Detached object

Last updated
Trans-Neptunian objects plotted by their distance and inclination. Objects beyond a distance of 100 AU display their designation.
.mw-parser-output .legend{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}.mw-parser-output .legend-color{display:inline-block;min-width:1.25em;height:1.25em;line-height:1.25;margin:1px 0;text-align:center;border:1px solid black;background-color:transparent;color:black}.mw-parser-output .legend-text{}
Resonant TNO & Plutino

Cubewanos (classical KBO)
Scattered disc object

Detached object TheTransneptunians 500AU.svg
Trans-Neptunian objects plotted by their distance and inclination. Objects beyond a distance of 100  AU display their designation.
   Resonant TNO & Plutino
   Cubewanos (classical KBO)
   Scattered disc object
  Detached object

Detached objects are a dynamical class of minor planets in the outer reaches of the Solar System and belong to the broader family of trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs). These objects have orbits whose points of closest approach to the Sun (perihelion) are sufficiently distant from the gravitational influence of Neptune that they are only moderately affected by Neptune and the other known planets: This makes them appear to be "detached" from the rest of the Solar System, except for their attraction to the Sun. [1] [2]

Contents

In this way, detached objects differ substantially from most other known TNOs, which form a loosely defined set of populations that have been perturbed to varying degrees onto their current orbit by gravitational encounters with the giant planets, predominantly Neptune. Detached objects have larger perihelia than these other TNO populations, including the objects in orbital resonance with Neptune, such as Pluto, the classical Kuiper belt objects in non-resonant orbits such as Makemake, and the scattered disk objects like Eris.

Detached objects have also been referred to in the scientific literature as extended scattered disc objects (E-SDO), [3] distant detached objects (DDO), [4] or scattered–extended, as in the formal classification by the Deep Ecliptic Survey. [5] This reflects the dynamical gradation that can exist between the orbital parameters of the scattered disk and the detached population.

At least nine such bodies have been securely identified, [6] of which the largest, most distant, and best known is Sedna. Those with perihelia far beyond the Kuiper cliff are termed sednoids. As of 2018, there are three known sednoids, Sedna, 2012 VP113 , and Leleākūhonua.

Orbits

Detached objects have perihelia much larger than Neptune's aphelion. They often have highly elliptical, very large orbits with semi-major axes of up to a few hundred astronomical units (AU, the radius of Earth's orbit). Such orbits cannot have been created by gravitational scattering by the giant planets, not even Neptune. Instead, a number of explanations have been put forward, including an encounter with a passing star [7] or a distant planet-sized object, [4] or Neptune itself (which may once have had a much more eccentric orbit, from which it could have tugged the objects to their current orbit) [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] or ejected planets (present in the early Solar System that were ejected). [13] [14] [15]

The classification suggested by the Deep Ecliptic Survey team introduces a formal distinction between scattered-near objects (which could be scattered by Neptune) and scattered-extended objects (e.g. 90377 Sedna) using a Tisserand's parameter value of 3. [5]

The Planet Nine hypothesis suggests that the orbits of several detached objects can be explained by the gravitational influence of a large, unobserved planet between 200 AU and 1200 AU from the Sun and/or the influence of Neptune. [16]

Classification

Detached objects are one of five distinct dynamical classes of TNO; the other four classes are classical Kuiper-belt objects, resonant objects, scattered-disc objects (SDO), and sednoids. Detached objects generally have a perihelion distance greater than 40 AU, deterring strong interactions with Neptune, which has an approximately circular orbit about 30 AU from the Sun. However, there are no clear boundaries between the scattered and detached regions, since both can coexist as TNOs in an intermediate region with perihelion distance between 37 and 40 AU. [6] One such intermediate body with a well determined orbit is (120132) 2003 FY128 .

The discovery of 90377 Sedna in 2003, together with a few other objects discovered around that time such as (148209) 2000 CR105 and 2004 XR190 , has motivated discussion of a category of distant objects that may also be inner Oort cloud objects or (more likely) transitional objects between the scattered disc and the inner Oort cloud. [2]

Although Sedna is officially considered a scattered-disc object by the MPC, its discoverer Michael E. Brown has suggested that because its perihelion distance of 76 AU is too distant to be affected by the gravitational attraction of the outer planets it should be considered an inner-Oort-cloud object rather than a member of the scattered disc. [17] This classification of Sedna as a detached object is accepted in recent publications. [18]

