List of natural satellites

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The Solar System's planets, and its most likely dwarf planets, are known to be orbited by at least 219 natural satellites, or moons. At least 19 of them are large enough to be gravitationally rounded; of these, all are covered by a crust of ice except for Earth's Moon and Jupiter's Io. [1] Several of the largest ones are in hydrostatic equilibrium and would therefore be considered dwarf planets or planets if they were in direct orbit around the Sun and not in their current states (orbiting planets or dwarf planets).

Contents

Moons are classed in two separate categories according to their orbits: regular moons, which have prograde orbits (they orbit in the direction of their planets' rotation) and lie close to the plane of their equators, and irregular moons, whose orbits can be pro- or retrograde (against the direction of their planets' rotation) and often lie at extreme angles to their planets' equators. Irregular moons are probably minor planets that have been captured from surrounding space. Most irregular moons are less than 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) in diameter.

The earliest published discovery of a moon other than the Earth's was by Galileo Galilei, who discovered the four Galilean moons orbiting Jupiter in 1610. Over the following three centuries only a few more moons were discovered. Missions to other planets in the 1970s, most notably the Voyager 1 and 2 missions, saw a surge in the number of moons detected, and observations since the year 2000, using mostly large, ground-based optical telescopes, have discovered many more, all of which are irregular.

Moons by primary

Some moons, minor planets and comets of the Solar System to scale Small bodies of the Solar System.jpg
Some moons, minor planets and comets of the Solar System to scale
Selected moons, with Earth to scale. Nineteen moons are large enough to be round, and one, Titan, has a substantial atmosphere. Moons of solar system v7.jpg
Selected moons, with Earth to scale. Nineteen moons are large enough to be round, and one, Titan, has a substantial atmosphere.
The number of moons discovered in each year until November 2019 Moons vs time.SVG
The number of moons discovered in each year until November 2019

Mercury, the smallest and innermost planet, has no moons, or at least none that can be detected to a diameter of 1.6 km (1.0 mi). [2] For a very short time in 1974, Mercury was thought to have a moon.

Venus also has no moons, [3] though reports of a moon around Venus have circulated since the 17th century.

Earth has one Moon, the largest moon of any rocky planet in the Solar System. Earth also has more than 20 known co-orbitals, including the asteroids 3753 Cruithne and 469219 Kamoʻoalewa, and the occasional temporary satellite, like 2020 CD3; however, since they do not permanently orbit Earth, they are not considered moons. (See Other moons of Earth and Quasi-satellite.)

Mars has two known moons, Phobos and Deimos ("fear" and "dread", after attendants of Ares, the Greek god of war, equivalent to the Roman Mars). Searches for more satellites have been unsuccessful, putting the maximum radius of any other satellites at 90 m (100 yd). [4]

Jupiter has 80 moons with known orbits; 72 of them have received permanent designations, and 57 have been named. Its eight regular moons are grouped into the planet-sized Galilean moons and the far smaller Amalthea group. They are named after lovers of Zeus, the Greek equivalent of Jupiter. Its 72 known irregular moons are organized into two categories: prograde and retrograde. The prograde satellites consist of the Himalia group and three others in groups of one. The retrograde moons are grouped into the Carme, Ananke and Pasiphae groups.

Saturn has 83 moons with known orbits; 66 of them have received permanent designations, and 53 have been named. Most of them are quite small. Seven moons are large enough to be in hydrostatic equilibrium, including Titan, the second largest moon in the Solar System. Including these large moons, 24 of Saturn's moons are regular, and traditionally named after Titans or other figures associated with the mythological Saturn. The remaining 59, all small, are irregular, and classified by their orbital characteristics into Inuit, Norse, and Gallic groups, and their names are chosen from the corresponding mythologies. The rings of Saturn are made up of icy objects ranging in size from one centimetre to hundreds of metres, each of which is on its own orbit about the planet. Thus a precise number of Saturnian moons cannot be given, as there is no objective boundary between the countless small anonymous objects that form Saturn's ring system and the larger objects that have been named as moons. At least 150 "moonlets" embedded in the rings have been detected by the disturbance they create in the surrounding ring material, though this is thought to be only a small sample of the total population of such objects.

Uranus has 27 moons, five of which are massive enough to have achieved hydrostatic equilibrium. There are 13 moons that orbit within Uranus's ring system, and another nine outer irregular moons. Unlike most planetary moons, which are named from antiquity, all the moons of Uranus are named after characters from the works of Shakespeare and Alexander Pope's work The Rape of the Lock .

Neptune has 14 moons; the largest, Triton, accounts for more than 99.5 percent of all the mass orbiting the planet. Triton is large enough to have achieved hydrostatic equilibrium, but, uniquely for a large moon, has a retrograde orbit, suggesting it was a dwarf planet that was captured. Neptune also has seven known inner regular satellites, and six outer irregular satellites.

Pluto, a dwarf planet, has five moons. Its largest moon Charon, named after the ferryman who took souls across the River Styx, is more than half as large as Pluto itself, and large enough to orbit a point outside Pluto's surface. In effect, each orbits the other, forming a binary system informally referred to as a double-dwarf-planet. Pluto's four other moons, Nix, Hydra, Kerberos and Styx are far smaller and orbit the Pluto–Charon system. [5]

Among the other dwarf planets, Ceres has no known moons. It is 90 percent certain that Ceres has no moons larger than 1 km in size, assuming that they would have the same albedo as Ceres itself. [6] Eris has one large known moon, Dysnomia. Accurately determining its size is difficult: one indicative estimate of its radius is 350±57.5 km. [7]

Two objects were named as dwarf planets, under the expectation that they would prove to be so (though this remains uncertain). Haumea has two moons, Hiʻiaka and Namaka, of radii ~195 and ~100 km, respectively. [8] Makemake has one moon, discovered in April 2016.

A number of other objects in the Kuiper belt and scattered disk may turn out to be dwarf planets. Orcus, Quaoar, Gonggong, and Sedna are generally agreed to be dwarf planets among astronomers, and all but Sedna are known to have moons. [9] A number of other smaller objects, such as Salacia, Varda, and 2013 FY27 , also have moons, although their dwarf planethood is more doubtful. This list includes all objects with best estimated diameter above 700 km, including 2003 AZ84 whose satellite has not been seen since its initial discovery.

