|‡ Trans-Neptunian dwarf planets are|
A cis-Neptunian object is, literally, any astronomical body found within the orbit of Neptune. [ citation needed ] This includes the icy minor planets known as centaurs and the Neptune trojans.However, the term is typically used for those distant minor planets other than trans-Neptunian objects: that is, all sub-planetary bodies orbiting the Sun at or within the distance of Neptune, but outside the orbit of Jupiter.
Neptune is the eighth and farthest known planet from the Sun in the Solar System. In the Solar System, it is the fourth-largest planet by diameter, the third-most-massive planet, and the densest giant planet. Neptune is 17 times the mass of Earth, slightly more massive than its near-twin Uranus. Neptune is denser and physically smaller than Uranus because its greater mass causes more gravitational compression of its atmosphere. Neptune orbits the Sun once every 164.8 years at an average distance of 30.1 AU (4.5 billion km). It is named after the Roman god of the sea and has the astronomical symbol ♆, a stylised version of the god Neptune's trident.
A distant minor planet, or distant object, is any minor planet found beyond Jupiter in the outer Solar System that is not commonly thought of as an "asteroid". The umbrella term is used by IAU's Minor Planet Center (MPC), which is responsible for the identification, designation and orbit computation of these objects. As of May 2019, the MPC maintains 3708 distant objects in its data base.
A trans-Neptunian object (TNO), also written transneptunian object, is any minor planet in the Solar System that orbits the Sun at a greater average distance than Neptune, which has a semi-major axis of 30.1 astronomical units (AU).
90377 Sedna is a large minor planet in the outer reaches of the Solar System that was, as of 2015, at a distance of about 86 astronomical units (1.29×1010 km; 8.0×109 mi) from the Sun, about three times as far as Neptune. Spectroscopy has revealed that Sedna's surface composition is similar to those of some other trans-Neptunian objects, being largely a mixture of water, methane, and nitrogen ices with tholins. Its surface is one of the reddest among Solar System objects. It is most likely a dwarf planet. Among the eight largest trans-Neptunian objects, Sedna is the only one not known to have a moon.
Scott Sander Sheppard is an American astronomer and a discoverer of numerous moons, comets and minor planets in the outer Solar System.
(148209) 2000 CR105 is a trans-Neptunian object and the tenth-most-distant known object in the Solar System as of 2015. Considered a detached object, it orbits the Sun in a highly eccentric orbit every 3305 years at an average distance of 222 astronomical units (AU).
385571 Otrera, provisional designation 2004 UP10, is a Neptune trojan leading Neptune's orbit in the outer Solar System. It was discovered by American astronomers Scott Sheppard and Chad Trujillo at Las Campanas Observatory on 16 October 2004. It measures approximately 100 kilometers in diameter and was the second such body to be discovered after 2001 QR322.
The scattered disc (or scattered disk) is a distant circumstellar disc in the Solar System that is sparsely populated by icy small solar system bodies, which are a subset of the broader family of trans-Neptunian objects. The scattered-disc objects (SDOs) have orbital eccentricities ranging as high as 0.8, inclinations as high as 40°, and perihelia greater than 30 astronomical units (4.5×109 km; 2.8×109 mi). These extreme orbits are thought to be the result of gravitational "scattering" by the gas giants, and the objects continue to be subject to perturbation by the planet Neptune.
Neptune trojans are bodies that orbit the Sun near one of the stable Lagrangian points of Neptune, similar to the trojans of other planets. They therefore have approximately the same orbital period as Neptune and follow roughly the same orbital path. 22 Neptune trojans are currently known, of which 19 orbit near the Sun–Neptune L4 Lagrangian point 60° ahead of Neptune and three orbit near Neptune's L5 region 60° behind Neptune. The Neptune trojans are termed 'trojans' by analogy with the Jupiter trojans.
2005 TN53 is an inclined Neptune trojan leading Neptune's orbit in the outer Solar System, approximately 80 kilometers in diameter. It was first observed on 7 October 2005, by American astronomers Scott Sheppard and Chad Trujillo at Las Campanas Observatory in the Atacama desert of Chile. It was the third such body to be discovered, and the first with a significant orbital inclination, which showed that the population as a whole is very dynamically excited.
385695 Clete, provisional designation 2005 TO74, is a Neptune trojan, co-orbital with the ice giant Neptune, approximately 97 kilometers (60 miles) in diameter. It was named after Clete, one of the Amazons from Greek mythology. The minor planet was discovered on 8 October 2005, by American astronomers Scott Sheppard and Chad Trujillo at Las Campanas Observatory in Chile. 23 known Neptune trojans have already been discovered.
A plutoid or ice dwarf is a trans-Neptunian dwarf planet, i.e. a body orbiting beyond Neptune that is massive enough to be rounded in shape. The term plutoid was adopted by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) working group Committee on Small Bodies Nomenclature, but was rejected by the IAU working group Planetary System Nomenclature. The term plutoid is not widely used by astronomers, though ice dwarf is not uncommon.
In astronomy, a trojan is a small celestial body that shares the orbit of a larger one, remaining in a stable orbit approximately 60° ahead or behind the main body near one of its Lagrangian points L4 and L5. Trojans can share the orbits of planets or of large moons.
120347 Salacia, provisional designation 2004 SB60, is a trans-Neptunian object in the Kuiper belt, approximately 850 kilometers in diameter. As of 2018, it is located about 44.8 astronomical units from the Sun, and reaches apparent magnitude 20.7 at opposition.
A minor planet is an astronomical object in direct orbit around the Sun that is neither a planet nor exclusively classified as a comet. Before 2006 the International Astronomical Union (IAU) officially used the term minor planet, but during that year's meeting it reclassified minor planets and comets into dwarf planets and small Solar System bodies (SSSBs).
(527604) 2007 VL305, provisional designation 2007 VL305, is an inclined Neptune trojan that shares Neptune's orbit in the L4 Lagrangian point. It was discovered on 4 November 2007, by astronomers Andrew Becker, Andrew Puckett and Jeremy Kubica at the Apache Point Observatory in New Mexico, United State, although images from 2005 have also been recovered. It measures approximately 160 kilometers in diameter and was the sixth Neptune trojan to be discovered. As of 2016, it is 34.1 AU from Neptune.
Detached objects are a dynamical class of minor planets in the outer reaches of the Solar System and belong to the broader family of trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs). These objects have orbits whose points of closest approach to the Sun (perihelion) are sufficiently distant from the gravitational influence of Neptune that they are only moderately affected by Neptune and the other known planets: this makes them appear to be "detached" from the Solar System.
2008 LC18 is a Neptune trojan first observed on 7 June 2008, by American astronomers Scott Sheppard and Chad Trujillo using the Subaru telescope at Mauna Kea Observatories on Hawaii, United States. It was the first object found in Neptune's trailing L5 Lagrangian point and measures approximately 100 kilometers in diameter.
2011 HM102 is the ninth Neptune trojan discovered. It was first observed on 29 April 2011, by the New Horizons KBO Search (268) using the Magellan II (Clay) Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory in Chile. It has the same orbital period as Neptune and orbits at the L5 Lagrangian point about 60 degrees backwards of Neptune.
(316179) 2010 EN65 is a trans-Neptunian object (TNO) orbiting the Sun. However, with a semi-major axis of 30.8 AU, the object is actually a jumping Neptune trojan, co-orbital with Neptune, as the giant planet has a similar semi-major axis of 30.1 AU. The body is jumping from the Lagrangian point L4 into L5 via L3. As of 2016, it is 54 AU from Neptune. By 2070, it will be 69 AU from Neptune.