List of natural satellites

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The Solar System's planets, and its most likely dwarf planets, are known to be orbited by at least 219 natural satellites, or moons. At least 20 of them are large enough to be gravitationally rounded; of these, all are covered by a crust of ice except for Earth's Moon and Jupiter's Io. [1] Several of the largest ones are in hydrostatic equilibrium and would therefore be considered dwarf planets or planets if they were in direct orbit around the Sun and not in their current states (orbiting planets or dwarf planets).

Contents

Moons are classed in two separate categories according to their orbits: regular moons, which have prograde orbits (they orbit in the direction of their planets' rotation) and lie close to the plane of their equators, and irregular moons, whose orbits can be pro- or retrograde (against the direction of their planets' rotation) and often lie at extreme angles to their planets' equators. Irregular moons are probably minor planets that have been captured from surrounding space. Most irregular moons are less than 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) in diameter.

The earliest published discovery of a moon other than the Earth's was by Galileo Galilei, who discovered the four Galilean moons orbiting Jupiter in 1610. Over the following three centuries only a few more moons were discovered. Missions to other planets in the 1970s, most notably the Voyager 1 and 2 missions, saw a surge in the number of moons detected, and observations since the year 2000, using mostly large, ground-based optical telescopes, have discovered many more, all of which are irregular.

Moons by primary

Some moons, minor planets and comets of the Solar System to scale Small bodies of the Solar System.jpg
Some moons, minor planets and comets of the Solar System to scale
Selected moons, with Earth to scale. Nineteen moons are large enough to be round, and one, Titan, has a substantial atmosphere. Moons of solar system v7.jpg
Selected moons, with Earth to scale. Nineteen moons are large enough to be round, and one, Titan, has a substantial atmosphere.
The number of moons discovered in each year until November 2019 Moons vs time.SVG
The number of moons discovered in each year until November 2019

Mercury, the smallest and innermost planet, has no moons, or at least none that can be detected to a diameter of 1.6 km (1.0 mi). [2] For a very short time in 1974, Mercury was thought to have a moon.

Venus also has no moons, [3] though reports of a moon around Venus have circulated since the 17th century.

Earth has one Moon, the largest moon of any rocky planet in the Solar System. Earth also has more than 20 known co-orbitals, including the asteroids 3753 Cruithne and 469219 Kamoʻoalewa, and the occasional temporary satellite, like 2020 CD3; however, since they do not permanently orbit Earth, they are not considered moons. (See Other moons of Earth and Quasi-satellite.)

Mars has two known moons, Phobos and Deimos ("fear" and "dread", after attendants of Ares, the Greek god of war, equivalent to the Roman Mars). Searches for more satellites have been unsuccessful, putting the maximum radius of any other satellites at 90 m (100 yd). [4]

Jupiter has 80 moons with known orbits; 72 of them have received permanent designations, and 57 have been named. Its eight regular moons are grouped into the planet-sized Galilean moons and the far smaller Amalthea group. They are named after lovers of Zeus, the Greek equivalent of Jupiter. Its 72 known irregular moons are organized into two categories: prograde and retrograde. The prograde satellites consist of the Himalia group and three others in groups of one. The retrograde moons are grouped into the Carme, Ananke and Pasiphae groups.

Saturn has 83 moons with known orbits; 66 of them have received permanent designations, and 63 have been named. Most of them are quite small. Seven moons are large enough to be in hydrostatic equilibrium, including Titan, the second largest moon in the Solar System. Including these large moons, 24 of Saturn's moons are regular, and traditionally named after Titans or other figures associated with the mythological Saturn. The remaining 59, all small, are irregular, and classified by their orbital characteristics into Inuit, Norse, and Gallic groups, and their names are chosen from the corresponding mythologies. The rings of Saturn are made up of icy objects ranging in size from one centimetre to hundreds of metres, each of which is on its own orbit about the planet. Thus a precise number of Saturnian moons cannot be given, as there is no objective boundary between the countless small anonymous objects that form Saturn's ring system and the larger objects that have been named as moons. At least 150 "moonlets" embedded in the rings have been detected by the disturbance they create in the surrounding ring material, though this is thought to be only a small sample of the total population of such objects.

Uranus has 27 moons, five of which are massive enough to have achieved hydrostatic equilibrium. There are 13 moons that orbit within Uranus's ring system, and another nine outer irregular moons. Unlike most planetary moons, which are named from antiquity, all the moons of Uranus are named after characters from the works of Shakespeare and Alexander Pope's work The Rape of the Lock .

Neptune has 14 moons; the largest, Triton, accounts for more than 99.5 percent of all the mass orbiting the planet. Triton is large enough to have achieved hydrostatic equilibrium, but, uniquely for a large moon, has a retrograde orbit, suggesting it was a dwarf planet that was captured. Neptune also has seven known inner regular satellites, and six outer irregular satellites.

Pluto, a dwarf planet, has five moons. Its largest moon Charon, named after the ferryman who took souls across the River Styx, is more than half as large as Pluto itself, and large enough to orbit a point outside Pluto's surface. In effect, each orbits the other, forming a binary system informally referred to as a double-dwarf-planet. Pluto's four other moons, Nix, Hydra, Kerberos and Styx are far smaller and orbit the Pluto–Charon system. [5]

Among the other dwarf planets, Ceres has no known moons. It is 90 percent certain that Ceres has no moons larger than 1 km in size, assuming that they would have the same albedo as Ceres itself. [6] Eris has one large known moon, Dysnomia. Accurately determining its size is difficult: one indicative estimate of its radius is 350±57.5 km. [7]

Two objects were named as dwarf planets, under the expectation that they would prove to be so (though this remains uncertain). Haumea has two moons, Hiʻiaka and Namaka, of radii ~195 and ~100 km, respectively. [8] Makemake has one moon, discovered in April 2016.

A number of other objects in the Kuiper belt and scattered disk may turn out to be dwarf planets. Orcus, Quaoar, Gonggong, and Sedna are generally agreed to be dwarf planets among astronomers, and all but Sedna are known to have moons. [9] A number of other smaller objects, such as Salacia, Varda, and 2013 FY27 , also have moons, although their dwarf planethood is more doubtful. This list includes all objects with best estimated diameter above 700 km, including 2003 AZ84 whose satellite has not been seen since its initial discovery.

As of October 2022, 365 asteroid moons and 128 trans-Neptunian moons (including those of Pluto and the other dwarf planets) had been discovered. [10]

Summary – number of moons
Planet Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune
Number of moons00 1 2 80 83
(+3 unconfirmed)
27 14
(+1 unconfirmed)
(Possible) dwarf Ceres Orcus 2003 AZ84 Pluto Ixion Salacia 2002 MS4 Haumea Quaoar Make-
make
Varda 2002 AW197 2013 FY27 Gong-
gong
Eris Sedna
Number of moons0 1 1 5 0 1 0 2 1 1 1 01 1 1 0
Minor planet
See list

Due to Earth's varying distance from these planets (as well as their distance to the Sun), the limits at which we are able to detect new moons is very inconsistent. As the below graph demonstrates, the absolute magnitude (total inherent brightness, abbreviated H) of moons we have detected around planets peaks at H = 17 for Jupiter, H = 16 for Saturn, H = 13 for Uranus, and H = 11 for Neptune.[ clarification needed ] Smaller moons may (and most likely do) exist around each of these planets, but are currently undetectable from Earth. Although spacecraft have visited all of these planets, Earth-based telescopes continue to outperform them in moon-detection ability.[ citation needed ]

Planetary moons by absolute magnitude

List

This is a list of the recognized moons of the planets and of the largest potential dwarf planets of the Solar System, ordered by their official Roman numeral designations. Moons that do not yet have official Roman numeral designations (because their orbits are not yet known well enough) are listed after those that do.