This line of thinking suggests that the lack of a significant gravitational interaction with the outer planets creates an extended–outer group starting somewhere between Sedna (perihelion 76 AU) and more conventional SDOs like 1996 TL66 (perihelion 35 AU), which is listed as a scattered–near object by the Deep Ecliptic Survey. [19]

Influence of Neptune

One of the problems with defining this extended category is that weak resonances may exist and would be difficult to prove due to chaotic planetary perturbations and the current lack of knowledge of the orbits of these distant objects. They have orbital periods of more than 300 years and most have only been observed over a short observation arc of a couple years. Due to their great distance and slow movement against background stars, it may be decades before most of these distant orbits are determined well enough to confidently confirm or rule out a resonance. Further improvement in the orbit and potential resonance of these objects will help to understand the migration of the giant planets and the formation of the Solar System. For example, simulations by Emel’yanenko and Kiseleva in 2007 show that many distant objects could be in resonance with Neptune. They show a 10% likelihood that 2000 CR105 is in a 20:1 resonance, a 38% likelihood that 2003 QK91 is in a 10:3 resonance, and an 84% likelihood that (82075) 2000 YW134 is in an 8:3 resonance. [20] The likely dwarf planet (145480) 2005 TB190 appears to have less than a 1% likelihood of being in a 4:1 resonance. [20]

Influence of hypothetical planet(s) beyond Neptune

Mike Brown—who made the Planet Nine hypothesis—makes an observation that "all of the known distant objects which are pulled even a little bit away from the Kuiper seem to be clustered under the influence of this hypothetical planet (specifically, objects with semimajor axis > 100 AU and perihelion > 42 AU)." [21] Carlos de la Fuente Marcos and Ralph de la Fuente Marcos have calculated that some of the statistically significant commensurabilities are compatible with the Planet Nine hypothesis; in particular, a number of objects [lower-alpha 1] which are called Extreme trans Neptunian objects (ETNOs). [24] may be trapped in the 5:3 and 3:1 mean-motion resonances with a putative Planet Nine with a semimajor axis ∼700 AU. [25]

Possible detached objects

This is a list of known objects by decreasing perihelion, that could not be easily scattered by Neptune's current orbit and therefore are likely to be detached objects, but that lie inside the perihelion gap of ≈50–75 AU that defines the sednoids: [26] [27] [28] [29] [30] [31]

Objects listed below have a perihelion of more than 40 AU, and a semimajor axis of more than 47.7 AU (the 1:2 resonance with Neptune, and the approximate outer limit of the Kuiper Belt) [32]

