verse in the Roll of Caerlaverock of 1300.

Purpose

The letter was written by English barons (mainly feudal barons and a few barons by writ) as a repudiation to the pope of his claim to feudal overlordship of Scotland, which he had expressed in a papal bull dated 27 June 1299 at Agnani. The bull was addressed to King Edward I of England and it was delivered by Robert Winchelsey, Archbishop of Canterbury at Sweetheart Abbey in Galloway, Scotland, on 26th or 27 August 1300. The bull is preserved in the National Archives at Kew under reference SC 7/6/10.

The king sought the advice of William of Sardinia, a former Dean of Arches to the Archbishop, as to what his response should be, and was presented with various options set out in a letter preserved in the National Archives (C/47/31/15). The Papal bull had been delivered to the king at a sensitive moment, just after the hard-won English victory at the Siege of Caerlaverock Castle over the Scots. Following their defeat at the Battle of Falkirk in 1298 the Scots had appealed to the pope for his protection, yet the English had fought to subject their northern neighbour and were not about to release it from under their control, perhaps only to rise up again against them.[ citation needed ][ clarification needed ]

The French were the real movers of the pope's claim, having suggested the move to him as a means to effect protection of the Scots, then their allies under the Auld Alliance, [4] and were themselves allied with the Scots against the English. An English attack on a kingdom the feudal overlord of which was the pope would be virtually unthinkable in political and religious terms.[ citation needed ] There was thus no question of the English even considering the pope's claim, and the tone of the barons' reply to him is one of anger and open defiance, devoid of almost any of the diplomatic niceties with which the papal bull was replete.[ citation needed ]

In the event, the Barons' Letter was never sent to the pope, as events changed rapidly to such an extent that it appeared superfluous. [5] A letter to the same effect from the king had however been sent to the pope; it is now held in the Vatican Archives with a copy in the National Archives at Kew under reference C 54/118. It was stored away within the archives of the Exchequer, where the two copies of it remained for several centuries until transferred to Public Record Office under the custody of the Master of the Rolls before 1903 [6] and more recently transferred to the National Archives at Kew.

Seals

The letter was composed and sealed at the parliament specially convened for the purpose of replying to the Pope's letter held at Lincoln between 13–20 January 1301. [7] To it were summoned 9 earls and 80 barons, yet 7 earls and 96 barons are recorded in the letter itself as co-authors. Those barons who did not answer the summons sealed the letter later.

The seals appended by hempen cords to Exemplar B were "tricked" (i.e. reproduced by drawing) by Lancaster Herald Nicholas Charles in 1611. [8] He also made a transcript of Exemplar B., which clearly was then in a better state of preservation than today. [9] Whilst his drawings provide much detail which is otherwise difficult to see in photographs of the seals themselves, some of his transcripts of the legends are inaccurate. [10]

In 1903 Lord Howard de Walden published Charles' drawings and a facsimile of his transcript, and also two sets of photographic images of the seals from Exemplar A; firstly of all the surviving individual cords of seals in colour (showing one face only of each seal), and secondly black and white images of each constituent seal on the cord, obverse and reverse (where existing). The number of surviving seals (series unspecified) is given as 95 by the National Archives catalogue entry, and as 72 (7 earls and 65 barons) by Brian Timms. Photographic images were published by Brian Timms on his heraldry website. [11]

