Census in Myanmar

Last updated

Historical population
Sources: 1872-1983, [1] 2014 [2]

The Burmese census is an official count of the human population in Burma (Myanmar).



The earliest census on record in Burmese history was taken in 1359 in the Pinya Kingdom. The first nationwide census was taken in 1638, and it was followed by two other nationwide censuses in 1784 and 1803. [3] The first modern census was taken in 1891 in the British colonial period. It was carried out in 10-year intervals until 1941. [4] In the post-independence area, the census has been conducted 3 times, in 1973, 1983, and 2014.

Pinya Kingdom

The Pinya Kingdom was the kingdom that ruled Central Myanmar (Burma) from 1313 to 1365. It was the successor state of Myinsaing, the polity that controlled much of Upper Burma between 1297 and 1313. Founded as the de jure successor state of the Pagan Empire by Thihathu, Pinya faced internal divisions from the start. The northern province of Sagaing led by Thihathu's eldest son Saw Yun successfully fought for autonomy in 1315−17, and formally seceded in 1325 after Thihathu's death.

British rule in Burma Historical time period

British rule in Burma lasted from 1824 to 1948, from the Anglo-Burmese wars through the creation of Burma as a Province of British India to the establishment of an independently administered colony, and finally independence. The region under British control was known as British Burma. Various portions of Burmese territories, including Arakan, Tenasserim were annexed by the British after their victory in the First Anglo-Burmese War; Lower Burma was annexed in 1852 after the Second Anglo-Burmese War. The annexed territories were designated the minor province, British Burma, of British India in 1862.

2014 Census

The last census was conducted by the Ministry of Immigration and Population's Department of Population, and was funded by Western donors, at a cost of US$74 million, and supervised by the United Nations Population Fund. [5]

The Ministry of Labour, Immigration and Population administers Myanmar's immigration affairs.

United Nations Population Fund United Nations organization

The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), formerly the United Nations Fund for Population Activities, is a UN organization. The UNFPA says it "is the lead UN agency for delivering a world where every pregnancy is wanted, every childbirth is safe and every young person's potential is fulfilled". Their work involves the improvement of reproductive health; including creation of national strategies and protocols, and birth control by providing supplies and services. The organization has recently been known for its worldwide campaign against child marriage, obstetric fistula and female genital mutilation.

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Demographics of Myanmar

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National Institutes of Health Medical research organization in the United States

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Bago Region Division in Lower, Myanmar

Bago Region is an administrative region of Myanmar, located in the southern central part of the country. It is bordered by Magway Region and Mandalay Region to the north; Kayin State, Mon State and the Gulf of Martaban to the east; Yangon Region to the south and Ayeyarwady Region and Rakhine State to the west. It is located between 46°45'N and 19°20'N and 94°35'E and 97°10'E. It has a population of 4,867,373 (2014).

Magway Region Division in Central, Myanmar

Magway Region is an administrative division in central Myanmar. Magway Region is the second largest of Myanmar's seven divisions, with an area of 44,820 square kilometres (17,306 sq mi). Pa Del Dam(ပဒဲဆည်) is one of the Dam in Aung Lan Township, Magway Division. Capital city and second largest city of the Magway Division is Magway and largest city of the Magway Division is Pakokku.

Sagaing Region Region in Central Northwestern, Myanmar

Sagaing Region is an administrative region of Myanmar, located in the north-western part of the country between latitude 21° 30' north and longitude 94° 97' east. It is bordered by India’s Nagaland, Manipur, and Arunachal Pradesh States to the north, Kachin State, Shan State, and Mandalay Region to the east, Mandalay Region and Magway Region to the south, with the Ayeyarwady River forming a greater part of its eastern and also southern boundary, and Chin State and India to the west. The region has an area of 93,527 km2. In 1996, it had a population of over 5,300,000 while its population in 2012 was 6,600,000. The urban population in 2012 was 1,230,000 and the rural population was 5,360,000. The capital city and largest city of Sagaing Region is Monywa.

The educational system of Myanmar is operated by the government Ministry of Education. Universities and professional institutes from upper Burma and lower Burma are run by two separate entities, the Departments of Higher Education, whose office headquarters are in Yangon and Mandalay respectively. The education system is based on the United Kingdom's system, due to nearly a century of British and Christian presences in Burma. "The first Government high school was founded by the British colonial administration in 1874. Two years later, this Government High School was upgraded and became University College, Rangoon." Nearly all schools are government-operated, but recently, there has been an increase in privately funded schools. Schooling is compulsory until the end of elementary school, probably about 9 years old, while the compulsory schooling age is 15 or 16 at international level.

Yangon Region Region in Lower Myanmar, Myanmar

Yangon Region is an administrative region of Myanmar. Located in the heart of Lower Myanmar, the division is bordered by Bago Region to the north and east, the Gulf of Martaban to the south, and Ayeyarwady Region to the west. Yangon Region is dominated by its capital city of Yangon, the former national capital and the largest city in the country. Other important cities are Thanlyin and Twante. The division is the most developed region of the country and the main international gateway. The division measures 10,170 km2 (3,930 sq mi).

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Dagon Township Township of Yangon in Myanmar

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Yamethin Township Township in Mandalay Region, Burma

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Taungup or Toungup Township is a coastal township of Thandwe District in the Rakhine State of Myanmar. The administrative centre and principal town is Toungup. The only other town is Ma-Ei.

Tanintharyi Region Region in South, Myanmar

Tanintharyi Region is an administrative region of Myanmar, covering the long narrow southern part of the country on the Kra Isthmus. It borders the Andaman Sea to the west and the Tenasserim Hills, beyond which lie Thailand, to the east. To the north is the Mon State. There are many islands off the coast, the large Mergui Archipelago in the southern and central coastal areas and the smaller Moscos Islands off the northern shores. The capital of the division is Dawei (Tavoy). Other important cities include Myeik (Mergui) and Kawthaung. The division covers an area of 43,344.9 km², and had a population of 1,406,434 at the 2014 Census.

Daik-U Township is a township in Bago District in the Bago Region of Burma. The principal town is Daik-U.

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2014 Myanmar Census nationwide census

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Ngathaingchaung Town in Ayeyarwady, Myanmar

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Burmese in Thailand

Burmese in Thailand constitute Thailand's largest migrant population. According to the 2014 Burma Census, 1,418,472 former Burmese residents, including 812,798 men and 605,674 women, were living in Thailand, constituting about 70% of Burma's overseas population. Burmese in Thailand tend to fall into three categories: professional migrants working in the business or professional sectors, laborers working in low-skilled professions, and refugees fleeing conflict.


  1. Maung, M. Ismael Khin (April 1986). The population of Burma: An analysis of the 1973 Census (PDF). East-West Population Institute. ISBN   0866380779.
  2. Population and Housing Census of Myanmar, 2014 Provisional results (PDF). 1. Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar: Department of Population, Ministry of Immigration and Population. August 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 July 2015. Retrieved 27 June 2015.
  3. Harvey, G. E. (1925). History of Burma: From the Earliest Times to 10 March 1824. London: Frank Cass & Co. Ltd. pp. 194, 269–270.
  4. "President U Thein Sein attends the meeting to clarify country-wide census-taking (2014) process". Archived from the original on 23 October 2013. Retrieved 22 October 2013.
  5. "Ethnicity without Meaning, Data without Context" (PDF). Transnational Institute. February 2014.