Designation Diameter [33]
(km)
H q
(AU)
a
(AU)
Q
(AU)
ω (°)Discovery
Year
DiscovererNotes & Refs
2000 CR105 2436.344.252221.2398316.932000 M. W. Buie [34]
2000 YW134 2164.741.20757.79574.383316.4812000 Spacewatch ≈3:8 Neptune resonance
2001 FL193 818.740.2950.2660.23108.62001 R. L. Allen, G. Bernstein, R. Malhotra orbit extremely poor, might not be a TNO
2001 KA77 6345.043.4147.7452.07120.32001 M. W. Buie borderline classical KBO
2002 CP154 2226.5425262502002 M. W. Buie orbit fairly poor, but definitely a detached object
2003 UY291 1477.441.1948.9556.7215.62003 M. W. Buie borderline classical KBO
Sedna 9951.576.072483.3890311.612003 M. E. Brown, C. A. Trujillo, D. L. Rabinowitz Sednoid
2004 PD112 2676.1407090402004 M. W. Buie orbit very poor, might not be a detached object
2004 VN112 2226.547.308315584326.9252004 Cerro Tololo (unspecified) [35] [36] [37]
2004 XR190 6124.151.08557.33663.586284.932004 R. L. Allen, B. J. Gladman, J. J. Kavelaars
J.-M. Petit, J. W. Parker, P. Nicholson
pseudo-Sednoid, very high inclination; Neptune Mean Motion Resonance (MMR) along with the Kozai Resonance (KR) modified the eccentricity and inclination of 2004 XR190 to obtain a very high perihelion [34] [38] [39]
2005 CG81 2676.141.0354.1067.1857.122005 CFEPS
2005 EO297 1617.241.21562.9884.75349.862005 M. W. Buie
2005 TB190 3724.546.19775.546104.896171.0232005 A. C. Becker, A. W. Puckett, J. M. Kubica Neptune Mean Motion Resonance (MMR) along with the Kozai Resonance (KR) modified the eccentricity and inclination to obtain a high perihelion [39]
2006 AO101 1687.12006 Mauna Kea (unspecified)orbit extremely poor, might not be a TNO
2007 JJ43 5584.540.38348.39056.3976.5362007 Palomar (unspecified)borderline classical KBO
2007 LE38 1767.041.79854.5667.3253.962007 Mauna Kea (unspecified)
2008 ST291 6404.242.2799.3156.4324.372008 M. E. Schwamb, M. E. Brown, D. L. Rabinowitz ≈1:6 Neptune resonance
2009 KX36 1118.01001002009 Mauna Kea (unspecified)orbit extremely poor, might not be a TNO
2010 DN93 4864.745.10255.50165.9033.012010 Pan-STARRS ≈2:5 Neptune resonance; Neptune Mean Motion Resonance (MMR) along with the Kozai Resonance (KR) modified the eccentricity and inclination to obtain a high perihelion [39]
2010 ER65 4045.040.03599.71159.39324.192010 D. L. Rabinowitz, S. W. Tourtellotte
2010 GB174 2226.548.8360670347.72010 Mauna Kea (unspecified)
2012 FH84 1617.2425670102012 Las Campanas (unspecified)
2012 VP113 7024.080.47256431293.82012 S. S. Sheppard, C. A. Trujillo Sednoid
2013 FQ28 2806.045.963.180.32302013 S. S. Sheppard, C. A. Trujillo ≈1:3 Neptune resonance; Neptune Mean Motion Resonance (MMR) along with the Kozai Resonance (KR) modified the eccentricity and inclination to obtain a high perihelion [39]
2013 FT28 2026.743.531058040.32013 S. S. Sheppard
2013 GP136 2126.641.061155.1269.142.382013 OSSOS
2013 GQ136 2226.540.7949.0657.33155.32013 OSSOS borderline classical KBO
2013 GG138 2126.646.6447.79248.9461282013 OSSOS borderline classical KBO
2013 JD64 1118.042.60373.12103.63178.02013 OSSOS
2013 JJ64 1477.444.0448.15852.272179.82013 OSSOS borderline classical KBO
2013 SY99 2026.750.02694133832.12013 OSSOS
2013 SK100 1347.645.46861.6177.7611.52013 OSSOS
2013 UT15 2556.343.89195.7348252.332013 OSSOS
2013 UB17 1767.044.4962.3180.13308.932013 OSSOS
2013 VD24 1287.84050701972013 Dark Energy Survey orbit very poor, might not be a detached object
2013 YJ151 3365.440.86672.35103.83141.832013 Pan-STARRS
2014 EZ51 7703.740.7052.4964.28329.842014 Pan-STARRS
2014 FC69 5334.640.2873.06105.8190.572014 S. S. Sheppard, C. A. Trujillo
2014 FZ71 1856.955.976.296.52452014 S. S. Sheppard, C. A. Trujillo pseudo-Sednoid; ≈1:4 Neptune resonance; Neptune Mean Motion Resonance (MMR) along with the Kozai Resonance (KR) modified the eccentricity and inclination to obtain a very high perihelion [39]
2014 FC72 5094.551.67076.329100.9932.852014 Pan-STARRS pseudo-Sednoid; ≈1:4 Neptune resonance; Neptune Mean Motion Resonance (MMR) along with the Kozai Resonance (KR) modified the eccentricity and inclination to obtain a very high perihelion [39]
2014 JM80 3525.546.0063.0080.0196.12014 Pan-STARRS ≈1:3 Neptune resonance; Neptune Mean Motion Resonance (MMR) along with the Kozai Resonance (KR) modified the eccentricity and inclination to obtain a high perihelion [39]
2014 JS80 3065.540.01348.29156.569174.52014 Pan-STARRS borderline classical KBO
2014 OJ394 4235.040.8052.9765.14271.602014 Pan-STARRS in 3:7 Neptune resonance
2014 QR441 1936.842.667.893.02832014 Dark Energy Survey
2014 SR349 2026.647.6300540341.12014 S. S. Sheppard, C. A. Trujillo
2014 SS349 1347.6451402401482014 S. S. Sheppard, C. A. Trujillo ≈2:10 Neptune resonance; Neptune Mean Motion Resonance (MMR) along with the Kozai Resonance (KR) modified the eccentricity and inclination to obtain a high perihelion [40]
2014 ST373 3305.550.13104.0157.8297.522014 Dark Energy Survey
2014 UT228 1547.343.9748.59353.21649.92014 OSSOS borderline classical KBO
2014 UA230 2226.542.2755.0567.84132.82014 OSSOS
2014 UO231 978.342.2555.1167.98234.562014 OSSOS
2014 WK509 5844.040.0850.7961.50135.42014 Pan-STARRS
2014 WB556 1477.442.62805202342014 Dark Energy Survey
2015 AL281 2936.14248541202015 Pan-STARRS borderline classical KBO
orbit very poor, might not be a detached object
2015 AM281 4864.841.38055.37269.364157.722015 Pan-STARRS
2015 BE519 3525.544.8247.86650.909293.22015 Pan-STARRS borderline classical KBO
2015 FJ345 1177.95163.075.2782015 S. S. Sheppard, C. A. Trujillo pseudo-Sednoid; ≈1:3 Neptune resonance; Neptune Mean Motion Resonance (MMR) along with the Kozai Resonance (KR) modified the eccentricity and inclination to obtain a very high perihelion [39]
2015 GP50 2226.540.455.270.01302015 S. S. Sheppard, C. A. Trujillo
2015 KH162 6713.941.6362.2982.95296.8052015 S. S. Sheppard, D. J. Tholen, C. A. Trujillo
2015 KG163 1018.340.502826161032.062015 OSSOS
2015 KH163 1177.940.06157.2274230.292015 OSSOS ≈1:12 Neptune resonance
2015 KE172 1068.144.137133.12222.115.432015 OSSOS 1:9 Neptune resonance
2015 KG172 2806.0425569352015 R. L. Allen
D. James
D. Herrera
orbit fairly poor, might not be a detached object
2015 KQ174 1547.349.3155.4061.48294.02015 Mauna Kea (unspecified)pseudo-Sednoid; ≈2:5 Neptune resonance; Neptune Mean Motion Resonance (MMR) along with the Kozai Resonance (KR) modified the eccentricity and inclination to obtain a very high perihelion [39]
2015 RX245 2556.245.541078065.32015 OSSOS
Leleākūhonua 3005.565.0210422019118.02015 S. S. Sheppard, C. A. Trujillo, D. J. Tholen Sednoid
2017 DP121 1617.240.5250.4860.45217.92017
2017 FP161 1687.140.8847.9955.12182017borderline classical KBO
2017 SN132 975.840.94979.868118.786148.7692017 S. S. Sheppard, C. A. Trujillo, D. J. Tholen
2018 VM35 1347.645.289240.575435.861302.0082018 ???