The 20 moons that are known to be large enough to have been rounded by their own gravity are listed in bold. [11] The seven largest moons, which are larger than any of the known dwarf planets, are listed in bold and italic. Sidereal period differs from semi-major axis because a moon's speed depends both on the mass of its primary and its distance from it. Angular size from the parent surface actually might differ much depending on the moon location at the given moment and the point where it is observed from the parent surface (and some of these parents might not have a solid surface); the observation point matters especially for moons orbiting very near their parents e.g. Naiad is at average below two times parent radius from the center of Neptune and Cordelia is at average below two times parent radius from the center of Uranus.

Satellites of planets
Satellite of Earth Satellites of Jupiter Satellites of Uranus
Satellites of Mars Satellites of Saturn Satellites of Neptune
Satellites of generally agreed dwarf planets
Satellite of Orcus Satellites of Pluto Satellites of Haumea
Satellite of Quaoar Satellite of Makemake Satellite of Gonggong
Satellite of Eris
Satellites of other dwarf planet candidates
Satellite of 2003 AZ84 Satellite of Salacia Satellite of Varda
Satellite of 2013 FY27
NameImageParentNumeralMean radius (km)Orbital semi-major axis (km) Sidereal period (d)
(r = retrograde)
Angular size from the parent surface [arcmin]Discovery yearDiscovered byNotesRef(s)
Moon
FullMoon2010.jpg
Earth I (1)1,738384,39927.32158231.61038 [12] Prehistoric Synchronous rotation [13]
Phobos
Phobos colour 2008.jpg
Mars I (1)11.2679,3800.31912.932591877 Hall [14] [15] [16]
Deimos
Deimos-MRO.jpg
MarsII (2)6.2±0.1823,4601.2622.123971877 Hall [14] [15] [16]
Io
Io highest resolution true color frame.jpg
Jupiter I (1)1,821.6±0.5421,8001.76935.591901610 Galileo Main-group moon (Galilean) [16] [17]
Europa
Europa-moon.jpg
JupiterII (2)1,560.8±0.5671,1003.55117.850081610 Galileo Main-group moon (Galilean) [16] [17]
Ganymede
Ganymede JunoGill 2217.jpg
JupiterIII (3)2,634.1±0.31,070,4007.15518.101891610 Galileo Main-group moon (Galilean) [16] [17]
Callisto
Callisto.jpg
JupiterIV (4)2,410.3±1.51,882,70016.699.141721610 Galileo Main-group moon (Galilean) [16] [17]
Amalthea
Amalthea (moon).png
JupiterV (5)83.5±2181,4000.4985.149421892 Barnard Inner moon (Amalthea) [15] [16] [18]
Himalia
Cassini-Huygens Image of Himalia.png
JupiterVI (6)69.811,461,000250.560.042131904 Perrine Prograde irregular (Himalia) [15] [16] [19] [20]
Elara
Elara - New Horizons.png
JupiterVII (7)43 11,741,000259.640.025331905 Perrine Prograde irregular (Himalia) [15] [16] [21]
Pasiphae
Pasiphae.jpg
JupiterVIII (8)30 23,624,000743.63 (r)0.008761908 Melotte Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [15] [16] [22]
Sinope
Sinope.jpg
JupiterIX (9)19 23,939,000758.90 (r)0.005471914 Nicholson Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [15] [16] [23]
Lysithea
Lysithea2.jpg
JupiterX (10)18 11,717,000259.200.010631938 Nicholson Prograde irregular (Himalia) [15] [16] [24]
Carme
Carme.jpg
JupiterXI (11)23 23,404,000734.17 (r)0.006781938 Nicholson Retrograde irregular (Carme) [15] [16] [24]
Ananke
Ananke.jpg
JupiterXII (12)14 21,276,000629.77 (r)0.004541951 Nicholson Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [15] [16] [25]
Leda
Leda WISE-W3.jpg
JupiterXIII (13)10 11,165,000240.920.006201974 Kowal Prograde irregular (Himalia) [15] [16] [26]
Thebe
Thebe.jpg
JupiterXIV (14)49.3±2.0221,9000.6752.230171979 Synnott (Voyager 1) Inner moon (Amalthea) [15] [16] [27]
Adrastea
Adrastea.jpg
JupiterXV (15)8.2±2.0129,0000.2980.954141979 Jewitt, Danielson (Voyager 1) Inner moon (Amalthea) [15] [16] [28]
Metis
Metis.jpg
JupiterXVI (16)21.5±2.0128,0000.2952.544771979 Synnott (Voyager 1) Inner moon (Amalthea) [15] [16] [29]
Callirrhoe
Callirrhoe - New Horizons.gif
JupiterXVII (17)4.5 24,103,000758.77 (r)0.001292000 Scotti, Spahr, McMillan, Larsen, Montani, Gleason, Gehrels Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [15] [16] [30]
Themisto
S 2000 J 1.jpg
JupiterXVIII (18)4 7,284,000130.020.003811975/2000 Kowal and Roemer (original); Sheppard, Jewitt, Fernández, Magnier (rediscovery)Prograde irregular (Themisto) [15] [16] [31] [32]
Megaclite
Megaclite-Jewitt-CFHT-annotated.gif
JupiterXIX (19)2.7 23,493,000752.86 (r)0.000792000 Sheppard, Jewitt, Fernández, Magnier, Dahm, EvansRetrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [15] [16] [33]
Taygete
Taygete-Jewitt-CFHT-annotated.gif
JupiterXX (20)2.5 23,280,000732.41 (r)0.000742000 Sheppard, Jewitt, Fernández, Magnier, Dahm, EvansRetrograde irregular (Carme) [15] [16] [33]
Chaldene
Chaldene-Jewitt-CFHT-annotated.gif
JupiterXXI (21)1.9 23,100,000723.72 (r)0.000572000 Sheppard, Jewitt, Fernández, Magnier, Dahm, EvansRetrograde irregular (Carme) [15] [16] [33]
Harpalyke
Harpalyke-Jewitt-CFHT-annotated.gif
JupiterXXII (22)2.2 20,858,000623.32 (r)0.000732000 Sheppard, Jewitt, Fernández, Magnier, Dahm, EvansRetrograde irregular (Ananke) [15] [16] [33]
Kalyke
Kalyke-Jewitt-CFHT-annotated.gif
JupiterXXIII (23)2.6 23,483,000742.06 (r)0.000762000 Sheppard, Jewitt, Fernández, Magnier, Dahm, EvansRetrograde irregular (Carme) [15] [16] [33]
Iocaste
Iocaste-Jewitt-CFHT-annotated.gif
JupiterXXIV (24)2.6 21,060,000631.60 (r)0.000852000 Sheppard, Jewitt, Fernández, Magnier, Dahm, EvansRetrograde irregular (Ananke) [15] [16] [33]
Erinome
Erinome-Jewitt-CFHT-annotated.gif
JupiterXXV (25)1.6 23,196,000728.46 (r)0.000482000 Sheppard, Jewitt, Fernández, Magnier, Dahm, EvansRetrograde irregular (Carme) [15] [16] [33]
Isonoe
Isonoe-Jewitt-CFHT-annotated.gif
JupiterXXVI (26)2 23,155,000726.23 (r)0.000602000 Sheppard, Jewitt, Fernández, Magnier, Dahm, EvansRetrograde irregular (Carme) [15] [16] [33]
Praxidike
Praxidike-Jewitt-CFHT-annotated.gif
JupiterXXVII (27)3.5 20,908,000625.39 (r)0.001152000 Sheppard, Jewitt, Fernández, Magnier, Dahm, EvansRetrograde irregular (Ananke) [15] [16] [33]
Autonoe
Autonoe-discovery-CFHT-annotated.gif
JupiterXXVIII (28)2 24,046,000760.95 (r)0.000572001 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae)
Thyone
Thyone-discovery-CFHT-annotated.gif
JupiterXXIX (29)2 20,939,000627.21 (r)0.000662001 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [15] [16] [34]
Hermippe
Hermippe-discovery.gif
JupiterXXX (30)2 21,131,000633.9 (r)0.000652001 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [15] [16] [34]
Aitne