List of the barons who sealed the letter

# Latinised name in letter (English translation); Standard identification; Legend (obverse/reverse)Cord (A series) on which affixedSeal (obverse, reverse), 1904 photo (A series); 1611 drawing (B series)Arms
1Johannes Comes Warenne (John Earl Warenne); John de Warenne, Earl of Surrey; S(IGILLUM) JOH(ANN)IS DE WARENNIA COMITIS DE SURREIA / SIGILLUM JOHANNIS COMITIS DE WARENNIA
Cord 1 BaronsLetter1301ACord1.JPG
Cord 1
VarenneJohn.jpg
John of Varenne.jpg
Arms of John de Warenne, 6th Earl of Surrey (d.1304).svg
2Thomas Comes Lancastrie (Thomas Earl of Lancaster) – Thomas, 2nd Earl of Lancaster; S(IGILLUM) THOM(A)E COMITIS LANCAST LEYCESTRIE ET DE FERRARIIS
Cord 1 BaronsLetter1301ACord1.JPG
Cord 1
ThomasOfLancaster1301p.jpg
ThomasDeLancaster1301d.JPG
Coat of arms of Thomas, 2nd Earl of Lancaster.svg
3Radulphus de Monte Hermerii Comes Gloucestr & Hertford (Ralph de Monthermer Earl of Gloucester & Hertford); Ralph de Monthermer, 1st Baron Monthermer; S(IGILLUM) (T?) RADULFI DE MONTE HERMERII COM(ITIS) GLOUERNIE ET HERTFORD / S RADULFI DE MONTE HERMERII COM(ITIS) GLOUERNIE ET HERTF
Cord 2 BaronsLetter1301ACord2.JPG
Cord 2
Ralph3.jpg Ralph4.jpg
RalphDeMonthermer1301d.jpg
Monthermar.svg
4Humfridus de Bohun Comes Hereford & Essex & Constabulari Anglie (Humfrey de Bohun Earl of Hereford & Essex & Constable of England); Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford; S(IGILLUM) H DE BOHUN COMITIS HEREFORD ET CONSTABULAR(II) ANGL(IAE) / S(IGILLUM) HUMFRIDI D3E BOHUN COMITIT HEREFORDIE ET ESSEXIE
Cord 2 BaronsLetter1301ACord2.JPG
Cord 2
Humfry4.jpg Humfry3.jpg
HumphreyDeBohun1301d.jpg
Arms of the House of de Bohun.svg
5Rogerus Bigo Comes Norff' & Marescallus Anglie (Roger Bigod Earl of Norfolk & Marshall of England); Roger Bigod, 5th Earl of Norfolk; SIGILLUM ROGERI BIGOD (seal of Roger Bigod) Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
NeverAffixedLacuna.JPG Bigod.jpg
NeverAffixedLacuna.JPG RogerBigod1301d.jpg
Blason Guillaume le Marechal.svg
6Ricardus Comes Arundell (Richard Earl Arundel); Richard FitzAlan, Earl of Arundel; SIGILLUM RICARDI COMITIS DE ARUNDELL (seal of Richard Earl of Arundell) Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
Richard fitzAlan.jpg NeverAffixedLacuna.JPG
RichardFitzAlan1301d.jpg NeverAffixedLacuna.JPG
Royal Arms of England (1154-1189).svg
7Guido Comes Warrewik (Guy Earl Warwick); Guy de Beauchamp, 10th Earl of Warwick; S(IGILLUM) GWIDONIS DE BELLO CAMPO COM WARREWYK/ S GUIDONIS DE BELLOCAMPO COMITIS WARREWIK (seal of Guy de Beauchamp Earl of Warwick) Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
Guy2.jpg
GuyDeBeauchamp1301d.jpg
Beauchamp.svg
CheckyAzure&OrAChevronErmine.PNG
8Adomarus de Valencia D(omi)n(u)s de Moniniaco (Aylmer de Valence Lord of Moniniaco); Aymer de Valence, 2nd Earl of Pembroke; SIGILLUM ADOMARI DE VALENCE Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
NeverAffixedLacuna.JPG Aymer de Valence, 2nd Earl of Pembroke.jpg
NeverAffixedLacuna.JPG AymerDeValence1301d.jpg
Blason Guillaume de Valence (William of Pembroke).svg
9Will(elmu)s D(omi)n(u)s de Leyborn (William Lord of Leyburn) – William (d. 1309), son of Roger de Leybourne (1215-1271), Governor of Carlisle; [12] S(IGILLUM) WILLIELMI DE LEYBURN Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
NeverAffixedLacuna.JPG Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
NeverAffixedLacuna.JPG WilliamDeLeyburn1301d.jpg
Leybourne arms.svg
10Henricus de Lancastre Dominus de Munemue (Henry of Lancaster Lord of Monmouth); Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
NeverAffixedLacuna.JPG JindrichLancaster.jpg
NeverAffixedLacuna.JPG HenryDeLancaster1301d.jpg
Coats of arms of Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster.svg
11Will(elmu)s le Latimer D(omi)n(u)s de Corby (William le Latimer Lord of Corby); William Latimer, 1st Baron Latimer Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
NeverAffixedLacuna.JPG William Latimer, 1st Baron Latimer.jpg
NeverAffixedLacuna.JPG WilliamLatimer1301d.JPG
LatimerArms.JPG
12Edmundus de Hastingg Dns de Enchimeholmok (Edmund de Hastings, Lord of Enchimeholmok) – Edmund Hastings, 1st Baron Hastings (younger brother of (13) Johannes de Hastinges Dns de Bergaveny) Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
Edmund de Hastings.jpg
Old French Escutcheon.svg
13Johannes de Hastinges Dns de Bergaveny (John de Hastings, Lord of Bergavenny) – John Hastings, 1st Baron Hastings (elder brother of (12) Edmundus de Hastingg Dns de Enchimeholmok) Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
John Hastings, 1st Baron Hastings.jpg
Old French Escutcheon.svg
14Edmundus de Motuomari Dns de Wiggemor (Edmund Mortimer, Lord of Wigmore) – Edmund Mortimer, 2nd Baron Mortimer; S(IGILLUM) EDMUNDI DE MORTUOMARI (seal of Edmund from "the dead sea") Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