The following objects can also be generally thought to be detached objects, although with slightly lower perihelion distances of 38-40 AU.

Designation Diameter [33]
(km)
H q
(AU)
a
(AU)
Q
(AU)
ω (°)Discovery
Year
DiscovererNotes & Refs
2003 HB57 1477.438.116166.229411.0822003 Mauna Kea (unspecified)
2003 SS422 168>7.1392004002102003 Cerro Tololo (unspecified)orbit very poor, might not be a detached object
2005 RH52 1287.838.957152.6266.332.2852005 CFEPS
2007 TC434 1687.039.577128.41217.23351.0102007 Las Campanas (unspecified)1:9 Neptune resonance
2012 FL84 2126.638.607106.25173.89141.8662012 Pan-STARRS
2014 FL72 1936.838.1104170259.492014 Cerro Tololo (unspecified)
2014 JW80 3525.538.161142.62247.1131.612014 Pan-STARRS
2014 YK50 2935.638.972120.52202.1169.312014 Pan-STARRS
2015 GT50 888.638.46333627129.32015 OSSOS

See also

Notes

  1. Twelve minor planets with a semi-major axis greater than 150 AU and perihelion greater than 30 AU are known. [22] 2003 SS422 is excluded from the count because it has an observation arc of only 76 days and hence its semi-major axis is not known well enough. [23]


Related Research Articles

Classical Kuiper belt object Kuiper belt object, not controlled by an orbital resonance with Neptune

A classical Kuiper belt object, also called a cubewano ( "QB1-o"), is a low-eccentricity Kuiper belt object (KBO) that orbits beyond Neptune and is not controlled by an orbital resonance with Neptune. Cubewanos have orbits with semi-major axes in the 40–50 AU range and, unlike Pluto, do not cross Neptune's orbit. That is, they have low-eccentricity and sometimes low-inclination orbits like the classical planets.

In astronomy, the plutinos are a dynamical group of trans-Neptunian objects that orbit in 2:3 mean-motion resonance with Neptune. This means that for every two orbits a plutino makes, Neptune orbits three times. The dwarf planet Pluto is the largest member as well as the namesake of this group. The next largest members are Orcus, (208996) 2003 AZ84, and Ixion. Plutinos are named after mythological creatures associated with the underworld.