As of August 2020, 309 asteroid moons and 119 trans-Neptunian moons (including those of Pluto and the other dwarf planets) had been discovered. [10]

Summary – number of moons
Planet Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune
Number of moons00 1 2 80 83 27 14
(Possible) dwarf Ceres Orcus 2003 AZ84 Pluto Ixion Salacia 2002 MS4 Haumea Quaoar Make-
make
Varda 2002 AW197 2013 FY27 Gong-
gong
Eris Sedna
Number of moons0 1 1 5 0 1 0 2 1 1 1 01 1 1 0
Minor planet
See list

Due to Earth's varying distance from these planets (as well as their distance to the Sun), the limits at which we are able to detect new moons is very inconsistent. As the below graph demonstrates, the absolute magnitude (total inherent brightness, abbreviated H) of moons we have detected around planets peaks at H = 17 for Jupiter, H = 16 for Saturn, H = 13 for Uranus, and H = 11 for Neptune. Smaller moons may (and most likely do) exist around each of these planets, but are currently undetectable from Earth. Although spacecraft have visited all of these planets, Earth-based telescopes continue to outperform them in moon-detection ability.

Planetary moons by absolute magnitude

List

This is a list of the recognized moons of the planets and of the largest potential dwarf planets of the Solar System, ordered by their official Roman numeral designations. Moons that do not yet have official Roman numeral designations (because their orbits are not yet known well enough) are listed after those that do.

The 19 moons that are known to be large enough to have been rounded by their own gravity are listed in bold. The seven largest moons, which are larger than any of the known dwarf planets, are listed in bold and italic. Sidereal period differs from semi-major axis because a moon's speed depends both on the mass of its primary and its distance from it.

