The following is a list of numbered minor planets in ascending numerical order. With the exception of comets, minor planets are all small bodies in the Solar System, including asteroids, distant objects and dwarf planets. The catalog consists of hundreds of pages, each containing 1,000 minor planets. Every year, the Minor Planet Center, which operates on behalf of the International Astronomical Union, publishes thousands of newly numbered minor planets in its Minor Planet Circulars (see index). As of September 2022 [update] , there are 619,150 numbered minor planets (secured discoveries) out of a total of 1,233,701 observed small Solar System bodies, with the remainder being unnumbered minor planets and comets.
The catalog's first object is 1 Ceres, discovered by Giuseppe Piazzi in 1801, while its best-known entry is Pluto, listed as 134340 Pluto. The vast majority (97.3%) of minor planets are asteroids from the asteroid belt (the catalog uses a color code to indicate a body's dynamical classification). There are more than a thousand different minor-planet discoverers observing from a growing list of registered observatories. In terms of numbers, the most prolific discoverers are Spacewatch, LINEAR, MLS, NEAT and CSS. There are also 23,542 named minor planets mostly after people, places and figures from mythology and fiction, which account for only 3.8% of all numbered catalog entries. (4596) 1981 QB and 616689 Yihangyiyang are currently the lowest-numbered unnamed and highest-numbered named minor planets, respectively.
It is expected that the upcoming survey by the Vera C. Rubin Observatory (LSST) will discover another 5 million minor planets during the next ten years—almost a tenfold increase from current numbers. Specific lists .While all main-belt asteroids with a diameter above 10 kilometers have already been discovered, there might be as many as 10 trillion 1-meter-sized asteroids or larger out to the orbit of Jupiter; and more than a trillion minor planets in the Kuiper belt. For minor planets grouped by a particular aspect or property, see §
The list of minor planets consists of more than 600 partial lists, each containing 1000 minor planets grouped into 10 tables. The data is sourced from the Minor Planet Center (MPC) and expanded with data from the JPL SBDB (mean-diameter), Johnston's archive (sub-classification) and others (see detailed field descriptions below). For an overview of all existing partial lists, see § Main index .
The information given for a minor planet includes a permanent and provisional designation (§ Designation), a citation that links to the meanings of minor planet names (only if named), the discovery date, location, and credited discoverers (§ Discovery and § Discoverers), a category with a more refined classification than the principal grouping represented by the background color (§ Category), a mean-diameter, sourced from JPL's SBDB or otherwise calculated estimates in italics (§ Diameter), and a reference (Ref) to the corresponding pages at MPC and JPL SBDB.
The MPC may credit one or several astronomers, a survey or similar program, or even the observatory site with the discovery. In the first column of the table, an existing stand-alone article is linked in boldface, while (self-)redirects are never linked. Discoverers, discovery site and category are only linked if they differ from the preceding catalog entry.
|189001||4889 P-L||—||24 September 1960||Palomar||PLS||—||3.4 km||MPC · JPL|
|189002||6760 P-L||—||24 September 1960||Palomar||PLS||NYS||960 m||MPC · JPL|
|189003||3009 T-3||—||16 October 1977||Palomar||PLS||—||5.1 km||MPC · JPL|
|189004 Capys||3184 T-3||Capys||16 October 1977||Palomar||PLS||L5||12 km||MPC · JPL|
|189005||5176 T-3||—||16 October 1977||Palomar||PLS||—||3.5 km||MPC · JPL|
The example above shows five catalog entries from one of the partial lists. All five asteroids were discovered at Palomar Observatory by the Palomar–Leiden survey (PLS). The MPC directly credits the survey's principal investigators, that is, the astronomers Cornelis van Houten, Ingrid van Houten-Groeneveld and Tom Gehrels. (This is the only instance where the list of minor planets diverges from the Discovery Circumstances in the official MPC list.) 189004 Capys, discovered on 16 October 1977, is the only named minor planet among these five. Its background color indicates that it is a Jupiter trojan (from the Trojan camp at Jupiter's L5), estimated to be approximately 12 kilometers in diameter. All other objects are smaller asteroids from the inner (white), central (light-grey) and outer regions (dark grey) of the asteroid belt. The provisional designation for all objects is an uncommon survey designation.