Trans-Neptunian object Any object in the Solar System that orbits the Sun at a greater average distance than Neptune

A trans-Neptunian object (TNO), also written transneptunian object, is any minor planet or dwarf planet in the Solar System that orbits the Sun at a greater average distance than Neptune, which has a semi-major axis of 30.1 astronomical units (AU).

90377 Sedna Large minor planet in the outer reaches of the Solar System

Sedna (minor-planet designation 90377 Sedna) is a dwarf planet or large planetoid in the outer reaches of the Solar System that is currently in the innermost part of its orbit; as of 2021 it is 84 astronomical units (1.26×1010 km; 0.00041 pc) from the Sun, almost three times farther than Neptune. Spectroscopy has revealed that Sedna's surface composition is similar to those of some other trans-Neptunian objects, being largely a mixture of water, methane, and nitrogen ices with tholins. Its surface is one of the reddest among Solar System objects. To within estimated uncertainties, Sedna is tied with Ceres as the largest planetoid not known to have a moon.

Scattered disc Collection of bodies in the extreme Solar System

The scattered disc (or scattered disk) is a distant circumstellar disc in the Solar System that is sparsely populated by icy small solar system bodies, which are a subset of the broader family of trans-Neptunian objects. The scattered-disc objects (SDOs) have orbital eccentricities ranging as high as 0.8, inclinations as high as 40°, and perihelia greater than 30 astronomical units (4.5×109 km; 2.8×109 mi). These extreme orbits are thought to be the result of gravitational "scattering" by the gas giants, and the objects continue to be subject to perturbation by the planet Neptune.

<span class="nowrap">2004 XR<sub>190</sub></span>

2004 XR190, nicknamed Buffy, is a trans-Neptunian object, classified as both a scattered disc object and a detached object, located in the outermost region of the Solar System. It was first observed on 11 December 2004, by astronomers with the Canada–France Ecliptic Plane Survey at the Mauna Kea Observatories, Hawaii, United States. It is the largest known highly inclined (> 45°) object. With a perihelion of 51 AU, it belongs to a small and poorly understood group of very distant objects with moderate eccentricities.

<span class="nowrap">2012 VP<sub>113</sub></span> Trans-Neptunian object

2012 VP113, also known by its nickname "Biden", is a trans-Neptunian object of the sednoid population, located in the outermost reaches of the Solar System. It was first observed on 5 November 2012 by American astronomers Scott Sheppard and Chad Trujillo at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile. The discovery was announced on 26 March 2014. The object probably measures somewhere between 300 and 1000 km in diameter, possibly large enough to be a dwarf planet.

Sednoid

A sednoid is a trans-Neptunian object with a perihelion well beyond the Kuiper cliff at 47.8 AU. Only three objects are known from this population: 90377 Sedna, 2012 VP113, and 541132 Leleākūhonua (2015 TG387), but it is suspected that there are many more. All three have perihelia greater than 64 AU. These objects lie outside an apparently nearly empty gap in the Solar System and have no significant interaction with the planets. They are usually grouped with the detached objects. Some astronomers, such as Scott Sheppard, consider the sednoids to be inner Oort cloud objects (OCOs), though the inner Oort cloud, or Hills cloud, was originally predicted to lie beyond 2,000 AU, beyond the aphelia of the three known sednoids.

Extreme trans-Neptunian object

An extreme trans-Neptunian object (ETNO) is a trans-Neptunian object orbiting the Sun well beyond Neptune (30 AU) in the outermost region of the Solar System. An ETNO has a large semi-major axis of at least 150–250 AU. Its orbit is much less affected by the known giant planets than all other known trans-Neptunian objects. They may, however, be influenced by gravitational interactions with a hypothetical Planet Nine, shepherding these objects into similar types of orbits. The known ETNOs exhibit a highly statistically significant asymmetry between the distributions of object pairs with small ascending and descending nodal distances that might be indicative of a response to external perturbations.

Planet Nine Hypothetical large planet in the far outer Solar System

Planet Nine is a hypothetical planet in the outer region of the Solar System. Its gravitational effects could explain the peculiar clustering of orbits for a group of extreme trans-Neptunian objects (ETNOs), bodies beyond Neptune that orbit the Sun at distances averaging more than 250 times that of the Earth. These ETNOs tend to make their closest approaches to the Sun in one sector, and their orbits are similarly tilted. These alignments suggest that an undiscovered planet may be shepherding the orbits of the most distant known Solar System objects. Nonetheless, some astronomers question the idea that the hypothetical planet exists and instead assert that the clustering of the ETNOs orbits is due to observing biases, resulting from the difficulty of discovering and tracking these objects during much of the year.