Satellites of planets
Satellite of Earth Satellites of Jupiter Satellites of Uranus
Satellites of Mars Satellites of Saturn Satellites of Neptune
Satellites of generally agreed dwarf planets
Satellite of Orcus Satellites of Pluto Satellites of Haumea
Satellite of Quaoar Satellite of Makemake Satellite of Gonggong
Satellite of Eris
Satellites of other dwarf planet candidates
Satellite of 2003 AZ84 Satellite of Salacia Satellite of Varda
Satellite of 2013 FY27
ImageParentNumeralNameMean radius (km)Orbital semi-major axis (km) Sidereal period (d)
(r = retrograde)
Discovery yearDiscovered byNotesRef(s)
FullMoon2010.jpg
Earth I (1) Moon 1,738384,39927.321582 Prehistoric Synchronous rotation [11]
Phobos colour 2008.jpg
Mars I (1) Phobos 11.2679,3800.3191877 Hall [12] [13] [14]
Deimos-MRO.jpg
MarsII (2) Deimos 6.2±0.1823,4601.2621877 Hall [12] [13] [14]
Io highest resolution true color frame.jpg
Jupiter I (1) Io 1,821.6±0.5421,8001.7691610 Galileo Main-group moon (Galilean) [14] [15]
Europa-moon.jpg
JupiterII (2) Europa 1,560.8±0.5671,1003.5511610 Galileo Main-group moon (Galilean) [14] [15]
Ganymede JunoGill 2217.jpg
JupiterIII (3) Ganymede 2,634.1±0.31,070,4007.1551610 Galileo Main-group moon (Galilean) [14] [15]
Callisto.jpg
JupiterIV (4) Callisto 2,410.3±1.51,882,70016.691610 Galileo Main-group moon (Galilean) [14] [15]
Amalthea (moon).png
JupiterV (5) Amalthea 83.5±2181,4000.4981892 Barnard Inner moon (Amalthea) [13] [14] [16]
Cassini-Huygens Image of Himalia.png
JupiterVI (6) Himalia 69.811,461,000250.561904 Perrine Prograde irregular (Himalia) [13] [14] [17] [18]
Elara - New Horizons.png
JupiterVII (7) Elara 43 11,741,000259.641905 Perrine Prograde irregular (Himalia) [13] [14] [19]
Pasiphae.jpg
JupiterVIII (8) Pasiphae 30 23,624,000743.63 (r)1908 Melotte Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [13] [14] [20]
Sinope.jpg
JupiterIX (9) Sinope 19 23,939,000758.90 (r)1914 Nicholson Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [13] [14] [21]
Lysithea2.jpg
JupiterX (10) Lysithea 18 11,717,000259.201938 Nicholson Prograde irregular (Himalia) [13] [14] [22]
Carme.jpg
JupiterXI (11) Carme 23 23,404,000734.17 (r)1938 Nicholson Retrograde irregular (Carme) [13] [14] [22]
Ananke.jpg
JupiterXII (12) Ananke 14 21,276,000629.77 (r)1951 Nicholson Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [13] [14] [23]
Leda WISE-W3.jpg
JupiterXIII (13) Leda 10 11,165,000240.921974 Kowal Prograde irregular (Himalia) [13] [14] [24]
Thebe.jpg
JupiterXIV (14) Thebe 49.3±2.0221,9000.6751979 Synnott (Voyager 1) Inner moon (Amalthea) [13] [14] [25]
Adrastea.jpg
JupiterXV (15) Adrastea 8.2±2.0129,0000.2981979 Jewitt, Danielson (Voyager 1) Inner moon (Amalthea) [13] [14] [26]
Metis.jpg
JupiterXVI (16) Metis 21.5±2.0128,0000.2951979 Synnott (Voyager 1) Inner moon (Amalthea) [13] [14] [27]
Callirrhoe - New Horizons.gif
JupiterXVII (17) Callirrhoe 4.5 24,103,000758.77 (r)2000 Scotti, Spahr, McMillan, Larsen, Montani, Gleason, Gehrels Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [13] [14] [28]
S 2000 J 1.jpg
JupiterXVIII (18) Themisto 4 7,284,000130.021975/2000 Kowal and Roemer (original); Sheppard, Jewitt, Fernández, Magnier (rediscovery)Prograde irregular (Themisto) [13] [14] [29] [30]
Megaclite-Jewitt-CFHT-annotated.gif
JupiterXIX (19) Megaclite 2.7 23,493,000752.86 (r)2000 Sheppard, Jewitt, Fernández, Magnier, Dahm, EvansRetrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [13] [14] [31]
Taygete-Jewitt-CFHT-annotated.gif
JupiterXX (20) Taygete 2.5 23,280,000732.41 (r)2000 Sheppard, Jewitt, Fernández, Magnier, Dahm, EvansRetrograde irregular (Carme) [13] [14] [31]
Chaldene-Jewitt-CFHT-annotated.gif
JupiterXXI (21) Chaldene 1.9 23,100,000723.72 (r)2000 Sheppard, Jewitt, Fernández, Magnier, Dahm, EvansRetrograde irregular (Carme) [13] [14] [31]
Harpalyke-Jewitt-CFHT-annotated.gif
JupiterXXII (22) Harpalyke 2.2 20,858,000623.32 (r)2000 Sheppard, Jewitt, Fernández, Magnier, Dahm, EvansRetrograde irregular (Ananke) [13] [14] [31]
Kalyke-Jewitt-CFHT-annotated.gif
JupiterXXIII (23) Kalyke 2.6 23,483,000742.06 (r)2000 Sheppard, Jewitt, Fernández, Magnier, Dahm, EvansRetrograde irregular (Carme) [13] [14] [31]
Iocaste-Jewitt-CFHT-annotated.gif
JupiterXXIV (24) Iocaste 2.6 21,060,000631.60 (r)2000 Sheppard, Jewitt, Fernández, Magnier, Dahm, EvansRetrograde irregular (Ananke) [13] [14] [31]
Erinome-Jewitt-CFHT-annotated.gif
JupiterXXV (25) Erinome 1.6 23,196,000728.46 (r)2000 Sheppard, Jewitt, Fernández, Magnier, Dahm, EvansRetrograde irregular (Carme) [13] [14] [31]
Isonoe-Jewitt-CFHT-annotated.gif
JupiterXXVI (26) Isonoe 2 23,155,000726.23 (r)2000 Sheppard, Jewitt, Fernández, Magnier, Dahm, EvansRetrograde irregular (Carme) [13] [14] [31]
Praxidike-Jewitt-CFHT-annotated.gif
JupiterXXVII (27) Praxidike 3.5 20,908,000625.39 (r)2000 Sheppard, Jewitt, Fernández, Magnier, Dahm, EvansRetrograde irregular (Ananke) [13] [14] [31]
Autonoe-discovery-CFHT-annotated.gif
JupiterXXVIII (28) Autonoe 2 24,046,000760.95 (r)2001 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae)
Thyone-discovery-CFHT-annotated.gif
JupiterXXIX (29) Thyone 2 20,939,000627.21 (r)2001 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [13] [14] [32]
Hermippe-discovery.gif
JupiterXXX (30) Hermippe 2 21,131,000633.9 (r)2001 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [13] [14] [32]
Aitne-discovery-CFHT-annotated.gif
JupiterXXXI (31) Aitne 1.5 23,229,000730.18 (r)2001 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Carme) [13] [14] [32]
Eurydome-discovery-CFHT-annotated.gif
JupiterXXXII (32) Eurydome 1.5 22,865,000717.33 (r)2001 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [13] [14] [32]
Euanthe-discovery-CFHT-annotated.gif
JupiterXXXIII (33) Euanthe 1.5 20,797,000620.49 (r)2001 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [13] [14] [32]
Euporie-discovery-CFHT-annotated.gif
JupiterXXXIV (34) Euporie 1 19,304,000550.74 (r)2001 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [13] [14] [32]
Orthosie-discovery-CFHT-annotated.gif