After discovery, minor planets generally receive a provisional designation, e.g. 1989 AC, then a leading sequential number in parenthesis, e.g. (4179) 1989 AC, turning it into a permanent designation (numbered minor planet). Optionally, a name can be given, replacing the provisional part of the designation, e.g. 4179 Toutatis . (On Wikipedia, named minor planets also drop their parenthesis.)
In modern times, a minor planet receives a sequential number only after it has been observed several times over at least 4 oppositions. 719 Albert , which had been lost for nearly 89 years, eliminated the last numbered lost asteroid. Only after a number is assigned is the minor planet eligible to receive a name. Usually the discoverer has up to 10 years to pick a name; many minor planets now remain unnamed. Especially towards the end of the twentieth century, large-scale automated asteroid discovery programs such as LINEAR have increased the pace of discoveries so much that the vast majority of minor planets will most likely never receive names.Minor planets whose orbits are not (yet) precisely known are known by their provisional designation. This rule was not necessarily followed in earlier times, and some bodies received a number but subsequently became lost minor planets. The 2000 recovery of
For these reasons, the sequence of numbers only approximately matches the timeline of discovery. In extreme cases, such as lost minor planets, there may be a considerable mismatch: for instance the high-numbered 69230 Hermes was originally discovered in 1937, but it was a lost until 2003. Only after it was rediscovered could its orbit be established and a number assigned.
The MPC credits more than 1,000 professional and amateur astronomers as discoverers of minor planets. Many of them have discovered only a few minor planets or even just co-discovered a single one. Moreover, a discoverer does not need to be a human being. There are about 300 programs, surveys and observatories credited as discoverers. Among these, a small group of U.S. programs and surveys actually account for most of all discoveries made so far (see pie chart). As the total of numbered minor planets is growing by the tens of thousands every year, all statistical figures are constantly changing. In contrast to the Top 10 discoverers displayed in this articles, the MPC summarizes the total of discoveries somewhat differently, that is by a distinct group of discoverers. For example, bodies discovered in the Palomar–Leiden Survey are directly credited to the program's principal investigators.
Observatories, telescopes and surveys that report astrometric observations of small Solar System bodies to the Minor Planet Center receive a numeric or alphanumeric MPC code such as 675 for the Palomar Observatory, or G96 for the Mount Lemmon Survey. On numbering, the MPC may directly credit such an observatory or program as the discoverer of an object, rather than one or several astronomers.
In this catalog, minor planets are classified into one of 8 principal orbital groups and highlighted with a distinct color. These are:
|Near-Earth obj.||MBA (inner)||MBA (outer)||Centaur|
|Mars-crosser||MBA (middle)||Jupiter trojan||Trans-Neptunian obj.|
The vast majority of minor planets are evenly distributed between the inner-, central and outer parts of the asteroid belt, which are separated by the two Kirkwood gaps at 2.5 and 2.82 AU. Nearly 97.5% of all minor planets are main-belt asteroids (MBA), while Jupiter trojans, Mars-crossing and near-Earth asteroids each account for less than 1% of the overall population. Only a small number of distant minor planets, that is the centaurs and trans-Neptunian objects, have been numbered so far. In the partial lists, table column "category" further refines this principal grouping:
|Principal orbital groups (c)||MPs (#)||MPs (%)||Distribution||Orbital criteria|
|Near-Earth object (a)||3,104||0.50%||q < 1.3 AU|
|Mars-crosser||6,180||1.00%||1.3 AU < q < 1.666 AU; a < 3.2 AU|
|MBA (inner)||195,710||31.74%||a < 2.5 AU; q > 1.666 AU|
|MBA (middle)||216,729||35.14%||2.5 AU < a < 2.82 AU; q > 1.666 AU|
|MBA (outer)||187,562||30.41%||2.82 AU < a < 4.6 AU; q > 1.666 AU|
|Jupiter trojan||6,300||1.02%||4.6 AU < a < 5.5 AU; e < 0.3|
|Centaur||158||0.03%||5.5 AU < a < 30.1 AU|
|Trans-Neptunian object||912||0.15%||a > 30.1 AU|
|Total (numbered)||616,690(b)||100%||Source: JPL's SBDB|
If available, a minor planet's mean diameter in meters (m) or kilometers (km) is taken from the NEOWISE mission of NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, which the Small-Body Database has also adopted.Mean diameters are rounded to two significant figures if smaller than 100 kilometers. Estimates are in italics and calculated from a magnitude-to-diameter conversion, using an assumed albedo derived from the body's orbital parameters or, if available, from a family-specific mean albedo (also see asteroid family table).