NeverAffixedLacuna.JPG Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
NeverAffixedLacuna.JPG EdmundDeMortimer1301d.jpg
Arms of the House of Mortimer.svg
15Fulco filius Warini Dns de Whitington (Fulk, son of Warin, Lord of Whittington) – Fulk IV FitzWarin of Whittington, Shropshire; SIGILLUM FULCONIS FILLII WARINI (seal of Fulk son of Warin) Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
NeverAffixedLacuna.JPG Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
NeverAffixedLacuna.JPG FulkFitzWarin1301d.jpg
Arms of Fitzwarin.svg
16Henricus de Percy, Dns de Topclive (Henry de Percy, Lord of Topcliffe) – Henry Percy, 1st Baron Percy; SIGILLUM HENRICI DE PERCY /SIGILLUM HENRICI DE PERCI Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
Percy2.jpg
HenryDePercy1301d.jpg
Modern arms of Percy.svg
17Theobaldus de Verdon, Dominus de Webbele (Theobald de Verdon, Lord of Weobley); Theobald de Verdon, 1st Baron Verdon Circle - black simple fullpage.svg Theobald Verdon2.jpg Armoiries de Daun 1.svg
18Robertus filus Walteri, Dns de Wodeham (Robert son of Walter, Lord of Wodeham) – Robert FitzWalter, 1st Baron FitzWalter (1247-1326) of Woodham Walter and Little Dunmow, Essex Circle - black simple fullpage.svg RobertFitzWalter1301d.JPG Blason fam uk FitzWalter.svg
19Johes Dns de Sullee (John, Lord of Sudeley) – John Sudeley, 1st Baron Sudeley Circle - black simple fullpage.svg JohnDeSudeley1301d.JPG Old French Escutcheon.svg
20Johannes de Sco Johanne, Dns de Hannak (John St John, Lord of Halnaker, Sussex) Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
John st. John of Halnaker.jpg Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
JohnStJohnHalnaker1301d.JPG JohnStJohnHalSmall1301d.JPG
St. John arms.svg
21Johes de Bello Campo, Dns de Hacche (John de Beauchamp, Lord of Hatch) – John Beauchamp, 1st Baron Beauchamp of Somerset [13] Circle - black simple fullpage.svg Circle - black simple fullpage.svg Old French Escutcheon.svg
22Johannis de Hudleston, Dns de Aneys (John de Hodleston, Lord of Aneys) Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
NeverAffixedLacuna.JPG Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
NeverAffixedLacuna.JPG JohnDeHudleston1301d.JPG
Armoiries de Daun 4.svg
23Willus de Breuhosa Dns de Gower (William de Braose, Lord of Gower) – William de Braose, 2nd Baron Braose Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
William de Braose, 2nd Baron Braose.jpg Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
WilliamDeBraose1301d.JPG WilliamDeBraoseSmall1301d.JPG
William de Braose, coat of arms, Falkirk Roll.svg
24Johannes Botetourte, Dns de Mendesham (John Botetourt, Lord of Mendlesham, Suffolk) – John Botetourt, 1st Baron Botetourt Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
Circle - black simple fullpage.svg Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
Circle - black simple fullpage.svg JohnDeBotetort1301d.JPG
Old French Escutcheon.svg
25Reginaldus de Grey, Dns de Ruthyn (Reynold/Reginald de Grey, Lord of Ruthin) – Reynold Grey, 1st Baron Grey of Wilton Circle - black simple fullpage.svg Circle - black simple fullpage.svg Old French Escutcheon.svg
26Johes de Moeles, Dns de Caudebury (John de Moels, Lord of Cadbury) – John Moels, 1st Baron Moels Circle - black simple fullpage.svg Circle - black simple fullpage.svg Old French Escutcheon.svg
27Johes filius Reginaldi, Dns de Blenleveny (John son of Reginald, Lord of Blaenllynfi); S(IGILLUM) JOHANNIS FILII REGINALDI (seal of John son of Reginald) Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
Circle - black simple fullpage.svg NeverAffixedLacuna.JPG
JohnFitzReginald1301d.jpg NeverAffixedLacuna.JPG
Old French Escutcheon.svg
28Almericus de Sco Amando Dns de Widehaye (Almeric de Saint Amand, Lord of Widehaye)
Cord Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
Cord
NeverAffixedLacuna.JPG Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
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Old French Escutcheon.svg
29Robertus filius Pagani, Dns Lammer (Robert son of Payne, Lord of Lammer); Robert FitzPayne; S(IGILLUM) ROBERTI FILII PAGANI (seal of Robert son of Payne)
Cord Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
Cord
NeverAffixedLacuna.JPG Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
NeverAffixedLacuna.JPG RobertFitzPayne1301d.jpg
Old French Escutcheon.svg
30Thomas Dns de Berkele (Thomas Lord Berkeley) – Thomas de Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley
Cord Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
Cord
NeverAffixedLacuna.JPG Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
NeverAffixedLacuna.JPG ThomasDeBerkeley1301d.JPG
Berkeley arms.svg
31Petrus Corbet, Dns de Cauz (Peter Corbet, Lord of Caus); Sigillum Petri Corbet; Seal of Peter Corbet