JupiterXXXV (35) Orthosie 1 20,720,000622.56 (r)2001 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [13] [14] [32]
Sponde-discovery-CFHT-annotated.gif
JupiterXXXVI (36) Sponde 1 23,487,000748.34 (r)2001 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [13] [14] [32]
Kale-discovery-CFHT-annotated.gif
JupiterXXXVII (37) Kale 1 23,217,000729.47 (r)2001 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Carme) [13] [14] [32]
Pasithee-discovery-CFHT-annotated.gif
JupiterXXXVIII (38) Pasithee 1 23,004,000719.44 (r)2001 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Carme) [13] [14] [32]
JupiterXXXIX (39) Hegemone 1.5 23,577,000739.88 (r)2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [13] [14]
Mneme Discovery Image.jpg
JupiterXL (40) Mneme 1 21,035,000620.04 (r)2003 Gladman, Allen Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [13] [14]
JupiterXLI (41) Aoede 2 23,980,000761.50 (r)2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández, Hsieh Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [13] [14]
JupiterXLII (42) Thelxinoe 1 21,164,000628.09 (r)2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Gladman, Kavelaars, Petit, Allen Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [13] [14]
Bigs2002j1barrow.png
JupiterXLIII (43) Arche 1.5 23,355,000731.95 (r)2002 Sheppard, Meech, Hsieh, Tholen, Tonry Retrograde irregular (Carme) [13] [14] [32]
JupiterXLIV (44) Kallichore 1 23,288,000728.73 (r)2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández Retrograde irregular (Carme) [13] [14]
Helike CFHT 2003-02-25 annotated.gif
JupiterXLV (45) Helike 2 21,069,000626.32 (r)2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández, Hsieh Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [13] [14]
Carpo CFHT 2003-02-25 annotated.gif
JupiterXLVI (46) Carpo 1.5 17,058,000456.302003 Sheppard, Gladman, Kavelaars, Petit, Allen, Jewitt, Kleyna Prograde irregular (Carpo) [13] [14]
Eukelade s2003j1movie arrow.gif
JupiterXLVII (47) Eukelade 2 23,328,000730.47 (r)2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández, Hsieh Retrograde irregular (Carme) [13] [14]
JupiterXLVIII (48) Cyllene 1 23,809,000752 (r)2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [13] [14]
Kore s2003j14movie circled.gif
JupiterXLIX (49) Kore 1 24,543,000779.17 (r)2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [13] [14]
JupiterL (50) Herse 1 22,983,000714.51 (r)2003 Gladman, Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Kavelaars, Petit, Allen Retrograde irregular (Carme) [13] [14]
2010 J 1 CFHT image.gif
JupiterLI (51) S/2010 J 1 1 23,314,300723.2 (r)2010 Jacobson, Brozović, Gladman, Alexandersen Retrograde irregular (Carme) [33]
2010 J 2 CFHT discovery full.gif
JupiterLII (52) S/2010 J 2 0.5 20,307,200588.1 (r)2010 Veillet Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [33]
Dia-Jewitt-CFHT image-crop.png
JupiterLIII (53) Dia 2 12,118,000287.02000 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández, Hsieh Prograde irregular (Himalia) [33]
2016 J 1 CFHT 2003-02-26 annotated.gif
JupiterLIV (54) S/2016 J 1 3 20,595,500602.7 (r)2016 Sheppard Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [33]
2003 J 18 CFHT recovery full.gif
JupiterLV (55) S/2003 J 18 1 20,274,000588.0 (r)2003 Gladman, Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Kavelaars, Petit, Allen Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [33]
JupiterLVI (56) S/2011 J 2 0.5 23,329,700726.8 (r)2011 Sheppard Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [33]
JupiterLVII (57) Eirene 2 23,731,800759.7 (r)2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández, Hsieh Retrograde irregular (Carme) [33]
JupiterLVIII (58) Philophrosyne 1 22,820,000701.3 (r)2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [33]
2016 J 1 CFHT 2003-02-26 annotated.gif
JupiterLIX (59) S/2017 J 1 2 23,484,000734.2 (r)2017 Sheppard Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [33]
Eupheme CFHT 2003-02-25 annotated.gif
JupiterLX (60) Eupheme 1 21,199,710627.8 (r)2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández, Hsieh Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [33]
JupiterLXI (61) S/2003 J 19 1 22,757,000697.6 (r)2003 Gladman, Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Kavelaars, Petit, Allen Retrograde irregular (Carme) [33]
Valetudo CFHT precovery 2003-02-28 annotated.gif
JupiterLXII (62) Valetudo 0.5 18,928,100532.02016 Sheppard Prograde irregular (Valetudo) [33]
2017 J 2 CFHT 2003-02-26 annotated.gif
JupiterLXIII (63) S/2017 J 2 1 23,241,000723.8 (r)2017 Sheppard Retrograde irregular (Carme) [33]
2017 J 3 CFHT 2003-12-25 annotated.gif
JupiterLXIV (64) S/2017 J 3 1 20,639,300605.8 (r)2017 Sheppard Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [33]
Pandia CFHT precovery 2003-02-28.png
JupiterLXV (65) Pandia 1.5 11,494,800251.8 (r)2017 Sheppard Prograde irregular (Himalia) [33]
JupiterLXVI (66) S/2017 J 5 1 23,169,400720.5 (r)2017 Sheppard Retrograde irregular (Carme) [33]
JupiterLXVII (67) S/2017 J 6 1 22,394,700684.7 (r)2017 Sheppard Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [33]
JupiterLXVIII (68) S/2017 J 7 1 20,571,500602.8 (r)2017 Sheppard Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [33]
2017 J 8 CFHT precovery full.gif
JupiterLXIX (69) S/2017 J 8 0.5 23,174,400720.7 (r)2017 Sheppard Retrograde irregular (Carme) [33]
JupiterLXX (70) S/2017 J 9 1 21,430,000640.9 (r)2017 Sheppard Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [33]
Ersa CFHT precovery 2003-02-24.png
JupiterLXXI (71) Ersa 1.511,453,000250.4 (r)2018 Sheppard Retrograde irregular (Himalia) [33]
JupiterLXXII (72) S/2011 J 1 0.5 20,155,300580.7 (r)2011 Sheppard Retrograde irregular (Carme) [33]
2003 J 2 Gladman CFHT annotated.gif
Jupiter S/2003 J 2 1 20,554,400602.02 (r)2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández, Hsieh Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [13] [14]
2003 J 4 Gladman CFHT annotated.gif
