|Cave del Predil|
Cave del Predil and Cinque Punte massif
|Province||Province of Udine (UD)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
Cave del Predil (German : Raibl, Slovene : Rabelj) is a frazione subdivision of the comune of Tarvisio in the Province of Udine, in the Friuli-Venezia Giulia region of northeastern Italy.
German is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe. It is the most widely spoken and official or co-official language in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, South Tyrol (Italy), the German-speaking Community of Belgium, and Liechtenstein. It is also one of the three official languages of Luxembourg and a co-official language in the Opole Voivodeship in Poland. The languages which are most similar to German are the other members of the West Germanic language branch: Afrikaans, Dutch, English, the Frisian languages, Low German/Low Saxon, Luxembourgish, and Yiddish. There are also strong similarities in vocabulary with Danish, Norwegian and Swedish, although those belong to the North Germanic group. German is the second most widely spoken Germanic language, after English.
Slovene or Slovenian belongs to the group of South Slavic languages. It is spoken by approximately 2.5 million speakers worldwide, the majority of whom live in Slovenia. It is the first language of about 2.1 million Slovenian people and is one of the 24 official and working languages of the European Union.
"Frazione" is the Italian name given in administrative law to a type of territorial subdivision of a comune; for other administrative divisions, see municipio, circoscrizione, quartiere. It is cognate to the English word fraction, but in practice is roughly equivalent to "parishes" or "wards" in other countries.
The hamlet is located about 15 km (9 mi) south of the Tarvis town centre, in the valley of the Rio del Lago (Seebachtal) between the Montasio and Mangart massifs of the Julian Alps. The parallel road runs further up to the picturesque Lago del Predil and the Sella Nevea mountain pass. An eastern branch-off leads to Predil Pass at the border with Slovenia. A 4,844 m (15,892 ft) long tunnel under the pass, built in 1905 and originally used for water drainage and later for transport of miners and political refugees escaping from Communist Yugoslavia, connects it with Log pod Mangartom.
The Jôf di Montasio is located in the Province of Udine, in the Friuli-Venezia Giulia region of northeastern Italy.
Mangart or Mangrt is a mountain in the Julian Alps, located on the border between Italy and Slovenia. With an elevation of 2,679 metres (8,789 ft), it is the third-highest peak in Slovenia, after Triglav and Škrlatica. It was first climbed in 1794 by the naturalist Franz von Hohenwart. Mangart is also the name of the mountain range between the Koritnica Valley and the Mangart Valley, with the highest peak called Veliki Mangart.
The Julian Alps are a mountain range of the Southern Limestone Alps that stretch from northeastern Italy to Slovenia, where they rise to 2,864 m at Mount Triglav, the highest peak in Slovenia and of the former Yugoslavia. They are named after Julius Caesar, who founded the municipium of Cividale del Friuli at the foot of the mountains. A large part of the Julian Alps is included in Triglav National Park. The second highest peak of the range, the 2,775 m high Jôf di Montasio, lies in Italy.
The lead and zinc mining community was first mentioned in a 1320 deed issued by the Habsburg duke Frederick the Fair, at the time when the surrounding estates belonged to the Carinthian possessions held by the Prince-Bishopric of Bamberg. The bishops also gained control over the trade route across the Nevea mountain pass leading to the city of Cividale del Friuli, the importance of which however diminuished, after the Friulian lands in the south had been conquered by the Republic of Venice by 1420. Bamberg finally sold its remote Carinthian estates to Empress Maria Theresa in 1759, who incorporated it into the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy.
A mining community, also known as a mining town or a mining camp, is a community that houses miners. Mining communities are usually created around a mine or a quarry.
The House of Habsburg, also called the House of Austria, was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1438 until their extinction in the male line in 1740. The house also produced emperors and kings of the Kingdom of Bohemia, Kingdom of England, Kingdom of Germany, Kingdom of Hungary, Kingdom of Croatia, Kingdom of Illyria, Second Mexican Empire, Kingdom of Ireland, Kingdom of Portugal, and Kingdom of Spain, as well as rulers of several Dutch and Italian principalities. From the 16th century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Austrian and Spanish branches. Although they ruled distinct territories, they nevertheless maintained close relations and frequently intermarried.
Frederick the Handsome or the Fair, from the House of Habsburg, was Duke of Austria and Styria from 1308 as Frederick I as well as King of Germany from 1314 as Frederick III until his death.
With the Duchy of Carinthia, Cave del Predil until World War I was part of Austria-Hungary, and by the 1919 Treaty of Saint-Germain came under control of the Kingdom of Italy. A local museum covers the military history of the Alpine campaigns from the Napoleonic Wars to World War II. Under Italian control the mines, temporarily managed by Bernardino Nogara, operated until 1991; since then, the population has sharply decreased.
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a constitutional monarchy in Central and Eastern Europe from 1867 to 1918. It was formed by giving a new constitution to the Austrian Empire, which devolved powers on Austria (Cisleithania) and Hungary (Transleithania) and placed them on an equal footing. It broke apart into several states at the end of World War I.
The Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye was signed on 10 September 1919 by the victorious Allies of World War I on the one hand and by the Republic of German-Austria on the other. Like the Treaty of Trianon with Hungary and the Treaty of Versailles with Germany, it contained the Covenant of the League of Nations and as a result was not ratified by the United States but was followed by the US–Austrian Peace Treaty of 1921.
The Italian Front or Alpine Front was a series of battles at the border between Austria-Hungary and Italy, fought between 1915 and 1918 in World War I. Following the secret promises made by the Allies in the Treaty of London, Italy entered the war in order to annex the Austrian Littoral and northern Dalmatia, and the territories of present-day Trentino and South Tyrol. Although Italy had hoped to gain the territories with a surprise offensive, the front soon bogged down into trench warfare, similar to the Western Front fought in France, but at high altitudes and with very cold winters. Fighting along the front displaced much of the civilian population, of which several thousand died from malnutrition and illness in Italian and Austrian refugee camps. The Allied victory at Vittorio Veneto, the disintegration of Austria-Hungary and the Italian capture of Trento, Bolzano and Trieste ended the military operations.
The Duchy of Carinthia was a duchy located in southern Austria and parts of northern Slovenia. It was separated from the Duchy of Bavaria in 976, and was the first newly created Imperial State after the original German stem duchies.
Friuli is an area of Northeast Italy with its own particular cultural and historical identity containing 600,000 Friulians. It comprises the major part of the autonomous region Friuli-Venezia Giulia, i.e. the administrative provinces of Udine, Pordenone, and Gorizia, excluding Trieste.
Tarvisio is a comune in the Province of Udine, the northeastern part of the autonomous Friuli Venezia Giulia region in Italy.
Bovec is a town in the Littoral region in northwestern Slovenia, close to the border with Italy. It is the central settlement of the Municipality of Bovec.
Sella Nevea, at an altitude of 1,195 m (3,921 ft), is a high mountain pass in the Julian Alps, in the Friuli-Venezia Giulia region of northeast Italy. Sella Nevea also lends its name to a frazione of the Chiusaforte municipality and the nearby Kanin-Sella Nevea Ski Resort.
Malborghetto Valbruna is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Udine in the Italian region Friuli-Venezia Giulia.
Moggio Udinese is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Udine in the Italian region Friuli-Venezia Giulia.
Pontebba is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Udine in the Italian region Friuli-Venezia Giulia.
Plöcken Pass is a high mountain pass in the Carnic Alps mountain range at the border between the Austrian state of Carinthia and the Friuli-Venezia Giulia region of Italy. It links the market town of Kötschach-Mauthen in the Carinthian Gail Valley with the Paluzza municipality in the Carnia region of Friuli.
The Predil Pass or Predel Pass is a high mountain pass on the border between Italy and Slovenia.
Arnoldstein is a market town in the district of Villach-Land in the Austrian state of Carinthia.
Bad Bleiberg is a market town in the district of Villach-Land, in Carinthia, Austria. Originally a mining area, especially for lead, Bad Bleiberg today due to its hot springs is a spa town.
The Burg Griffen is a castle on a 130m/427 ft-high limestone mountain above the town of Griffen in the Austrian state of Carinthia.
Lago del Predil is a lake near Cave del Predil, part of the Tarvisio municipality in the Province of Udine, in the Italian region of Friuli-Venezia Giulia.
The Slizza (Italian) or Gailitz is an Alpine torrent in Italy and Austria, a right tributary of the Gail river.
The Kluže Fortress is a fort near the town of Bovec in northwestern Slovenia.
The Patria del Friuli was the territory under the temporal rule of the Patriarch of Aquileia and one of the ecclesiastical states of the Holy Roman Empire. In 1420, the Republic of Venice acquired it, but it continued to be ruled for some time under its own laws and customs.
The Italian Julian Alps are a mountain range that is part of the Italian Alps that extends from Italy to Slovenia.
The Battle of Tarvis from 16 to 17 May 1809, the Storming of the Malborghetto Blockhouse from 15 to 17 May 1809, and the Storming of the Predil Blockhouse from 15 to 18 May saw the Franco-Italian army of Eugène de Beauharnais attacking Austrian Empire forces under Albert Gyulai. Eugène crushed Gyulai's division in a pitched battle near Tarvisio, then an Austrian town known as Tarvis. At nearby Malborghetto Valbruna and Predil Pass, small garrisons of Grenz infantry heroically defended two forts before being overwhelmed by sheer numbers. The Franco-Italian capture of the key mountain passes allowed their forces to invade Austrian Kärnten during the War of the Fifth Coalition. Tarvisio is located in far northeast Italy, near the borders of both Austria and Slovenia.
Fusine in Valromana is a frazione of the comune of Tarvisio in the Province of Udine, in the autonomous Friuli-Venezia Giulia region of northeastern Italy.
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