The Outer Solar System Origins Survey (OSSOS) is an astronomical survey and observing program aimed at discovering and tracking trans-Neptunian objects located in the outermost regions of the Solar System beyond the orbit of Neptune. OSSOS is designed in way that observational biases can be characterized, allowing the numbers and orbits of detected objects to be compared using a survey simulator to the populations predicted in dynamical simulations of the emplacement of trans-Neptunian objects. Conducted at the Canada-France-Hawaii telescope at Mauna Kea Observatories in Hawaii, the survey has discovered 39 numbered objects as of 2018, with potentially hundreds more to follow. The survey's first numbered discovery was the object (496315) 2013 GP136 in 2013.

(533560) 2014 JM80, provisional designation 2014 JM80, is a trans-Neptunian object from the scattered disc in the outermost Solar System, approximately 340 kilometers (210 miles) in diameter. It was discovered on 9 May 2010 by astronomers with the Pan-STARRS-1 survey at the Haleakala Observatory, Hawaii, in the United States. According to American astronomer Michael Brown, it is "possibly" a dwarf planet.

2014 FZ71 is a trans-Neptunian object, a scattered disc classified as a scattered and detached object, located in the outermost region of the Solar System. It was first observed on 24 March 2014, by a team led by American astronomer Scott Sheppard at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile. With its perihelion of almost 56 AU, it belongs to a small and poorly understood group of very distant objects with moderate eccentricities. The object is not a dwarf planet candidate as it only measures approximately 150 kilometers (93 miles) in diameter.

2014 FC72 is a trans-Neptunian object, classified as a scattered and detached object, located in the outermost region of the Solar System. It was first observed on 24 March 2014 by astronomers with the Pan-STARRS survey at Haleakala Observatory, Hawaii, United States. With its perihelion distant from Neptune, it belongs to a small and poorly understood group of objects with moderate eccentricities. It is estimated to measure 500 kilometers (300 miles) in diameter, assuming a low albedo.

2015 FJ345 is a trans-Neptunian object and detached object, located in the scattered disc, the outermost region of the Solar System. It was first observed on 17 March 2015, by a team led by American astronomer Scott Sheppard at the Mauna Kea Observatories, Hawaii, United States. With its perihelion of almost 51 AU, it belongs to a small and poorly understood group of very distant objects with moderate eccentricities. The object is not a dwarf planet candidate as it only measures approximately 120 kilometers (75 miles) in diameter.

2015 KQ174 is a trans-Neptunian object, both considered a scattered and detached object, located in the outermost region of the Solar System. The object with a moderately inclined and eccentric orbit measures approximately 154 kilometers (96 miles) in diameter. It was first observed on 24 May 2015, by astronomers at the Mauna Kea Observatories in Hawaii, United States.

(523635) 2010 DN93, provisional designation 2010 DN93, is a trans-Neptunian object from in the scattered disc located in the outermost region of the Solar System. It was discovered on 26 February 2010, by astronomers with the Pan-STARRS survey at Haleakala Observatory on the island of Maui, Hawaii, in the United States. Assuming a low albedo, the object is estimated at approximately 490 kilometers (300 miles) in diameter. It was numbered in 2018 and remains unnamed.

<span class="nowrap">2013 FQ<sub>28</sub></span>

2013 FQ28 is a trans-Neptunian object, both considered a scattered and detached object, located in the outermost region of the Solar System. It was first observed on 17 March 2013, by a team of astronomers at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile. It orbits the Sun in a moderate inclined, moderate-eccentricity orbit. The weak dwarf planet candidate measures approximately 260 kilometers (160 miles) in diameter.

The hypothetical Planet Nine would modify the orbits of extreme trans-Neptunian objects via a combination of effects. On very long timescales exchanges of angular momentum with Planet Nine cause the perihelia of anti-aligned objects to rise until their precession reverses direction, maintaining their anti-alignment, and later fall, returning them to their original orbits. On shorter timescales mean-motion resonances with Planet Nine provides phase protection, which stabilizes their orbits by slightly altering the objects' semi-major axes, keeping their orbits synchronized with Planet Nine's and preventing close approaches. The inclination of Planet Nine's orbit weakens this protection, resulting in a chaotic variation of semi-major axes as objects hop between resonances. The orbital poles of the objects circle that of the Solar System's Laplace plane, which at large semi-major axes is warped toward the plane of Planet Nine's orbit, causing their poles to be clustered toward one side.