Jupiter S/2003 J 4 1 22,048,600668.85 (r)2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández, Hsieh Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [13] [14]
2003 J 9 Gladman CFHT annotated.gif
Jupiter S/2003 J 9 0.5 24,168,700767.6 (r)2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández Retrograde irregular (Carme) [13] [34]
2003 J 10 Gladman CFHT annotated.gif
Jupiter S/2003 J 10 1 22,896,000707.78 (r)2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández Retrograde irregular (Carme?) [13] [14]
2003 J 12 Gladman CFHT annotated.gif
Jupiter S/2003 J 12 0.5 21,557,700646.64 (r)2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [13] [14]
2003 J 16 CFHT recovery full.gif
Jupiter S/2003 J 16 1 20,512,500600.18 (r)2003 Gladman, Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Kavelaars, Petit, Allen Retrograde irregular (Ananke) [13] [35]
S2003j23ccircle.gif
Jupiter S/2003 J 23 1 24,678,100792.00 (r)2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Fernández Retrograde irregular (Pasiphae) [13] [14]
Jupiter S/2003 J 24 3 23,088,000715.4 (r)2003Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Gladman, Kleyna, VeilletRetrograde irregular (Carme) [36]
Mimas Cassini.jpg
Saturn I (1) Mimas 198.2±0.4185,5400.9421789 Herschel Main-group moon [13] [14]
PIA17202 - Approaching Enceladus.jpg
SaturnII (2) Enceladus 252.1±0.2238,0401.3701789 Herschel Main-group moon [13] [14]
PIA18317-SaturnMoon-Tethys-Cassini-20150411.jpg
SaturnIII (3) Tethys 533.1±0.7294,6701.8881684 Cassini Main-group moon (Sidera Lodoicea) [13] [14]
Dione3 cassini big.jpg
SaturnIV (4) Dione 561.4±0.4377,4202.7371684 Cassini Main-group moon (Sidera Lodoicea) [13] [14]
PIA07763 Rhea full globe5.jpg
SaturnV (5) Rhea 763.8±1.0527,0704.5181672 Cassini Main-group moon (Sidera Lodoicea) [13] [14]
Titan in natural color Cassini.jpg
SaturnVI (6) Titan 2,574.73±0.091,221,87015.951655 Huygens Main-group moon [13] [14]
Hyperion true.jpg
SaturnVII (7) Hyperion 1351,500,88021.281848 W.Bond, G. Bond, and Lassell Main-group moon [13] [14]
Iapetus 706 1419 1.jpg
SaturnVIII (8) Iapetus 735.6±1.53,560,84079.331671 Cassini Main-group moon (Sidera Lodoicea) [13] [14]
Phoebe cassini.jpg
SaturnIX (9) Phoebe 106.5±0.712,947,780550.31 (r)1899 Pickering Retrograde irregular (Norse) [13] [14]
PIA12714 Janus crop.jpg
SaturnX (10) Janus 89.5±1.4151,4600.6951966 Dollfus; Voyager 1 (confirmed) Inner moon (co-orbital) [13] [14]
PIA09813 Epimetheus S. polar region.jpg SaturnXI (11) Epimetheus 58.1±1.8151,4100.6941966 Walker; Voyager 1 (confirmed) Inner moon (co-orbital) [13] [14]
Cassini Helene N00086698 CL.jpg
SaturnXII (12) Helene 17.6±0.4377,4202.7371980 Laques, Lecacheux Main-group trojan [13] [14]
Telesto cassini closeup.jpg
SaturnXIII (13) Telesto 12.4±0.4294,7101.8881980 Smith, Reitsema, Larson, Fountain (Voyager 1)Main-group trojan [13] [14]
N00151485 Calypso crop.jpg
SaturnXIV (14) Calypso 10.7±0.7294,7101.8881980 Pascu, Seidelmann, Baum, Currie Main-group trojan [13] [14]
Atlas 2017-04-12 raw preview.jpg
SaturnXV (15) Atlas 15.1±0.9137,6700.6021980 Terrile (Voyager 1) Inner moon (shepherd) [13] [14]
Prometheus 12-26-09b.jpg
SaturnXVI (16) Prometheus 43.1±2.7139,3800.6131980 Collins (Voyager 1) Inner moon (shepherd) [13] [14]
Pandora PIA07632.jpg
SaturnXVII (17) Pandora 40.7±1.5141,7200.6291980 Collins (Voyager 1) Inner moon (shepherd) [13] [14]
Pan by Cassini, March 2017.jpg
SaturnXVIII (18) Pan 14.1133,5800.5751990 Showalter (Voyager 2) Inner moon (shepherd) [13] [14]
Ymir-CFHT.gif
SaturnXIX (19) Ymir 9 23,140,4001,315.58 (r)2000 Gladman Retrograde irregular (Norse) [13] [14]
Paaliaq-CFHT.gif
SaturnXX (20) Paaliaq 11 15,200,000686.952000 Gladman Prograde irregular (Inuit) [13] [14]
Tarvos discovery.gif
SaturnXXI (21) Tarvos 7.5 17,983,000926.232000 Gladman, Kavelaars Prograde irregular (Gallic) [13] [14]
Ijiraq-discovery-CFHT.gif
SaturnXXII (22) Ijiraq 6 11,124,000451.422000 Gladman, Kavelaars Prograde irregular (Inuit) [13] [14]
Suttungr-discovery-CFHT.gif
SaturnXXIII (23) Suttungr 3.5 19,459,0001,016.67 (r)2000 Gladman, Kavelaars Retrograde irregular (Norse) [13] [14]
Kiviuq-CFHT.gif
SaturnXXIV (24) Kiviuq 8 11,110,000449.222000 Gladman Prograde irregular (Inuit) [13] [14]
Mundilfari-discovery-CFHT.gif
SaturnXXV (25) Mundilfari 3.5 18,628,000952.77 (r)2000 Gladman, Kavelaars Retrograde irregular (Norse) [13] [14]
Albiorix WISE-W4.jpg
SaturnXXVI (26) Albiorix 16 16,182,000783.452000 Holman, Spahr Prograde irregular (Gallic) [13] [14]
Skathi-discovery-CFHT.gif
SaturnXXVII (27) Skathi 4 15,540,000728.20 (r)2000 Gladman, Kavelaars Retrograde irregular (Norse) [13] [14]
Erriapus-discovery-CFHT.gif
SaturnXXVIII (28) Erriapus 5 17,343,000871.192000 Gladman, Kavelaars Prograde irregular (Gallic) [13] [14]
Siarnaq-discovery-CFHT.gif
SaturnXXIX (29) Siarnaq 20 18,015,400896.442000 Gladman, Kavelaars Prograde irregular (Inuit) [13] [14]
Thrymr-discovery-CFHT.gif
SaturnXXX (30) Thrymr 3.5 20,314,0001,094.11 (r)2000 Gladman, Kavelaars Retrograde irregular (Norse) [13] [14]
Narvi.jpg
SaturnXXXI (31) Narvi 3.5 19,007,0001,003.86 (r)2003 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [13] [14]
Methone PIA14633.jpg
SaturnXXXII (32) Methone 1.45194,4401.0102004 Porco, Charnoz, Brahic, Dones (Cassini–Huygens) Alkyonide moon [14]
Pallene N1665945513 1.jpg
SaturnXXXIII (33) Pallene 2.22212,2801.1542004 Gordon, Murray, Beurle, et al. (Cassini–Huygens) Alkyonide moon [14]
Polydeuces.jpg
SaturnXXXIV (34) Polydeuces 1.3377,2002.7372004 Porco et al. (Cassini–Huygens)Main-group trojan [14]
Daphnis (Saturn's Moon).jpg
SaturnXXXV (35) Daphnis 3.8±0.8136,5000.5942005 Porco et al. (Cassini–Huygens) Inner moon (shepherd) [14]
SaturnXXXVI (36) Aegir 3 20,751,0001,117.52 (r)2004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular (Norse) [13] [14]
Bebhionn-cassini.png
SaturnXXXVII (37) Bebhionn 3 17,119,000834.842004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Prograde irregular (Gallic) [13] [14]
Bergelmir.png
SaturnXXXVIII (38) Bergelmir 3 19,336,0001,005.74 (r)2004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular (Norse) [13] [14]
