Canadian Field-Naturalist

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The Canadian Field-Naturalist has been published continuously since 1880, under several names during its early years. For 7 years beginning in 1880, the Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club issued the Transactions of the Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club annually. With volume 2 in 1887, the Transactions became a subtitle of volume 1 of The Ottawa Naturalist, a monthly publication. With volume 3 of The Ottawa Naturalist in 1889 the emphasis changed from local members' reports to national ones, and in 1919 the journal was renamed The Canadian Field-Naturalist (starting with volume 33 which was volume 35 of the Transactions but this subtitle was subsequently dropped). [3]


The Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club was founded in 1879. It is the oldest natural history society in Canada. It has over 1000 members, with interests in all aspects of the natural world, from birds to botany and conservation. [4]

Bird Warm-blooded, egg-laying vertebrates with wings, feathers and beaks

Birds, also known as Aves or avian dinosaurs, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton. Birds live worldwide and range in size from the 5 cm (2 in) bee hummingbird to the 2.75 m (9 ft) ostrich. They rank as the world's most numerically-successful class of tetrapods, with approximately ten thousand living species, more than half of these being passerines, sometimes known as perching birds. Birds have wings which are more or less developed depending on the species; the only known groups without wings are the extinct moa and elephant birds. Wings, which evolved from forelimbs, gave birds the ability to fly, although further evolution has led to the loss of flight in flightless birds, including ratites, penguins, and diverse endemic island species of birds. The digestive and respiratory systems of birds are also uniquely adapted for flight. Some bird species of aquatic environments, particularly seabirds and some waterbirds, have further evolved for swimming.

Botany science of plant life

Botany, also called plant science(s), plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the Ancient Greek word βοτάνη (botanē) meaning "pasture", "grass", or "fodder"; βοτάνη is in turn derived from βόσκειν (boskein), "to feed" or "to graze". Traditionally, botany has also included the study of fungi and algae by mycologists and phycologists respectively, with the study of these three groups of organisms remaining within the sphere of interest of the International Botanical Congress. Nowadays, botanists study approximately 410,000 species of land plants of which some 391,000 species are vascular plants, and approximately 20,000 are bryophytes.

Conservation (ethic) ethic of resource use, allocation, and protection

Conservation's goals include protecting species from extinction, maintaining and restoring habitats, enhancing ecosystem services and protecting biological diversity. A range of values underlie conservation, which can be guided by biocentrism, anthropocentrism, ecocentrism and sentientism. There has recently been a movement towards evidence-based conservation which calls for greater use of scientific evidence to improve the effectiveness of consecration efforts.

Notable members have included:

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  1. "The Canadian Field-Naturalist". Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club. 2012-03-18. Retrieved 2012-08-06.
  2. "The Canadian field-naturalist and its predecessors : a bibliographical survey of 75 years of publication / W. J. Cody & B. Boivin". NRCan Library Catalogue. NRCan. 2011-03-25. Archived from the original on 2012-07-10. Retrieved 2012-08-06.
  3. "About The Canadian Field-Naturalist". 2009-02-19. Retrieved 2012-08-06.
  4. "The Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club". Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club. Retrieved 2012-08-06.

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