Aitne-discovery-CFHT-annotated.gif
JupiterXXXI (31)1.5 23,229,000730.18 (r)0.000452001 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Carme) [15] [16] [34]
Eurydome
Eurydome-discovery-CFHT-annotated.gif
JupiterXXXII (32)1.5 22,865,000717.33 (r)0.000452001 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [15] [16] [34]
Euanthe
Euanthe-discovery-CFHT-annotated.gif
JupiterXXXIII (33)1.5 20,797,000620.49 (r)0.000502001 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [15] [16] [34]
Euporie
Euporie-discovery-CFHT-annotated.gif
JupiterXXXIV (34)1 19,304,000550.74 (r)0.000362001 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [15] [16] [34]
Orthosie
Orthosie-discovery-CFHT-annotated.gif
JupiterXXXV (35)1 20,720,000622.56 (r)0.000332001 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [15] [16] [34]
Sponde
Sponde-discovery-CFHT-annotated.gif
JupiterXXXVI (36)1 23,487,000748.34 (r)0.000292001 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [15] [16] [34]
Kale
Kale-discovery-CFHT-annotated.gif
JupiterXXXVII (37)1 23,217,000729.47 (r)0.000302001 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Carme) [15] [16] [34]
Pasithee
Pasithee-discovery-CFHT-annotated.gif
JupiterXXXVIII (38)1 23,004,000719.44 (r)0.000302001 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Carme) [15] [16] [34]
Hegemone JupiterXXXIX (39)1.5 23,577,000739.88 (r)0.000442003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [15] [16]
Mneme
Mneme Discovery Image.jpg
JupiterXL (40)1 21,035,000620.04 (r)0.000332003 Gladman, Allen Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [15] [16]
Aoede JupiterXLI (41)2 23,980,000761.50 (r)0.000582003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández, Hsieh Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [15] [16]
Thelxinoe JupiterXLII (42)1 21,164,000628.09 (r)0.000332003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Gladman, Kavelaars, Petit, Allen Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [15] [16]
Arche
Bigs2002j1barrow.png
JupiterXLIII (43)1.5 23,355,000731.95 (r)0.000442002 Sheppard, Meech, Hsieh, Tholen, Tonry Retrograde irregular (Carme) [15] [16] [34]
Kallichore JupiterXLIV (44)1 23,288,000728.73 (r)0.000302003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández Retrograde irregular (Carme) [15] [16]
Helike
Helike CFHT 2003-02-25 annotated.gif
JupiterXLV (45)2 21,069,000626.32 (r)0.000652003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández, Hsieh Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [15] [16]
Carpo
Carpo CFHT 2003-02-25 annotated.gif
JupiterXLVI (46)1.5 17,058,000456.300.000612003 Sheppard, Gladman, Kavelaars, Petit, Allen, Jewitt, Kleyna Prograde irregular (Carpo) [15] [16]
Eukelade
Eukelade s2003j1movie arrow.gif
JupiterXLVII (47)2 23,328,000730.47 (r)0.000592003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández, Hsieh Retrograde irregular (Carme) [15] [16]
Cyllene JupiterXLVIII (48)1 23,809,000752 (r)0.000292003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [15] [16]
Kore
Kore s2003j14movie circled.gif
JupiterXLIX (49)1 24,543,000779.17 (r)0.000282003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [15] [16]
Herse JupiterL (50)1 22,983,000714.51 (r)0.000302003 Gladman, Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Kavelaars, Petit, Allen Retrograde irregular (Carme) [15] [16]
S/2010 J 1
2010 J 1 CFHT image.gif
JupiterLI (51)1 23,314,300723.2 (r)0.000302010 Jacobson, Brozović, Gladman, Alexandersen Retrograde irregular (Carme) [35]
S/2010 J 2
2010 J 2 CFHT discovery full.gif
JupiterLII (52)0.5 20,307,200588.1 (r)0.000172010 Veillet Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [35]
Dia
Dia-Jewitt-CFHT image-crop.png
JupiterLIII (53)2 12,118,000287.00.001142000 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández, Hsieh Prograde irregular (Himalia) [35]
S/2016 J 1
2016 J 1 CFHT 2003-02-26 annotated.gif
JupiterLIV (54)3 20,595,500602.7 (r)0.001002016 Sheppard Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [35]
S/2003 J 18
2003 J 18 CFHT recovery full.gif
JupiterLV (55)1 20,274,000588.0 (r)0.000342003 Gladman, Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Kavelaars, Petit, Allen Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [35]
S/2011 J 2 JupiterLVI (56)0.5 23,329,700726.8 (r)0.000152011 Sheppard Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [35]
Eirene JupiterLVII (57)2 23,731,800759.7 (r)0.000582003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández, Hsieh Retrograde irregular (Carme) [35]
Philophrosyne JupiterLVIII (58)1 22,820,000701.3 (r)0.000302003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [35]
S/2017 J 1
2016 J 1 CFHT 2003-02-26 annotated.gif
JupiterLIX (59)2 23,484,000734.2 (r)0.000592017 Sheppard Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [35]
Eupheme
Eupheme CFHT 2003-02-25 annotated.gif
JupiterLX (60)1 21,199,710627.8 (r)0.000332003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández, Hsieh Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [35]
S/2003 J 19 JupiterLXI (61)1 22,757,000697.6 (r)0.000302003 Gladman, Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Kavelaars, Petit, Allen Retrograde irregular (Carme) [35]
Valetudo
Valetudo CFHT precovery 2003-02-28 annotated.gif
JupiterLXII (62)0.5 18,928,100532.00.000182016 Sheppard Prograde irregular (Valetudo) [35]
S/2017 J 2
2017 J 2 CFHT 2003-02-26 annotated.gif
JupiterLXIII (63)1 23,241,000723.8 (r)0.000302017 Sheppard Retrograde irregular (Carme) [35]
S/2017 J 3
2017 J 3 CFHT 2003-12-25 annotated.gif
JupiterLXIV (64)1 20,639,300605.8 (r)0.000332017 Sheppard Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [35]
Pandia
Pandia CFHT precovery 2003-02-28.png
JupiterLXV (65)1.5 11,494,800251.80.000902017 Sheppard Prograde irregular (Himalia) [35]
S/2017 J 5 JupiterLXVI (66)1 23,169,400720.5 (r)0.000302017 Sheppard Retrograde irregular (Carme) [35]
S/2017 J 6 JupiterLXVII (67)1 22,394,700684.7 (r)0.000312017 Sheppard Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [35]
S/2017 J 7 JupiterLXVIII (68)1 20,571,500602.8 (r)0.000342017 Sheppard Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [35]
S/2017 J 8
2017 J 8 CFHT precovery full.gif
JupiterLXIX (69)0.5 23,174,400720.7 (r)0.000152017 Sheppard Retrograde irregular (Carme) [35]
S/2017 J 9 JupiterLXX (70)1 21,430,000640.9 (r)0.000322017 Sheppard Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [35]
Ersa