Bestla-cassini.png
SaturnXXXIX (39) Bestla 3.5 20,192,0001,088.72 (r)2004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular (Norse) [13] [14]
SaturnXL (40) Farbauti 2.5 20,377,0001,085.55 (r)2004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular (Norse) [13] [14]
SaturnXLI (41) Fenrir 2 22,454,0001,260.35 (r)2004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular (Norse) [13] [14]
Fornjot-cassini.png
SaturnXLII (42) Fornjot 3 25,146,0001,494.2 (r)2004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular (Norse) [13] [14]
Hati-cassini.png
SaturnXLIII (43) Hati 3 19,846,0001,038.61 (r)2004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular (Norse) [13] [14]
Hyrrokkin-cassini.png
SaturnXLIV (44) Hyrrokkin 4 18,437,000931.86 (r)2004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [14]
Kari-cassini.png
SaturnXLV (45) Kari 3.5 22,089,0001,230.97 (r)2006 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [14]
Loge N00177425.jpg
SaturnXLVI (46) Loge 3 23,058,0001,311.36 (r)2006 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [14]
SaturnXLVII (47) Skoll 3 17,665,000878.29 (r)2006 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [14]
SaturnXLVIII (48) Surtur 3 22,704,0001,297.36 (r)2006 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [14]
Anthe crop.jpg
SaturnXLIX (49) Anthe 0.9197,7001.03652007 Porco et al. (Cassini–Huygens) Alkyonide moon [37]
SaturnL (50) Jarnsaxa 3 18,811,000964.74 (r)2006 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [14]
Greip-cassini.png
SaturnLI (51) Greip 3 18,206,000921.19 (r)2006 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse) [14]
Tarqeq-cassini.png
SaturnLII (52) Tarqeq 3.5 18,009,000887.482007 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Prograde irregular (Inuit) [14]
N1643264379 1.jpg
SaturnLIII (53) Aegaeon 0.33 167,5000.8082008Cassini Imaging Science Team Cassini–Huygens G-ring moonlet [38] [39]
SaturnLIV (54) S/2004 S 20 3 19,418,0001,010.55 (r)2019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse?) [40]
SaturnLV (55) S/2004 S 22 3 20,636,0001,107.13 (r)2019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse?) [41]
SaturnLVI (56) S/2004 S 23 4 21,163,0001,149.82 (r)2019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse?) [42]
SaturnLVII (57) S/2004 S 25 4 21,174,0001,150.69 (r)2019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse?) [43]
SaturnLVIII (58) S/2004 S 26 4 26,676,0001,627.18 (r)2019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular (Norse?) [44]
SaturnLIX (59) S/2004 S 27 6 19,976,0001,054.45 (r)2019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden, JacobsonRetrograde irregular (Norse?) [45]
SaturnLX (60) S/2004 S 29 4 16,981,000826.442019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Prograde irregular (Inuit) [46]
SaturnLXI (61) S/2004 S 30 3 20,396,0001,087.84 (r)2019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse?) [47]
SaturnLXII (62) S/2004 S 32 4 21,214,0001,153.96 (r)2019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse?) [48]
SaturnLXIII (63) S/2004 S 33 4 24,168,0001,403.18 (r)2019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse?) [49]
SaturnLXIV (64) S/2004 S 34 3 24,299,0001,414.59 (r)2019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse?) [50]
SaturnLXV (65) S/2004 S 35 6 22,412,0001,253.08 (r)2019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular (Norse?) [51]
SaturnLXVI (66) S/2004 S 38 4 21,908,0001,211.02 (r)2019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse?) [52]
Saturn S/2004 S 7 3 20,999,0001,140.24 (r)2004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular (Norse?) [13] [14]
Saturn S/2004 S 12 2.5 19,878,0001,046.19 (r)2004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular (Norse?) [13] [14]
Saturn S/2004 S 13 3 18,404,000933.48 (r)2004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular (Norse?) [13] [14]
Saturn S/2004 S 17 2 19,447,0001,014.70 (r)2004 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular (Norse?) [13] [14]
Saturn S/2004 S 21 3 22,645,0001,272.61 (r)2019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse?) [53]
Saturn S/2004 S 24 3 22,901,0001,294.252019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Prograde irregular (group unknown, possibly Gallic?) [54]
Saturn S/2004 S 28 4 22,020,0001,220.31 (r)2019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Retrograde irregular (Norse?) [55]
Saturn S/2004 S 31 4 17,568,000869.652019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna, Marsden Prograde irregular (Inuit) [56]
Saturn S/2004 S 36 3 23,192,0001,319.07 (r)2019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse?) [57]
Saturn S/2004 S 37 4 15,892,000748.18 (r)2019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse?) [58]
Saturn S/2004 S 39 3 23,575,0001,351.83 (r)2019 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse?) [59]
Saturn S/2006 S 1 3 18,790,000963.37 (r)2006 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse?) [14]
Saturn S/2006 S 3 3 22,096,0001,227.21 (r)2006 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse?) [14]
Saturn S/2007 S 2 3 16,725,000808.08 (r)2007 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse?) [14]
Saturn S/2007 S 3 3 18,975,000977.8 (r)2007 Sheppard, Jewitt, Kleyna Retrograde irregular (Norse?) [14]
PIA11665 moonlet in B Ring cropped.jpg
Saturn S/2009 S 1 0.15 117,0000.4712009Cassini Imaging Science Team Cassini–Huygens B-ring moonlet [60]
Saturn S/2019 S 1 3 11,221,000443.82021Ashton, Gladman, Petit, AlexandersenPrograde irregular (Inuit) [61]
Ariel (moon).jpg
Uranus I (1) Ariel 578.9±0.6190,9002.5201851 Lassell Main-group moon [13] [14]
PIA00040 Umbrielx2.47.jpg
UranusII (2) Umbriel 584.7±2.8266,0004.1441851 Lassell Main-group moon [13] [14]
Titania (moon) color cropped.jpg
UranusIII (3) Titania 788.9±1.8436,3008.7061787 Herschel Main-group moon [13] [14]
Voyager 2 picture of Oberon.jpg