2014 ST373 (prov. designation:2014 ST373) is a trans-Neptunian object and a detached object from the outermost region of the Solar System. With a perihelion of 50.2 AU, it belongs to the top 10 minor planets with the highest known perihelia of our Solar System. and is neither a scattered disc nor an extreme trans-Neptunian object. It measures approximately 370 kilometers (230 miles) in diameter and was first observed on 25 September 2014, by astronomers using the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile.

References

  1. Lykawka, P.S.; Mukai, T. (2008). "An outer planet beyond Pluto and the origin of the trans-Neptunian belt architecture". Astronomical Journal. 135 (4): 1161–1200. arXiv: 0712.2198 . Bibcode:2008AJ....135.1161L. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/135/4/1161. S2CID   118414447.
  2. 1 2 Jewitt, D.; Delsanti, A. (2006). "The Solar System Beyond the Planets". Solar System Update: Topical and Timely Reviews in Solar System Sciences (PDF) (Springer-Praxis ed.). ISBN   3-540-26056-0. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 January 2007.
  3. Gladman, B.; et al. (2002). "Evidence for an extended scattered disk". Icarus. 157 (2): 269–279. arXiv: astro-ph/0103435 . Bibcode:2002Icar..157..269G. doi:10.1006/icar.2002.6860. S2CID   16465390.
  4. 1 2 Gomes, Rodney S.; Matese, J.; Lissauer, Jack (2006). "A distant planetary-mass solar companion may have produced distant detached objects". Icarus. Elsevier. 184 (2): 589–601. Bibcode:2006Icar..184..589G. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2006.05.026.
  5. 1 2 Elliot, J.L.; Kern, S.D.; Clancy, K.B.; Gulbis, A.A.S.; Millis, R.L.; Buie, M.W.; Wasserman, L.H.; Chiang, E.I.; Jordan, A.B.; Trilling, D.E.; Meech, K.J. (2006). "The Deep Ecliptic Survey: A search for Kuiper belt objects and centaurs. II. Dynamical classification, the Kuiper belt plane, and the core population" (PDF). The Astronomical Journal. 129 (2): 1117–1162. Bibcode:2005AJ....129.1117E. doi: 10.1086/427395 .
  6. 1 2 Lykawka, Patryk Sofia; Mukai, Tadashi (July 2007). "Dynamical classification of trans-neptunian objects: Probing their origin, evolution, and interrelation". Icarus. 189 (1): 213–232. Bibcode:2007Icar..189..213L. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2007.01.001.
  7. Morbidelli, Alessandro; Levison, Harold F. (November 2004). "Scenarios for the Origin of the Orbits of the Trans-Neptunian Objects 2000 CR105 and 2003 VB12". The Astronomical Journal. 128 (5): 2564–2576. arXiv: astro-ph/0403358 . Bibcode:2004AJ....128.2564M. doi:10.1086/424617. S2CID   119486916.
  8. Gladman, B.; Holman, M.; Grav, T.; Kavelaars, J.; Nicholson, P.; Aksnes, K.; Petit, J.-M. (2002). "Evidence for an extended scattered disk". Icarus. 157 (2): 269–279. arXiv: astro-ph/0103435 . Bibcode:2002Icar..157..269G. doi:10.1006/icar.2002.6860. S2CID   16465390.
  9. "Mankind's Explanation: 12th Planet".
  10. "A comet's odd orbit hints at hidden planet". 4 April 2001.
  11. "Is There a Large Planet Orbiting Beyond Neptune?".
  12. "Signs of a Hidden Planet?".
  13. Mozel, Phil (2011). "Dr. Brett Gladman". Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada. A moment with ... 105 (2): 77. Bibcode:2011JRASC.105...77M.
  14. Gladman, Brett; Chan, Collin (2006). "Production of the Extended Scattered Disk by Rogue Planets". The Astrophysical Journal. 643 (2): L135–L138. Bibcode:2006ApJ...643L.135G. CiteSeerX   10.1.1.386.5256 . doi:10.1086/505214.
  15. "The long and winding history of Planet X". Archived from the original on 2016-02-15. Retrieved 2016-02-09.
  16. Batygin, Konstantin; Brown, Michael E. (20 January 2016). "Evidence for a distant giant planet in the Solar system". The Astronomical Journal . 151 (2): 22. arXiv: 1601.05438 . Bibcode:2016AJ....151...22B. doi:10.3847/0004-6256/151/2/22. S2CID   2701020.