This is an overview of all existing partial lists of numbered minor planets (LoMP). Each table stands for 100,000 minor planets, each cell for a specific partial list of 1,000 sequentially numbered bodies. The data is sourced from the Minor Planet Center. top .For an introduction, see §
The following are lists of minor planets by physical properties, orbital properties, or discovery circumstances:
3568 ASCII, provisional designation 1936 UB, is a dark background asteroid from the outer regions of the asteroid belt, approximately 24 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered on 17 October 1936, by French astronomer Marguerite Laugier at the Nice Observatory in southwestern France. In 1988, the D-type asteroid was named after both the computer character code ASCII and the Japanese computer magazine with the same name.
1998 WW31, is a non-resonant trans-Neptunian object and binary system from the Kuiper belt located in the outermost region of the Solar System, approximately 148 kilometers (92 miles) in diameter. It was first observed on 18 November 1998, by American astronomer Marc Buie and Robert Millis at the Kitt Peak National Observatory in Arizona, United States. In December 2000, a minor-planet moon, designated S/2000 (1998 WW31) 1 with a diameter of 123 kilometers (76 miles), was discovered in its orbit. After Charon in 1978, it was the first of nearly 100 satellites since discovered in the outer Solar System.
(91205) 1998 US43, provisional designation 1998 US43, is a resonant trans-Neptunian object of the plutino group, located in the Kuiper belt in the outermost region of the Solar System. The rather bluish body measures approximately 111 kilometers (69 miles) in diameter. It was discovered on 22 October 1998, by American astronomer Marc Buie at the Kitt Peak National Observatory in the United States. It is probably not a dwarf planet candidate.
2708 Burns is a carbonaceous Themistian asteroid from the outer regions of the asteroid belt, approximately 19 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered on 24 November 1981, by American astronomer Edward Bowell at the Anderson Mesa Station near Flagstaff, Arizona, in the United States. It was named after American planetary scientist Joseph A. Burns. The likely elongated B-type asteroid has a rotation period of 5.3 hours.
4007 Euryalos is a larger Jupiter trojan from the Greek camp, approximately 48 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered on 19 September 1973, by Dutch astronomers Ingrid and Cornelis van Houten at Leiden, and Tom Gehrels at Palomar Observatory in California. The likely spherical Jovian asteroid is the principal body of the proposed Euryalos family and has a rotation period of 6.4 hours. It was named after the warrior Euryalus from Greek mythology.
4138 Kalchas is a large Jupiter trojan from the Greek camp, approximately 53 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered on 19 September 1973, by Dutch astronomers Ingrid and Cornelis van Houten at Leiden, on photographic plates taken by Tom Gehrels at the Palomar Observatory in California. The assumed C-type asteroid is the principal body of the proposed Kalchas family and has a rotation period of 29.2 hours. It was named after the seer Calchas from Greek mythology.
3040 Kozai, provisional designation 1979 BA, is a stony asteroid and Mars-crosser on a tilted orbit from the innermost regions of the asteroid belt, approximately 4 kilometers in diameters.
5119 Imbrius, provisional designation:1988 RA1, is a Jupiter trojan from the Trojan camp, approximately 49 kilometers (30 mi) in diameter. It was discovered on 8 September 1988 by Danish astronomer Poul Jensen at the Brorfelde Observatory near Holbæk, Denmark. The dark Jovian asteroid has a rotation period of 12.8 hours. It was numbered in March 1992, and named from Greek mythology after Imbrius, who was killed by Greek archer Teucer during the Trojan War.
6002 Eetion, provisional designation: 1988 RO, is a mid-sized Jupiter trojan from the Trojan camp, approximately 40 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered by Poul Jensen at the Brorfelde Observatory in 1988, and has not been named since its numbering in June 1994. The dark Jovian asteroid has a rotation period of 12.9 hours. In 2021, it was named from Greek mythology after King Eetion, who was killed by Achilles during the raid on Thebe.
6144 Kondojiro (1994 EQ3) is an asteroid discovered on March 14, 1994 by Kin Endate and Kazuro Watanabe at the Kitami Observatory in eastern Hokkaidō, Japan. It is named after Jiro Kondo, a Japanese Egyptologist and professor of archaeology at Waseda University.