UranusIV (4) Oberon 761.4±2.6583,50013.461787 Herschel Main-group moon [13] [14]
PIA18185 Miranda's Icy Face.jpg
UranusV (5) Miranda 235.8±0.7129,9001.4131948 Kuiper Main-group moon [13] [14]
Cordeliamoon.png
UranusVI (6) Cordelia 20.1±349,8000.3351986 Terrile (Voyager 2) Inner moon (shepherd) [13] [14]
Opheliamoon.png
UranusVII (7) Ophelia 21.4±453,8000.3761986 Terrile (Voyager 2) Inner moon (shepherd) [13] [14]
Biancamoon.png
UranusVIII (8) Bianca 25.7±259,2000.4351986 Smith (Voyager 2) Inner moon [13] [14]
Cressida.png
UranusIX (9) Cressida 39.8±261,8000.4641986 Synnott (Voyager 2) Inner moon [13] [14]
Desdemonamoon.png
UranusX (10) Desdemona 32±462,7000.4741986 Synnott (Voyager 2) Inner moon [13] [14]
Julietmoon.png
UranusXI (11) Juliet 46.8±464,4000.4931986 Synnott (Voyager 2) Inner moon [13] [14]
Portia1.jpg
UranusXII (12) Portia 67.6±4.066,1000.5131986 Synnott (Voyager 2) Inner moon [13] [14]
Rosalindmoon.png
UranusXIII (13) Rosalind 36±669,9000.5581986 Synnott (Voyager 2) Inner moon [13] [14]
Belinda.gif
UranusXIV (14) Belinda 40.3±875,3000.6241986 Synnott (Voyager 2) Inner moon [13] [14]
Puck.png
UranusXV (15) Puck 81±286,0000.7621985 Synnott (Voyager 2) Inner moon [13] [14]
Caliban discovery.jpg
UranusXVI (16) Caliban 36.47,231,100579.73 (r)1997 Gladman, Nicholson, Burns, Kavelaars Retrograde irregular [62] [14]
Uranus-sycorax2.gif
UranusXVII (17) Sycorax 9312,179,4001,288.38 (r)1997 Gladman, Nicholson, Burns, Kavelaars Retrograde irregular [62] [14]
Prospero - Uranus moon.jpg
UranusXVIII (18) Prospero 25 16,256,0001,978.29 (r)1999 Gladman, Holman, Kavelaars, Petit, Scholl Retrograde irregular [13] [14]
Uranus - Setebos image.jpg
UranusXIX (19) Setebos 24 17,418,0002,225.21 (r)1999 Gladman, Holman, Kavelaars, Petit, Scholl Retrograde irregular [13] [14]
Stephano - Uranus moon.jpg
UranusXX (20) Stephano 168,004,000677.36 (r)1999 Gladman, Holman, Kavelaars, Petit, Scholl Retrograde irregular [13] [14]
UranusXXI (21) Trinculo 9.58,504,000749.24 (r)2001 Holman, Kavelaars, Milisavljevic Retrograde irregular [13] [14]
UranusXXII (22) Francisco 114,276,000266.56 (r)2001 Holman, Kavelaars, Milisavljevic, Gladman Retrograde irregular [13] [14]
S2003u3acircle.gif
UranusXXIII (23) Margaret 1014,345,0001,687.012003 Sheppard, Jewitt Prograde irregular [13] [14]
Uranus moon 021002 02.jpg
UranusXXIV (24) Ferdinand 1020,901,0002,887.21 (r)2001 Holman, Kavelaars, Milisavljevic, et al.Retrograde irregular [13] [14]
Perditamoon.png
UranusXXV (25) Perdita 15 76,4170.6381999 Karkoschka (Voyager 2) Inner moon [14]
Mabmoon.png
UranusXXVI (26) Mab 1297,7360.9232003 Showalter, Lissauer Inner moon [14]
Cupidmoon.png
UranusXXVII (27) Cupid 9 74,3920.6132003 Showalter, Lissauer Inner moon [14]
Triton2.jpg
Neptune I (1) Triton 1,353.4±0.9354,8005.877 (r)1846 Lassell Retrograde irregular [13] [14]
Nereid-Voyager2.jpg
NeptuneII (2) Nereid 170±255,513,820360.141949 Kuiper Prograde irregular [63] [14]
Naiad Voyager.png
NeptuneIII (3) Naiad 33±348,2240.2941989 Terrile (Voyager 2) Inner moon [13] [14]
Neptune Trio.jpg
NeptuneIV (4) Thalassa 41±350,0750.3111989 Terrile (Voyager 2) Inner moon [13] [14]
Despina.jpg
NeptuneV (5) Despina 78±4.752,5260.3351989 Synnott (Voyager 2) Inner moon [13] [14]
Galatea moon.jpg
NeptuneVI (6) Galatea 88±461,9530.4291989 Synnott (Voyager 2) Inner moon [13] [14]
Larissa 1.jpg
NeptuneVII (7) Larissa 97±373,5480.5551981 Reitsema, Hubbard, Lebofsky, Tholen (Voyager 2) Inner moon [13] [14]
Proteus (Voyager 2).jpg
NeptuneVIII (8) Proteus 210±7117,6471.1221989 Synnott (Voyager 2) Inner moon [13] [14]
N2002n1b.jpg
NeptuneIX (9) Halimede 31 15,728,0001,879.71 (r)2002 Holman, Kavelaars, Grav, Fraser, Milisavljevic Retrograde irregular [13] [14]
Psmathe feat.jpg
NeptuneX (10) Psamathe 20 46,695,0009,115.91 (r)2003 Jewitt, Kleyna, Sheppard, Holman, Kavelaars Retrograde irregular [13] [14]
Sao VLT-FORS1 2002-09-03 annotated.gif
NeptuneXI (11) Sao 22 22,422,0002,914.072002 Holman, Kavelaars, Grav, Fraser, Milisavljevic Prograde irregular [13] [14]
Laomedeia VLT-FORS1 2002-09-03 annotated.gif
NeptuneXII (12) Laomedeia 21 23,571,0003,167.852002 Holman, Kavelaars, Grav, Fraser, Milisavljevic Prograde irregular [13] [14]
Neso VLT-FORS1 2002-09-03.gif
NeptuneXIII (13) Neso 30 48,387,0009,373.99 (r)2002 Holman, Kavelaars, Grav, Fraser, Milisavljevic Retrograde irregular [13] [14]
Hippocamp-heic1904b.jpg NeptuneXIV (14) Hippocamp 17.4105,2830.93622013 Showalter et al. Inner moon [64]
Orcus-vanth hst2.jpg Orcus I (1) Vanth 221±59,000±99.5392005Brown & Suer Synchronous rotation [65]
2003AZ84 Hubble.png
2003 AZ84 (unnamed)72±12(unknown)(unknown)2005Brown & Suer [66]
Charon in True Color - High-Res.jpg Pluto I (1) Charon 606±0.519,5916.3871978 Christy Synchronous rotation [13] [14]
Nix best view.jpg PlutoII (2) Nix 22.548,67124.852005 Weaver, Stern, Buie, et al. Chaotic rotation [13] [14]
Hydra Enhanced Color.jpg PlutoIII (3) Hydra 27.564,69838.202005 Weaver, Stern, Buie, et al. Chaotic rotation [13] [14]
Kerberos (moon).jpg PlutoIV (4) Kerberos 757,72932.172011 Showalter (Hubble) Chaotic rotation [13] [14] [67] [68]
Styx (moon).jpg PlutoV (5) Styx 5.542,39320.162012 Showalter (Hubble) Chaotic rotation [13] [14] [69]
Salacia Hubble.png Salacia I (1) Actaea 142±55,724±275.4942006Noll et al. [65]
Haumea Hubble.png Haumea I (1) Hiʻiaka ≈160 49,88049.122005Brown et al. [8] [70] [71]
HaumeaII (2) Namaka ≈8525,65718.27832005Brown et al. [8] [70] [71]
Quaoar-weywot hst.jpg Quaoar I (1) Weywot 3714,500±80012.4382007Brown [72]
Makemake moon Hubble image with legend (cropped).jpg Makemake S/2015 (136472) 1 ≈87.5 >21,000>12.42016Parker et al. [73] [74]
Varda-ilmare hst.jpg Varda I (1) Ilmarë 163±18 [75] 4,809±395.7512009Noll et al. [76]
2013FY27.gif
2013 FY27 (unnamed)95(unknown)(unknown)2018Sheppard [77]
2007 OR10 and its moon.png Gonggong I (1) Xiangliu 15024,020±20025.2212010Marton, Kiss & Müllerassuming a prograde orbit [78]
Eris and dysnomia2.jpg
Eris I (1) Dysnomia 350±60 [7] 37,273±6415.7862005 Brown, Rabinowitz, Trujillo et al. SDO moon [79]