Ersa CFHT precovery 2003-02-24.png
JupiterLXXI (71)1.511,453,000250.40.000912018 Sheppard Prograde irregular (Himalia) [35]
S/2011 J 1 JupiterLXXII (72)0.5 20,155,300580.7 (r)0.000172011 Sheppard Retrograde irregular (Carme) [35]
S/2003 J 2
2003 J 2 Gladman CFHT annotated.gif
Jupiter1 20,554,400602.02 (r)0.000342003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández, Hsieh Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [15] [16]
S/2003 J 4
2003 J 4 Gladman CFHT annotated.gif
Jupiter1 22,048,600668.85 (r)0.000312003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández, Hsieh Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [15] [16]
S/2003 J 9
2003 J 9 Gladman CFHT annotated.gif
Jupiter0.5 24,168,700767.6 (r)0.000142003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández Retrograde irregular (Carme) [15] [36]
S/2003 J 10
2003 J 10 Gladman CFHT annotated.gif
Jupiter1 22,896,000707.78 (r)0.000302003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández Retrograde irregular (Carme?) [15] [16]
S/2003 J 12
2003 J 12 Gladman CFHT annotated.gif
Jupiter0.5 21,557,700646.64 (r)0.000162003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [15] [16]
S/2003 J 16
2003 J 16 CFHT recovery full.gif
Jupiter1 20,512,500600.18 (r)0.000342003 Gladman, Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Kavelaars, Petit, Allen Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [15] [37]
S/2003 J 23
S2003j23ccircle.gif
Jupiter1 24,678,100792.00 (r)0.000282003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [15] [16]
S/2003 J 24 Jupiter3 23,088,000715.4 (r)0.000902003Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Gladman, Kleyna, VeilletRetrograde irregular (Carme) [38]
Mimas
Mimas Cassini.jpg
Saturn I (1)198.2±0.4185,5400.94210.704141789 Herschel Main-group moon [15] [16]
Enceladus
PIA17202 - Approaching Enceladus.jpg
SaturnII (2)252.1±0.2238,0401.3709.639791789 Herschel Main-group moon [15] [16]
Tethys
PIA18317-SaturnMoon-Tethys-Cassini-20150411.jpg
SaturnIII (3)533.1±0.7294,6701.88815.502271684 Cassini Main-group moon (Sidera Lodoicea) [15] [16]
Dione
Dione3 cassini big.jpg
SaturnIV (4)561.4±0.4377,4202.73712.092881684 Cassini Main-group moon (Sidera Lodoicea) [15] [16]
Rhea
PIA07763 Rhea full globe5.jpg
SaturnV (5)763.8±1.0527,0704.51811.201101672 Cassini Main-group moon (Sidera Lodoicea) [15] [16]
Titan
Titan in natural color Cassini.jpg
SaturnVI (6)2,574.73±0.091,221,87015.9515.213101655 Huygens Main-group moon [15] [16]
Hyperion
Hyperion true.jpg
SaturnVII (7)1351,500,88021.280.643391848 W.Bond, G. Bond, and Lassell Main-group moon [15] [16]
Iapetus
Iapetus 706 1419 1.jpg
SaturnVIII (8)735.6±1.53,560,84079.331.443961671 Cassini Main-group moon (Sidera Lodoicea) [15] [16]
Phoebe
Phoebe cassini.jpg
SaturnIX (9)106.5±0.712,947,780550.31 (r)0.056811899 Pickering Retrograde irregular (Norse) [15] [16]
Janus
PIA12714 Janus crop.jpg
SaturnX (10)89.5±1.4151,4600.6956.600561966 Dollfus; Voyager 1 (confirmed) Inner moon (co-orbital) [15] [16]
Epimetheus PIA09813 Epimetheus S. polar region.jpg SaturnXI (11)58.1±1.8151,4100.6944.287131966 Walker; Voyager 1 (confirmed) Inner moon (co-orbital) [15] [16]
Helene
Cassini Helene N00086698 CL.jpg
SaturnXII (12)17.6±0.4377,4202.7370.379111980 Laques, Lecacheux Main-group trojan [15] [16]
Telesto
Telesto cassini closeup.jpg
SaturnXIII (13)12.4±0.4294,7101.8880.360521980 Smith, Reitsema, Larson, Fountain (Voyager 1)Main-group trojan [15] [16]
Calypso
Calypso N1644755236 1.jpg
SaturnXIV (14)10.7±0.7294,7101.8880.311101980 Pascu, Seidelmann, Baum, Currie Main-group trojan [15] [16]
Atlas
Atlas color PIA21449.png
SaturnXV (15)15.1±0.9137,6700.6021.306931980 Terrile (Voyager 1) Inner moon (shepherd) [15] [16]
Prometheus
Prometheus 12-26-09b.jpg
SaturnXVI (16)43.1±2.7139,3800.6133.651771980 Collins (Voyager 1) Inner moon (shepherd) [15] [16]
Pandora
Pandora PIA07632.jpg
SaturnXVII (17)40.7±1.5141,7200.6293.351771980 Collins (Voyager 1) Inner moon (shepherd) [15] [16]
Pan
Pan by Cassini, March 2017.jpg
SaturnXVIII (18)14.1133,5800.5751.286621990 Showalter (Voyager 2) Inner moon (shepherd) [15] [16]
Ymir
Ymir-CFHT.gif
SaturnXIX (19)9 23,140,4001,315.58 (r)0.002682000 Gladman Retrograde irregular (Norse) [15] [16]
Paaliaq
Paaliaq-CFHT.gif
SaturnXX (20)11 15,200,000686.950.004992000 Gladman Prograde irregular (Inuit) [15] [16]
Tarvos
Tarvos discovery.gif
SaturnXXI (21)7.5 17,983,000926.230.002882000 Gladman, Kavelaars Prograde irregular (Gallic) [15] [16]
Ijiraq
Ijiraq-discovery-CFHT.gif
SaturnXXII (22)6 11,124,000451.420.003732000 Gladman, Kavelaars Prograde irregular (Inuit) [15] [16]
Suttungr
Suttungr-discovery-CFHT.gif
SaturnXXIII (23)3.5 19,459,0001,016.67 (r)0.001242000 Gladman, Kavelaars Retrograde irregular (Norse) [15] [16]
Kiviuq
Kiviuq-CFHT.gif
SaturnXXIV (24)8 11,110,000449.220.004982000 Gladman Prograde irregular (Inuit) [15] [16]
Mundilfari
Mundilfari-discovery-CFHT.gif
SaturnXXV (25)3.5 18,628,000952.77 (r)0.001302000 Gladman, Kavelaars Retrograde irregular (Norse) [15] [16]
Albiorix
Albiorix WISE-W4.jpg
SaturnXXVI (26)16 16,182,000783.450.006822000 Holman, Spahr Prograde irregular (Gallic) [15] [16]
Skathi
Skathi-discovery-CFHT.gif
SaturnXXVII (27)4 15,540,000728.20 (r)0.001782000 Gladman, Kavelaars Retrograde irregular (Norse) [15] [16]
Erriapus
Erriapus-discovery-CFHT.gif
SaturnXXVIII (28)5 17,343,000871.190.001992000 Gladman, Kavelaars Prograde irregular (Gallic) [15] [16]
Siarnaq
Siarnaq-discovery-CFHT.gif
SaturnXXIX (29)20 18,015,400896.440.007662000 Gladman, Kavelaars Prograde irregular (Inuit) [15] [16]
Thrymr
Thrymr-discovery-CFHT.gif
SaturnXXX (30)3.5 20,314,0001,094.11 (r)0.001192000 Gladman, Kavelaars Retrograde irregular (Norse) [15] [16]
Narvi
Narvi.jpg
SaturnXXXI (31)3.5 19,007,0001,003.86 (r)0.001272003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [15] [16]
Methone
Methone PIA14633.jpg
SaturnXXXII (32)1.45194,4401.0100.073192004 Porco, Charnoz, Brahic, Dones (Cassini–Huygens) Alkyonide moon [16]
Pallene
Pallene N1665945513 1.jpg
SaturnXXXIII (33)2.22212,2801.1540.099082004 Gordon, Murray, Beurle, et al. (Cassini–Huygens) Alkyonide moon [16]
Polydeuces
Polydeuces.jpg
SaturnXXXIV (34)1.3377,2002.7370.028022004 Porco et al. (Cassini–Huygens)Main-group trojan [16]
Daphnis
Daphnis (Saturn's Moon).jpg
SaturnXXXV (35)3.8±0.8136,5000.5940.333812005 Porco et al. (Cassini–Huygens) Inner moon (shepherd) [16]