Cord Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
Cord
NeverAffixedLacuna.JPG Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
NeverAffixedLacuna.JPG PeterCorbet1301d.JPG
CorbetArms.JPG
32Henricus de Tyes, Dns de Chilton (Henry de Tyes, Lord of Chilton)
Cord Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
Cord
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Old French Escutcheon.svg
33Robtus de Tatteshale, Dns de Bukeham (Robert de Tattershall, Lord of Buckenham)
Cord Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
Cord
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Old French Escutcheon.svg
34Johannes Lovel, Dns de Dacking (John Lovell, Lord of Dacking)
Cord Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
Cord
NeverAffixedLacuna.JPG Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
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Old French Escutcheon.svg
35Hugo de Vere, Dns Swainschaumpis (Hugh de Vere, Lord of Swanscombe) – Hugh de Vere, Baron Vere, son of Robert de Vere, 5th Earl of Oxford
Cord Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
Cord
NeverAffixedLacuna.JPG Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
NeverAffixedLacuna.JPG Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
Old French Escutcheon.svg
36Robtus la Warde, Dns de Alba Aula (Robert la Warde, Lord of Alba Aula)
Cord Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
Cord
NeverAffixedLacuna.JPG Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
NeverAffixedLacuna.JPG Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
Old French Escutcheon.svg
37Johannes le Estraunge, Dns de Cnokyn (John le Strange, Lord of Knockin) – John Strange, 1st Baron Strange of Knockin
Cord Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
Cord
Circle - black simple fullpage.svg Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
Circle - black simple fullpage.svg Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
K-061-Coat of Arms-STRANGE-John le Strange ("Johans le Estrange").png
38Thomas de Multon, Dns de Egremont (Thomas de Multon, Lord of Egremont) – Thomas Multon, 1st Baron Multon of Egremont
Cord Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
Cord
Circle - black simple fullpage.svg Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
Circle - black simple fullpage.svg Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
Old French Escutcheon.svg
39Rogerus de Mortuo Mari, Dns de Penketlyn (Roger de Mortimer, Lord of Pengethly)
Cord Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
Cord
NeverAffixedLacuna.JPG Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
NeverAffixedLacuna.JPG Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
Old French Escutcheon.svg
40Robertus de Clifford, Castellanus de Appelby (Robert de Clifford, Lord of Appleby) – Robert Clifford, 1st Baron Clifford
Cord Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
Cord
NeverAffixedLacuna.JPG Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
NeverAffixedLacuna.JPG Seal RobertDeClifford 1stBaronDeClifford BaronsLetter1301.png
Arms of Clifford.svg
41Willus de Cantilopo, Dns de Ravensthorp (William de Cantelupe, Lord of Ravensthorpe)
Pendant to the Barons' Letter - series B Seal of the Lords de Cantilupe; c.1301. Red Wax; the National Archives, UK. PRO 23-926.png
Pendant to the Barons' Letter - series B
NeverAffixedLacuna.JPG Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
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CantilupeArms WithFessVair.svg
42Brianus filius Alani, Dns de Bedale (Brian son of Alan, Lord of Bedale) – Bryan FitzAlan, Lord FitzAlan
Cord Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
Cord
NeverAffixedLacuna.JPG Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
NeverAffixedLacuna.JPG Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
Old French Escutcheon.svg
43Nicus de Carru, Dns de Mulesford (Nicholas de Carew, Lord of Moulsford) – Nicholas Carew (died 1311)
Cord Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
Cord
NeverAffixedLacuna.JPG Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
NeverAffixedLacuna.JPG Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
Old French Escutcheon.svg
44Johes de Haveringes, Dns de Grafton (John de Havering, Lord of Grafton)
Cord Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
Cord
NeverAffixedLacuna.JPG Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
NeverAffixedLacuna.JPG Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
Arms of John de Havering (d.1309).svg
45Walterus de Teye, Dns de Standgreve (Walter de Teye, Lord of Standgreve)
Cord Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
Cord
NeverAffixedLacuna.JPG Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