(392741) 2012 SQ31, provisional designation 2012 SQ31, is a sub-kilometer Florian asteroid from the inner regions of the asteroid belt, approximately 700 meters (2,300 feet) in diameter. It was originally considered a trans-Neptunian object and lost minor planet during 2004–2012. The date of the official discovery was later set to 27 December 2009, and credited to astronomers of the Spacewatch program conducted at the Kitt Peak National Observatory near Tucson, Arizona, in the United States.
(523671) 2013 FZ27, provisional designation 2013 FZ27, is a trans-Neptunian object located in the Kuiper belt in the outermost region of the Solar System, approximately 570 kilometers (350 miles) in diameter. It was discovered on 16 March 2013, by American astronomers Scott Sheppard and Chad Trujillo at the CTIO in Chile. Numbered in 2018, this minor planet has not been named.
(523645) 2010 VK201, provisional designation 2010 VK201, is a trans-Neptunian object and member of the classical Kuiper belt, approximately 500 kilometers (310 miles) in diameter. It was discovered on 1 November 2010, by the Pan-STARRS 1 survey at Haleakala Observatory, Hawaii, United States. It has a rotation period of 7.6 hours. It was numbered in September 2018 and remains unnamed.
420356 Praamzius, provisional designation 2012 BX85, is a trans-Neptunian object from the classical Kuiper belt, located in the outermost region of the Solar System, approximately 190–320 kilometers (120–200 miles) in diameter. It was discovered on 23 January 2012, by astronomers Kazimieras Černis and Richard Boyle with the Vatican's VATT at Mount Graham Observatory in Arizona, United States. The cold classical Kuiper belt object is a weak dwarf planet candidate and possibly very red in color. It was named after the chief god Praamžius from Lithuanian mythology.
(127546) 2002 XU93, provisional designation 2002 XU93, is a trans-Neptunian object and centaur on highly inclined and eccentric orbit in the outer region of the Solar System. It measures approximately 170 kilometers (110 mi) in diameter and is one of few objects with such an unusual orbit. It was discovered on 4 December 2002, by American astronomer Marc Buie at the Kitt Peak National Observatory in Arizona, United States.
9799 Thronium, provisional designation: 1996 RJ, is a large Jupiter trojan from the Greek camp and the parent body of a small, unnamed asteroid family (006), approximately 68 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered on 8 September 1996, by American astronomer Timothy Spahr at the Catalina Station of the Steward Observatory near Tucson, Arizona, in the United States. The assumed C-type asteroid belongs to the 50 largest Jupiter trojans and has a relatively long rotation period of 21.52 hours. It was named for the ancient Greek city of Thronium mentioned in the Iliad.
12929 Periboea, provisional designation: 1999 TZ1, is a dark Jupiter trojan from the Trojan camp, approximately 54 kilometers (34 miles) in diameter. It was discovered on 2 October 1999, by American astronomer Charles W. Juels at the Fountain Hills Observatory in Arizona. Originally considered a centaur, this now re-classified Jovian asteroid has a rotation period of 9.3 hours and belongs to the 80 largest Jupiter trojans. It was named from Greek mythology after Periboea, mother of Pelagon by the river-god Axius.
(20729) 1999 XS143, provisional designation:1999 XS143, is a Jupiter trojan from the Greek camp, approximately 51 kilometers (32 miles) in diameter. It was discovered on 15 December 1999, by American astronomer Charles Juels at the Fountain Hills Observatory in Arizona. The dark Jovian asteroid has a short rotation period of 5.72 hours and belongs to the 90 largest Jupiter trojans. It has not been named since its numbering in January 2001.
(523702) 2014 HW199, provisional designation 2014 HW199, is a trans-Neptunian object from the classical Kuiper belt, located in the outermost region of the Solar System. It was discovered on 30 January 2011, by astronomers with the Pan-STARRS survey at Haleakala Observatory, Hawaii, United States. The classical Kuiper belt object is also a dwarf planet candidate, as it measures approximately 290 kilometers (180 miles) in diameter.
(523687) 2014 DF143, provisional designation 2014 DF143, is a trans-Neptunian object and cubewano from the Kuiper belt, located in the outermost region of the Solar System. It was discovered on 12 April 2011, by astronomers with the Pan-STARRS survey at Haleakala Observatory, Hawaii, United States. The classical Kuiper belt object belongs to the hot population and is a dwarf planet candidate, as it measures approximately 350 kilometers (220 miles) in diameter.