Aegir SaturnXXXVI (36)3 20,751,0001,117.52 (r)0.001002004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular (Norse) [15] [16]
Bebhionn
Bebhionn-cassini.png
SaturnXXXVII (37)3 17,119,000834.840.001212004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Prograde irregular (Gallic) [15] [16]
Bergelmir
Bergelmir.png
SaturnXXXVIII (38)3 19,336,0001,005.74 (r)0.001072004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular (Norse) [15] [16]
Bestla
Bestla-cassini.png
SaturnXXXIX (39)3.5 20,192,0001,088.72 (r)0.001202004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular (Norse) [15] [16]
Farbauti SaturnXL (40)2.5 20,377,0001,085.55 (r)0.000852004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular (Norse) [15] [16]
Fenrir SaturnXLI (41)2 22,454,0001,260.35 (r)0.000612004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular (Norse) [15] [16]
Fornjot
Fornjot-cassini.png
SaturnXLII (42)3 25,146,0001,494.2 (r)0.000822004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular (Norse) [15] [16]
Hati
Hati-cassini.png
SaturnXLIII (43)3 19,846,0001,038.61 (r)0.001042004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular (Norse) [15] [16]
Hyrrokkin
Hyrrokkin-cassini.png
SaturnXLIV (44)4 18,437,000931.86 (r)0.001502004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [16]
Kari
Kari-cassini.png
SaturnXLV (45)3.5 22,089,0001,230.97 (r)0.001092006 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [16]
Loge
Loge N00177425.jpg
SaturnXLVI (46)3 23,058,0001,311.36 (r)0.000902006 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [16]
Skoll SaturnXLVII (47)3 17,665,000878.29 (r)0.001172006 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [16]
Surtur SaturnXLVIII (48)3 22,704,0001,297.36 (r)0.000912006 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [16]
Anthe
Anthe crop.jpg
SaturnXLIX (49)0.9197,7001.03650.044372007 Porco et al. (Cassini–Huygens) Alkyonide moon [39]
Jarnsaxa SaturnL (50)3 18,811,000964.74 (r)0.001102006 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [16]
Greip
Greip-cassini.png
SaturnLI (51)3 18,206,000921.19 (r)0.001142006 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [16]
Tarqeq
Tarqeq-cassini.png
SaturnLII (52)3.5 18,009,000887.480.001342007 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Prograde irregular (Inuit) [16]
Aegaeon
N1643264379 1.jpg
SaturnLIII (53)0.33 167,5000.8080.020762008Cassini Imaging Science Team Cassini–Huygens G-ring moonlet [40] [41]
Gridr SaturnLIV (54)3 19,418,0001,010.55 (r)0.001072019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [42]
Angrboda SaturnLV (55)3 20,636,0001,107.13 (r)0.001002019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [43]
Skrymir SaturnLVI (56)4 21,163,0001,149.82 (r)0.001302019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [44]
Gerd SaturnLVII (57)4 21,174,0001,150.69 (r)0.001302019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [45]
S/2004 S 26 SaturnLVIII (58)4 26,676,0001,627.18 (r)0.001032019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular (Norse) [46]
Eggther SaturnLIX (59)6 19,976,0001,054.45 (r)0.002072019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden, JacobsonRetrograde irregular (Norse) [47]
S/2004 S 29 SaturnLX (60)4 16,981,000826.440.001632019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Prograde irregular (Inuit) [48]
Beli SaturnLXI (61)3 20,396,0001,087.84 (r)0.001012019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [49]
Gunnlod SaturnLXII (62)4 21,214,0001,153.96 (r)0.001302019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [50]
Thiazzi SaturnLXIII (63)4 24,168,0001,403.18 (r)0.001142019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [51]
S/2004 S 34 SaturnLXIV (64)3 24,299,0001,414.59 (r)0.000852019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [52]
Alvaldi SaturnLXV (65)6 22,412,0001,253.08 (r)0.001852019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular (Norse) [53]
Geirrod SaturnLXVI (66)4 21,908,0001,211.02 (r)0.001262019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [54]
S/2004 S 7 Saturn3 20,999,0001,140.24 (r)0.000982004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular (Norse?) [15] [16]
S/2004 S 12 Saturn2.5 19,878,0001,046.19 (r)0.000872004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular (Norse) [15] [16]
S/2004 S 13 Saturn3 18,404,000933.48 (r)0.001122004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular (Norse?) [15] [16]
S/2004 S 17 Saturn2 19,447,0001,014.70 (r)0.000712004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular (Norse?) [15] [16]
S/2004 S 21 Saturn3 22,645,0001,272.61 (r)0.000912019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [55]
S/2004 S 24 Saturn3 22,901,0001,294.250.000902019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Prograde irregular (group unknown, possibly Gallic) [56]
S/2004 S 28 Saturn4 22,020,0001,220.31 (r)0.001252019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular (Norse?) [57]
S/2004 S 31 Saturn4 17,568,000869.650.001572019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Prograde irregular (Inuit) [58]
S/2004 S 36 Saturn3 23,192,0001,319.07 (r)0.000892019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [59]
S/2004 S 37 Saturn4 15,892,000748.18 (r)0.001742019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [60]
S/2004 S 39 Saturn3 23,575,0001,351.83 (r)0.000882019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [61]
S/2006 S 1 Saturn3 18,790,000963.37 (r)0.001102006 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [16]
S/2006 S 3 Saturn3 22,096,0001,227.21 (r)0.000942006 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [16]
S/2007 S 2 Saturn3 16,725,000808.08 (r)0.001242007 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [16]
S/2007 S 3 Saturn3 18,975,000977.8 (r)0.001092007 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse?) [16]
S/2009 S 1
PIA11665 moonlet in B Ring cropped.jpg
Saturn0.15 117,0000.4710.017552009Cassini Imaging Science Team Cassini–Huygens B-ring moonlet [62]
S/2019 S 1 Saturn3 11,221,000443.80.001852021Ashton, Gladman, Petit, AlexandersenPrograde irregular (Inuit) [63]
Ariel
Ariel (moon).jpg
Uranus I (1)578.9±0.6190,9002.52024.044171851 Lassell Main-group moon [15] [16]
Umbriel
PIA00040 Umbrielx2.47.jpg
UranusII (2)584.7±2.8266,0004.14416.706011851 Lassell Main-group moon [15] [16]
Titania
Titania (moon) color cropped.jpg
UranusIII (3)788.9±1.8436,3008.70613.199261787 Herschel Main-group moon [15] [16]
Oberon
Voyager 2 picture of Oberon.jpg