NeverAffixedLacuna.JPG Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
Old French Escutcheon.svg
46Walt(er)us de Bello Campo, D(omi)n(u)s de Alcestre ("Walter de Beauchamp, Lord of Alcester") – Walter de Beauchamp (d.1306) of Beauchamp's Court, Alcester in Warwickshire and of Powick in Worcestershire, Steward of the Household to King Edward I. Younger brother of William de Beauchamp, 9th Earl of Warwick. Signed the Letter with his nephew Guy de Beauchamp, 10th Earl of Warwick
Cord Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
Cord
NeverAffixedLacuna.JPG Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
NeverAffixedLacuna.JPG Seal WalterDeBeauchamp LordOfAlcester BaronsLetter 1301.png
Arms BeauchampOfPowick.svg
47Alanus la Zuche, Dns de Assheby (Alan la Zouche, Lord of Ashby) – Alan la Zouche, 1st Baron Zouche of Ashby
Cord Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
Cord
NeverAffixedLacuna.JPG Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
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Arms of Alan la Zouche, 1st Baron la Zouche of Ashby (d.1314).svg
48Eustachius, Dns de Hacche (Eustace, Lord of Hacche)
Cord Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
Cord
NeverAffixedLacuna.JPG Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
NeverAffixedLacuna.JPG Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
Old French Escutcheon.svg
49Wills Martyn, Dns de Camesio (William Martin, Lord of Kemeys)
Cord Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
Cord
NeverAffixedLacuna.JPG Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
NeverAffixedLacuna.JPG Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
Old French Escutcheon.svg
50Johannes, Dns de Segrave (John, Lord of Segrave) – John Segrave, 2nd Baron Segrave
Cord Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
Cord
NeverAffixedLacuna.JPG Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
NeverAffixedLacuna.JPG Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
Old French Escutcheon.svg
51Wills de Ferrariis, Dns de Groby (William de Ferrers, Lord of Groby) – William Ferrers, 1st Baron Ferrers of Groby
Cord Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
Cord
NeverAffixedLacuna.JPG Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
NeverAffixedLacuna.JPG Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
Old French Escutcheon.svg
52Robtus de Tonny, Dns de Castro Matill (Robert de Tony, Lord of Castle Matill)
Cord Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
Cord
NeverAffixedLacuna.JPG Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
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Old French Escutcheon.svg
53Adam, Dns Welle (Adam, Lord of Well)
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Cord
NeverAffixedLacuna.JPG Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
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Old French Escutcheon.svg
54Gilbertus Pecche, Dns de Corby (Gilbert Peche, Lord of Corby)
Cord Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
Cord
NeverAffixedLacuna.JPG Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
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Pecche arms.svg
55Wills Paynell, Dns de Tracyngton (William Paynell, Lord of Tracyngton)
Cord Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
Cord
NeverAffixedLacuna.JPG Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
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Old French Escutcheon.svg
56Simon, Dns de Monte Acuto (Simon, Lord Montagu)
Cord Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
Cord
NeverAffixedLacuna.JPG Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
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Old French Escutcheon.svg
57Petrus de Malolacu, Dns de Musgreve (Peter de Mauley, Lord of Mulgrave) – Peter Mauley, 1st Baron Mauley
Cord Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
Cord
Circle - black simple fullpage.svg Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
Circle - black simple fullpage.svg Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
Old French Escutcheon.svg
58Ranulphus de Nevill, Dns de Raby (Ranulph de Nevill, Lord of Raby) – Ranulph Neville, 1st Baron Neville (1262–1331)
Cord Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
Cord
NeverAffixedLacuna.JPG Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
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Old French Escutcheon.svg
59Radulphus, Dns de Grendon (Ralph, Lord of Grendon) – Ralph Grendon, 1st Baron Grendon
Cord Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
Cord
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Old French Escutcheon.svg
60Johannes de Mohun, Dns de Dunsterre (John de Mohun, Lord of Dunster); John Mohun III (1269-1330)