  17. Brown, Michael E. "Sedna (The coldest most distant place known in the solar system; possibly the first object in the long-hypothesized Oort cloud)". California Institute of Technology, Department of Geological Sciences. Retrieved 2 July 2008.
  18. Jewitt, D.; Moro-Martın, A.; Lacerda, P. (2009). "The Kuiper belt and other debris disks". Astrophysics in the Next Decade (PDF). Springer Verlag.
  19. Buie, Marc W. (28 December 2007). "Orbit fit and astrometric record for 15874". Space Science Department. SwRI. Retrieved 12 November 2011.
  20. 1 2 Emel’yanenko, V.V. (2008). "Resonant motion of trans-Neptunian objects in high-eccentricity orbits". Astronomy Letters. 34 (4): 271–279. Bibcode:2008AstL...34..271E. doi:10.1134/S1063773708040075. S2CID   122634598.(subscription required)
  21. Mike Brown. "Why I believe in Planet Nine".
  22. "Minor Planets with semi-major axis greater than 150 AU and perihelion greater than 30 AU".
  23. "2003 SS422 semi-major axis".
  24. C. de la Fuente Marcos; R. de la Fuente Marcos (1 September 2014). "Extreme trans-Neptunian objects and the Kozai mechanism: Signalling the presence of trans-Plutonian planets". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society . 443 (1): L59–L63. arXiv: 1406.0715 . Bibcode:2014MNRAS.443L..59D. doi:10.1093/mnrasl/slu084. S2CID   118622180.
  25. de la Fuente Marcos, Carlos; de la Fuente Marcos, Raúl (21 July 2016). "Commensurabilities between ETNOs: a Monte Carlo survey". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters. 460 (1): L64–L68. arXiv: 1604.05881 . Bibcode:2016MNRAS.460L..64D. doi:10.1093/mnrasl/slw077. S2CID   119110892.
  26. Michael E. Brown (10 September 2013). "How many dwarf planets are there in the outer solar system? (updates daily)". California Institute of Technology. Archived from the original on 18 October 2011. Retrieved 27 May 2013. Diameter: 242km
  27. "objects with perihelia between 40–55 AU and aphelion more than 60 AU".
  28. "objects with perihelia between 40–55 AU and aphelion more than 100 AU".
  29. "objects with perihelia between 40–55 AU and semi-major axis more than 50 AU".
  30. "objects with perihelia between 40–55 AU and eccentricity more than 0.5".
  31. "objects with perihelia between 37–40 AU and eccentricity more than 0.5".
  32. "MPC list of q > 40 and a > 47.7". Minor Planet Center . Retrieved 7 May 2018.
  33. 1 2 "List of Known Trans-Neptunian Objects". Johnston's Archive. 7 October 2018. Retrieved 23 October 2018.
  34. 1 2 E. L. Schaller; M. E. Brown (2007). "Volatile loss and retention on Kuiper belt objects" (PDF). Astrophysical Journal. 659 (1): I.61–I.64. Bibcode:2007ApJ...659L..61S. doi:10.1086/516709 . Retrieved 2008-04-02.
  35. Buie, Marc W. (8 November 2007). "Orbit Fit and Astrometric record for 04VN112". SwRI (Space Science Department). Archived from the original on 18 August 2010. Retrieved 17 July 2008.
  36. "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: (2004 VN112)" . Retrieved 2015-02-24.
  37. "List Of Centaurs and Scattered-Disk Objects" . Retrieved 5 July 2011. Discoverer: CTIO
  38. R. L. Allen; B. Gladman (2006). "Discovery of a low-eccentricity, high-inclination Kuiper Belt object at 58 AU". The Astrophysical Journal. 640 (1): L83–L86. arXiv: astro-ph/0512430 . Bibcode:2006ApJ...640L..83A. doi:10.1086/503098. S2CID   15588453.
  39. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Sheppard, Scott S.; Trujillo, Chadwick; Tholen, David J. (July 2016). "Beyond the Kuiper Belt Edge: New High Perihelion Trans-Neptunian Objects with Moderate Semimajor Axes and Eccentricities". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 825 (1): L13. arXiv: 1606.02294 . Bibcode:2016ApJ...825L..13S. doi:10.3847/2041-8205/825/1/L13. S2CID   118630570.
  40. Sheppard, Scott S.; Trujillo, Chad (August 2016). "New Extreme Trans-Neptunian Objects: Towards a Super-Earth in the Outer Solar System". Astrophysical Journal. 152 (6): 221. arXiv: 1608.08772 . Bibcode:2016AJ....152..221S. doi:10.3847/1538-3881/152/6/221. S2CID   119187392.