UranusIV (4)761.4±2.6583,50013.469.379401787 Herschel Main-group moon [15] [16]
Miranda
PIA18185 Miranda's Icy Face.jpg
UranusV (5)235.8±0.7129,9001.41315.508631948 Kuiper Main-group moon [15] [16]
Cordelia
Cordeliamoon.png
UranusVI (6)20.1±349,8000.3355.655021986 Terrile (Voyager 2) Inner moon (shepherd) [15] [16]
Ophelia
Opheliamoon.png
UranusVII (7)21.4±453,8000.3765.173911986 Terrile (Voyager 2) Inner moon (shepherd) [15] [16]
Bianca
Biancamoon.png
UranusVIII (8)25.7±259,2000.4355.221951986 Smith (Voyager 2) Inner moon [15] [16]
Cressida
Cressida.png
UranusIX (9)39.8±261,8000.4647.509871986 Synnott (Voyager 2) Inner moon [15] [16]
Desdemona
Desdemonamoon.png
UranusX (10)32±462,7000.4745.892541986 Synnott (Voyager 2) Inner moon [15] [16]
Juliet
Julietmoon.png
UranusXI (11)46.8±464,4000.4938.242561986 Synnott (Voyager 2) Inner moon [15] [16]
Portia
Portia1.jpg
UranusXII (12)67.6±4.066,1000.51311.409091986 Synnott (Voyager 2) Inner moon [15] [16]
Rosalind
Rosalindmoon.png
UranusXIII (13)36±669,9000.5585.557451986 Synnott (Voyager 2) Inner moon [15] [16]
Belinda
Belinda.gif
UranusXIV (14)40.3±875,3000.6245.548531986 Synnott (Voyager 2) Inner moon [15] [16]
Puck
Puck.png
UranusXV (15)81±286,0000.7629.184261985 Synnott (Voyager 2) Inner moon [15] [16]
Caliban
Caliban discovery.jpg
UranusXVI (16)36.47,231,100579.73 (r)0.034731997 Gladman, Nicholson, Burns, Kavelaars Retrograde irregular [64] [16]
Sycorax
Uranus-sycorax2.gif
UranusXVII (17)9312,179,4001,288.38 (r)0.052611997 Gladman, Nicholson, Burns, Kavelaars Retrograde irregular [64] [16]
Prospero
Prospero - Uranus moon.jpg
UranusXVIII (18)25 16,256,0001,978.29 (r)0.010591999 Gladman, Holman, Kavelaars, Petit, Scholl Retrograde irregular [15] [16]
Setebos
Uranus - Setebos image.jpg
UranusXIX (19)24 17,418,0002,225.21 (r)0.009491999 Gladman, Holman, Kavelaars, Petit, Scholl Retrograde irregular [15] [16]
Stephano
Stephano - Uranus moon.jpg
UranusXX (20)168,004,000677.36 (r)0.013791999 Gladman, Holman, Kavelaars, Petit, Scholl Retrograde irregular [15] [16]
Trinculo UranusXXI (21)9.58,504,000749.24 (r)0.007702001 Holman, Kavelaars, Milisavljevic Retrograde irregular [15] [16]
Francisco UranusXXII (22)114,276,000266.56 (r)0.017792001 Holman, Kavelaars, Milisavljevic, Gladman Retrograde irregular [15] [16]
Margaret
S2003u3acircle.gif
UranusXXIII (23)1014,345,0001,687.010.004802003 Sheppard, Jewitt Prograde irregular [15] [16]
Ferdinand
Uranus moon 021002 02.jpg
UranusXXIV (24)1020,901,0002,887.21 (r)0.003292001 Holman, Kavelaars, Milisavljevic, et al.Retrograde irregular [15] [16]
Perdita
Perditamoon.png
UranusXXV (25)15 76,4170.6382.020031999 Karkoschka (Voyager 2) Inner moon [16]
Mab
Mabmoon.png
UranusXXVI (26)1297,7360.9231.139992003 Showalter, Lissauer Inner moon [16]
Cupid
Cupidmoon.png
UranusXXVII (27)9 74,3920.6131.262072003 Showalter, Lissauer Inner moon [16]
Triton
Triton2.jpg
Neptune I (1)1,353.4±0.9354,8005.877 (r)28.182661846 Lassell Retrograde irregular [15] [16]
Nereid
Nereid-Voyager2.jpg
NeptuneII (2)170±255,513,820360.140.212931949 Kuiper Prograde irregular [65] [16]
Naiad
Naiad Voyager.png
NeptuneIII (3)33±348,2240.2949.613221989 Terrile (Voyager 2) Inner moon [15] [16]
Thalassa
Neptune Trio.jpg
NeptuneIV (4)41±350,0750.31111.075131989 Terrile (Voyager 2) Inner moon [15] [16]
Despina
Despina.jpg
NeptuneV (5)78±4.752,5260.33519.219051989 Synnott (Voyager 2) Inner moon [15] [16]
Galatea
Galatea moon.jpg
NeptuneVI (6)88±461,9530.42916.207531989 Synnott (Voyager 2) Inner moon [15] [16]
Larissa
Larissa 1.jpg
NeptuneVII (7)97±373,5480.55513.631261981 Reitsema, Hubbard, Lebofsky, Tholen (Voyager 2) Inner moon [15] [16]
Proteus
Proteus (Voyager 2).jpg
NeptuneVIII (8)210±7117,6471.12215.521141989 Synnott (Voyager 2) Inner moon [15] [16]
Halimede
N2002n1b.jpg
NeptuneIX (9)31 15,728,0001,879.71 (r)0.013572002 Holman, Kavelaars, Grav, Fraser, Milisavljevic Retrograde irregular [15] [16]
Psamathe
Psmathe feat.jpg
NeptuneX (10)20 46,695,0009,115.91 (r)0.002952003 Jewitt, Kleyna, Sheppard, Holman, Kavelaars Retrograde irregular [15] [16]
Sao
Sao VLT-FORS1 2002-09-03 annotated.gif
NeptuneXI (11)22 22,422,0002,914.070.006752002 Holman, Kavelaars, Grav, Fraser, Milisavljevic Prograde irregular [15] [16]
Laomedeia
Laomedeia VLT-FORS1 2002-09-03 annotated.gif
NeptuneXII (12)21 23,571,0003,167.850.006132002 Holman, Kavelaars, Grav, Fraser, Milisavljevic Prograde irregular [15] [16]
Neso
Neso VLT-FORS1 2002-09-03.gif
NeptuneXIII (13)30 48,387,0009,373.99 (r)0.004262002 Holman, Kavelaars, Grav, Fraser, Milisavljevic Retrograde irregular [15] [16]
Hippocamp Hippocamp-heic1904b.jpg NeptuneXIV (14)17.4105,2830.93621.483172013 Showalter et al. Inner moon [66]
Vanth Orcus-vanth hst2.jpg Orcus I (1)221±59,000±99.539178.32646 [67] 2005Brown & Suer Synchronous rotation [68]
(unnamed)
2003AZ84 Hubble.png
2003 AZ84 72±12(unknown)(unknown)(unknown)2005Brown & Suer [69]
Charon Charon in True Color - High-Res.jpg Pluto I (1)606±0.519,5916.387225.95169 [70] 1978 Christy Synchronous rotation [15] [16]
Nix Nix best view.jpg PlutoII (2)22.548,67124.853.255442005 Weaver, Stern, Buie, et al. Chaotic rotation [15] [16]
Hydra Hydra Enhanced Color.jpg PlutoIII (3)27.564,69838.202.975372005 Weaver, Stern, Buie, et al. Chaotic rotation [15] [16]
Kerberos Kerberos (moon).jpg PlutoIV (4)757,72932.170.850662011 Showalter (Hubble) Chaotic rotation [15] [16] [71] [72]
Styx Styx (moon).jpg PlutoV (5)5.542,39320.160.916912012 Showalter (Hubble) Chaotic rotation [15] [16] [73]
Actaea Salacia Hubble.png Salacia I (1)142±55,724±275.494184.52468 [74] 2006Noll et al. [68]
Hiʻiaka Haumea Hubble.png Haumea I (1)≈160 49,88049.1222.33209 [75] 2005Brown et al. [8] [76] [77]
Namaka HaumeaII (2)≈8525,65718.278323.342132005Brown et al. [8] [76] [77]
Weywot Quaoar-weywot hst.jpg Quaoar I (1)3714,500±80012.43819.08427 [78] 2007Brown [79]
S/2015 (136472) 1 Makemake moon Hubble image with legend (cropped).jpg Makemake ≈87.5 >21,000>12.4<29.65766 [80] 2016Parker et al. [81] [82]
Ilmarë Varda-ilmare hst.jpg Varda I (1)163±18 [83] 4,809±395.751251.47660 [84] 2009Noll et al. [85]
(unnamed)
2013FY27.gif
2013 FY27 95(unknown)(unknown)(unknown)2018Sheppard [86]
Xiangliu 2007 OR10 and its moon.png Gonggong I (1)<100 [87] 24,020±20025.22144.35325 [88] 2010Marton, Kiss & Müllerassuming a prograde orbit [87]
Dysnomia
Eris and dysnomia2.jpg
Eris I (1)350±60 [7] 37,273±6415.78666.64145 [89] 2005 Brown, Rabinowitz, Trujillo et al. SDO moon [90]