Cord Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
Cord
NeverAffixedLacuna.JPG Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
NeverAffixedLacuna.JPG John III de Mohun (1269-1330) Seal BaronsLetter 1301.png
John de Mohun, 2nd Baron Mohun Arms.svg
61Henricus de Pynkeny, Dns de Wedone (Henry de Pinkney, Lord of Wedone)
Cord Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
Cord
Circle - black simple fullpage.svg Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
Circle - black simple fullpage.svg Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
Old French Escutcheon.svg
62Mattheus filius Jonis, Dns de Stokenhame (Matthew son of John, Lord of Stokenhame); Matthew FitzJohn
Cord Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
Cord
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63Thomas, Dns de la Roche (Thomas, Lord of la Roche)
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Cord
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64Thomas de Chaurces, Dns de Norton (Thomas de Chaworth, Lord of Norton)
Cord Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
Cord
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65Robtus de Scales, Dns de Neuseles (Robert de Scales, Lord of Newsells) – Robert Scales, 1st Baron Scales
Cord Circle - black simple fullpage.svg
Cord
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66Thomas de Furnivall, Dns de Shefeold (Thomas de Furnivall, Lord of Sheffield)
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67Bogo de Knovill, Dns de Albomonasterio (Bogo de Knovill, Lord of Albomonasterio)
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68Fulco le Estraunge, Dns de Corsham (Fulk le Strange, Lord of Corsham)
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Cord
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69Hugo Bardolfe, Dns de Wirmegaye (Hugh Bardolf, Lord of Wormegay) – Hugh Bardolf, 1st Baron Bardolf
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Cord
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70Ricardus Talebot, Dns de Eckleswell (Richard Talbot, Lord of Eccleswall) – father of Gilbert Talbot, 1st Baron Talbot (1276-1346)
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Cord
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71Edmundus de Eyncourt, Dns de Thurgerton (Edmund Deincourt, Lord of Thurgarton) – Edmund Deincourt, 1st Baron Deincourt
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72Emundus, Baro Stafford (Edmund, Baron Stafford) – Edmund Stafford, 1st Baron Stafford (1272–1308)
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73Phus, Dns de Kyme (Philip, Lord of Kyme)
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74Jones Pynell, Dns de Otteleye (John Paynel, Lord of Otley)
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75Walterus, Dns de Huntercombe (Walter, Lord of Huntercombe) – Walter de Huntercombe
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76Wills Marescallus, Dns de Hengham (William Marshal, Lord of Hingham)
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Cord
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77Robertus de Monte Alto, Dns de Harwardyn (Robert Montalt, Lord of Harwardyn)
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Cord
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78Hugo Poyntz, Dns de Corimalet (Hugh Poyntz, Lord of Curry Mallet)
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Cord
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79Henricus Tregoz, Dns de Garynges (Henry Tregoz, Lord of Goring)
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80Wills Touchet, Dns de Leuenhales (William Touchet, Lord of Lewenhales) – William Tuchet, 1st Baron Tuchet
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Cord
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81Johannes, Dns de Kingeston (John, Lord of Kingeston)
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82Robertus Hastang, Dns de la Desiree (Robert de Hastang, Lord of la Desiree)
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Cord
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83Walterus, Dns de Faucomberge (Walter, Lord Fauconberg)
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Cord
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84Rogerus le Estraunge, Dns de Cnokyn (Roger le Strange, Lord of Knockin)
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Cord
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85Jones filius Marmeduci, Dns de Hordene (John son of Marmaduke, Lord of Holderness) – John FitzMarmaduke
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86Johannes le Breton, dns de Sporle (John le Breton, Lord of Sporle)
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Cord
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See also

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References

  1. 1 2 See the full text on wikisource s:Barons' Letter, 1301 (English); la:s:Baronum epistola, 1301 (Latin)
  2. Howard de Walden, p.xi: "The Barons seals, forming as they do the earliest contemporary series of veritable coats of arms, are of the greatest importance from the heraldic standpoint, and as such are worthy of careful reproduction"
  3. Lamborn, E. A. Greening, The Armorial Glass of the Oxford Diocese (PDF)
  4. Howard de Walden, Introduction, p.ix: "...claiming, on the suggestion of France, the feudal superiority, not for the Scottish but for Pope Boniface himself"
  5. Howard de Walden, Introduction, p.x: "...Owing to the offence given by the French king at this juncture, the Pope's attention was diverted from Scotland, the position ceased to be acute and the bull together with the BL were conveniently shelved by the king"
  6. H de W, p.xi, writing in 1903/4 stated that they were at that time in the custody of the Master of the Rolls, the precursor in function of the Public Record Office which later became the present National Archives at Kew, where the letters are now kept under ref E26, see sources
  7. H de W, Intro., p.ix
  8. Lord Howard de Walden, Some Feudal Lords and their Seals 1301, published 1903, reprinted 1984
  9. Cotton MS Julius C, VII, f.228b, facsimile published in Lord Howard de Walden, Some Feudal Lords and their Seals 1301, 1903, pp.xxii-xxv
  10. Howard de Walden, p.xi & note 1, who notes especially inaccuracies in the transcribed legends from the seals of de Tregoz, de Tony, Kyme, Le Breton and FitzMarmaduke
  11. http://www.briantimms.net/seals/baronsletter/background.htm
  12. Howard de W, p.25
  13. Cokayne, G.E. & Gibbs, Vicary, eds. (1912). The Complete Peerage . 2 (2nd ed.). London: St. Catherine Press. p.  49 n. 'a'.

Text

See the full text on wikisource s:Barons' Letter, 1301 (English); la:s:Baronum epistola, 1301 (Latin).

Sources

Further reading