Unconfirmed satellites

There are several moons in the Solar System where their existence is questioned, or they may be not orbiting around their supposed parent planet. Only Saturn and Neptune currently have unconfirmed moons.

Satellites of planets
Satellites of Saturn Satellites of Neptune
NameImageParentMean radius (km)Orbital semi-major axis (km) Sidereal period (d)
(r = retrograde)
Discovery yearDiscovered byNotesRef(s)
S/2004 S 3
S2004 S 3 - PIA06115.png
Saturn 3—5140,100—140,6000.622004Cassini Imaging Science Team
Cassini–Huygens
Most likely have been a transient clump. [91]
S/2004 S 4
S2004 S 3 - PIA06115.png
Saturn 3—5140,1000.6182004Cassini Imaging Science Team
Cassini–Huygens
Most likely have been a transient clump. Seen 5 hours after S/2004 S 3. [91]
S/2004 S 6
S2004 S6.jpg
Saturn < ~2140,1340.6182004Cassini Imaging Science Team
Cassini–Huygens
Unclear if it is a transient clump or a small moonlet. [91]
c02N4 Neptune 3325,100,000(unknown)2002 Matthew J. Holman Subsequently lost, possibly a centaur but unlikely. [92]

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Orbital resonance</span> Regular and periodic gravitational influence by two orbiting celestial bodies exerted on each other

In celestial mechanics, orbital resonance occurs when orbiting bodies exert regular, periodic gravitational influence on each other, usually because their orbital periods are related by a ratio of small integers. Most commonly, this relationship is found between a pair of objects. The physical principle behind orbital resonance is similar in concept to pushing a child on a swing, whereby the orbit and the swing both have a natural frequency, and the body doing the "pushing" will act in periodic repetition to have a cumulative effect on the motion. Orbital resonances greatly enhance the mutual gravitational influence of the bodies. In most cases, this results in an unstable interaction, in which the bodies exchange momentum and shift orbits until the resonance no longer exists. Under some circumstances, a resonant system can be self-correcting and thus stable. Examples are the 1:2:4 resonance of Jupiter's moons Ganymede, Europa and Io, and the 2:3 resonance between Pluto and Neptune. Unstable resonances with Saturn's inner moons give rise to gaps in the rings of Saturn. The special case of 1:1 resonance between bodies with similar orbital radii causes large solar system bodies to eject most other bodies sharing their orbits; this is part of the much more extensive process of clearing the neighbourhood, an effect that is used in the current definition of a planet.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Planet</span> Astronomical object

A planet is a large, rounded astronomical body that is neither a star nor its remnant. The best available theory of planet formation is the nebular hypothesis, which posits that an interstellar cloud collapses out of a nebula to create a young protostar orbited by a protoplanetary disk. Planets grow in this disk by the gradual accumulation of material driven by gravity, a process called accretion. The Solar System has at least eight planets: the terrestrial planets Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars, and the giant planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. These planets each rotate around an axis tilted with respect to its orbital pole. All of them possess an atmosphere, although that of Mercury is tenuous, and some share such features as ice caps, seasons, volcanism, hurricanes, tectonics, and even hydrology. Apart from Venus and Mars, the Solar System planets generate magnetic fields, and all except Venus and Mercury have natural satellites. The giant planets bear planetary rings, the most prominent being those of Saturn.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Solar System</span> The Sun and objects orbiting it

The Solar System is the gravitationally bound system of the Sun and the objects that orbit it. It formed 4.6 billion years ago from the gravitational collapse of a giant interstellar molecular cloud. The vast majority (99.86%) of the system's mass is in the Sun, with most of the remaining mass contained in the planet Jupiter. The four inner system planets—Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars—are terrestrial planets, being composed primarily of rock and metal. The four giant planets of the outer system are substantially larger and more massive than the terrestrials. The two largest, Jupiter and Saturn, are gas giants, being composed mainly of hydrogen and helium; the next two, Uranus and Neptune, are ice giants, being composed mostly of volatile substances with relatively high melting points compared with hydrogen and helium, such as water, ammonia, and methane. All eight planets have nearly circular orbits that lie near the plane of Earth's orbit, called the ecliptic.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Trans-Neptunian object</span> Solar system objects beyond Neptune

A trans-Neptunian object (TNO), also written transneptunian object, is any minor planet in the Solar System that orbits the Sun at a greater average distance than Neptune, which has a semi-major axis of 30.1 astronomical units (au).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pluto</span> Dwarf planet

Pluto is a dwarf planet in the Kuiper belt, a ring of bodies beyond the orbit of Neptune. It is the ninth-largest and tenth-most-massive known object to directly orbit the Sun. It is the largest known trans-Neptunian object by volume, by a small margin, but is slightly less massive than Eris. Like other Kuiper belt objects, Pluto is made primarily of ice and rock and is much smaller than the inner planets. Compared to Earth's moon, Pluto has only one sixth its mass and one third its volume.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Himalia (moon)</span> Moon of Jupiter (Jupiter VI)

Himalia, or Jupiter VI, is the largest irregular satellite of Jupiter, with a diameter of at least 140 km (90 mi). It is the sixth largest Jovian satellite, after the four Galilean moons and Amalthea. It was discovered by Charles Dillon Perrine at the Lick Observatory on 3 December 1904 and is named after the nymph Himalia, who bore three sons of Zeus. It is one of the largest planetary moons in the Solar System not imaged in detail, and the third largest not imaged in detail within the orbit of Neptune.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">90482 Orcus</span> Trans-Neptunian object and dwarf planet

Orcus is a trans-Neptunian dwarf planet with a large moon, Vanth. It has a diameter of 910 km (570 mi). The surface of Orcus is relatively bright with albedo reaching 23 percent, neutral in color and rich in water ice. The ice is predominantly in crystalline form, which may be related to past cryovolcanic activity. Other compounds like methane or ammonia may also be present on its surface. Orcus was discovered by American astronomers Michael Brown, Chad Trujillo, and David Rabinowitz on 17 February 2004.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Timeline of discovery of Solar System planets and their moons</span> Wikimedia project directory

The timeline of discovery of Solar System planets and their natural satellites charts the progress of the discovery of new bodies over history. Each object is listed in chronological order of its discovery, identified through its various designations, and the discoverer(s) listed. Historically the naming of moons did not always match the times of their discovery. Traditionally, the discoverer enjoys the privilege of naming the new object; however, some neglected to do so or actively declined. The issue arose nearly as soon as planetary satellites were discovered: Galileo referred to the four main satellites of Jupiter using numbers while the names suggested by his rival Simon Marius gradually gained universal acceptance. The International Astronomical Union (IAU) eventually started officially approving names in the late 1970s.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Quasi-satellite</span>

A quasi-satellite is an object in a specific type of co-orbital configuration with a planet where the object stays close to that planet over many orbital periods.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Makemake</span> Dwarf planet in the Outer Solar System

Makemake is a dwarf planet and – depending on how they are defined – the second-largest Kuiper belt object in the classical population, with a diameter approximately 60% that of Pluto. It has one known satellite. Its extremely low average temperature, about 40 K (−230 °C), means its surface is covered with methane, ethane, and possibly nitrogen ices.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Moons of Pluto</span> Natural satellites orbiting Pluto

The dwarf planet Pluto has five natural satellites. In order of distance from Pluto, they are Charon, Styx, Nix, Kerberos, and Hydra. Charon, the largest, is mutually tidally locked with Pluto, and is massive enough that Pluto–Charon is sometimes considered a double dwarf planet.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Formation and evolution of the Solar System</span> Modelling its structure and composition

The formation of the Solar System began about 4.6 billion years ago with the gravitational collapse of a small part of a giant molecular cloud. Most of the collapsing mass collected in the center, forming the Sun, while the rest flattened into a protoplanetary disk out of which the planets, moons, asteroids, and other small Solar System bodies formed.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Dwarf planet</span> Small planetary-mass object

A dwarf planet is a small planetary-mass object that is in direct orbit of the Sun, smaller than any of the eight classical planets but still a world in its own right. The prototypical dwarf planet is Pluto. The interest of dwarf planets to planetary geologists is that, since they are possibly differentiated and geologically active bodies, they may display planetary geology, an expectation that was borne out by the Dawn mission to Ceres and the New Horizons mission to Pluto, both in 2015.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Habitability of natural satellites</span> Measure of the potential of natural satellites to have environments hospitable to life

The habitability of natural satellites is a measure of their potential to sustain life in favorable circumstances. Habitable environments do not necessarily harbor life. Natural satellite habitability is a new area that is significant to astrobiology for various reasons, the most important of which being that natural satellites are expected to outnumber planets by a large margin, and it is projected that habitability parameters will be comparable to those of planets. There are, nevertheless, significant environmental variables that affect moons as prospective alien life locations. The strongest candidates for natural satellite habitability are currently icy satellites such as those of Jupiter and Saturn—Europa and Enceladus respectively, although if life exists in either place, it would probably be confined to subsurface habitats. Historically, life on Earth was thought to be strictly a surface phenomenon, but recent studies have shown that up to half of Earth's biomass could live below the surface. Europa and Enceladus exist outside the circumstellar habitable zone which has historically defined the limits of life within the Solar System as the zone in which water can exist as liquid at the surface. In the Solar System's habitable zone, there are only three natural satellites—the Moon, and Mars's moons Phobos and Deimos —none of which sustain an atmosphere or water in liquid form. Tidal forces are likely to play as significant a role providing heat as stellar radiation in the potential habitability of natural satellites.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Planetary-mass object</span> Size-based definition of celestial objects

A planetary-mass object (PMO), planemo, or planetary body is by geophysical definition of celestial objects any celestial object massive enough to achieve hydrostatic equilibrium, but not enough to sustain core fusion like a star.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Planetary-mass moon</span> Moons comparable in size to small planets

A planetary-mass moon is a planetary-mass object that is also a natural satellite. They are large and ellipsoidal in shape. Two moons in the Solar System are larger than the planet Mercury : Ganymede and Titan, and seven are larger and more massive than the dwarf planet Pluto.

The International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) is the internationally recognized body charged with fostering agreement on nomenclature and classification across geoscientific disciplines. However, they have yet to create a formal definition of the term planet. As a result, there are various geophysical definitions in use among professional geophysicists, planetary scientists, and other professionals in the geosciences. As such, many professionals do not use the definition voted on by the International Astronomical Union.

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