See also

Related Research Articles

Solar System The Sun, its planets and their moons

The Solar System is the gravitationally bound system of the Sun and the objects that orbit it, either directly or indirectly. Of the objects that orbit the Sun directly, the largest are the eight planets, with the remainder being smaller objects, the dwarf planets and small Solar System bodies. Of the objects that orbit the Sun indirectly—the natural satellites—two are larger than the smallest planet, Mercury, and one more almost equals it in size.

Pluto Dwarf planet in the Kuiper belt of the Solar System

Pluto is a dwarf planet in the Kuiper belt, a ring of bodies beyond the orbit of Neptune. It was the first and the largest Kuiper belt object to be discovered. After Pluto was discovered in 1930, it was declared to be the ninth planet from the Sun. Beginning in the 1990s, its status as a planet was questioned following the discovery of several objects of similar size in the Kuiper belt and the scattered disc, including the dwarf planet Eris. This led the International Astronomical Union (IAU) in 2006 to formally define the term "planet"—excluding Pluto and reclassifying it as a dwarf planet.

28978 Ixion Plutino

28978 Ixion, provisional designation 2001 KX76, is a large trans-Neptunian object and a possible dwarf planet. It is located in the Kuiper belt, a region of icy objects orbiting beyond Neptune in the outer Solar System. Ixion is classified as a plutino, a dynamical class of objects in a 2:3 orbital resonance with Neptune. It was discovered in May 2001 by astronomers of the Deep Ecliptic Survey at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, and was announced in July 2001. The object is named after the Greek mythological figure Ixion, who was a king of the Lapiths.

90482 Orcus Trans-Neptunian object and dwarf planet

Orcus is a trans-Neptunian dwarf planet with a large moon, Vanth. It has a diameter of 910 km (570 mi). The surface of Orcus is relatively bright with albedo reaching 23 percent, neutral in color and rich in water ice. The ice is predominantly in crystalline form, which may be related to past cryovolcanic activity. Other compounds like methane or ammonia may also be present on its surface. Orcus was discovered by American astronomers Michael Brown, Chad Trujillo, and David Rabinowitz on 17 February 2004.

Timeline of discovery of Solar System planets and their moons

The timeline of discovery of Solar System planets and their natural satellites charts the progress of the discovery of new bodies over history. Each object is listed in chronological order of its discovery, identified through its various designations, and the discoverer(s) listed. Historically the naming of moons did not always match the times of their discovery. Traditionally, the discoverer enjoys the privilege of naming the new object; however, some neglected to do so or actively declined. The issue arose nearly as soon as planetary satellites were discovered: Galileo referred to the four main satellites of Jupiter using numbers while the names suggested by his rival Simon Marius gradually gained universal acceptance. The International Astronomical Union (IAU) eventually started officially approving names in the late 1970s.

Siarnaq Moon of Saturn

Siarnaq, also designated Saturn XXIX, is a prograde irregular satellite of Saturn. It was discovered at the Mauna Kea Observatory by astronomers Brett Gladman and John Kavelaars in 2000, and given the temporary designation S/2000 S 3. It was named after Siarnaq, more widely known as Sedna, the Inuit goddess of the sea, and is the largest member of Saturn's Inuit group of irregular satellites.

Makemake Dwarf planet in the Outer Solar System

Makemake is a dwarf planet and perhaps the second-largest Kuiper belt object in the classical population, with a diameter approximately two-thirds that of Pluto. It has one known satellite. Its extremely low average temperature, about 40 K (−230 °C), means its surface is covered with methane, ethane, and possibly nitrogen ices.

38628 Huya Trans-Neptunian object

38628 Huya ( hoo-YAH), provisional designation 2000 EB173, is a binary trans-Neptunian object located in the Kuiper belt, a region of icy objects orbiting beyond Neptune in the outer Solar System. Huya is classified as a plutino, a dynamical class of trans-Neptunian objects with orbits in a 3:2 orbital resonance with Neptune. It was discovered by the Quasar Equatorial Survey Team and was identified by Venezuelan astronomer Ignacio Ferrín in March 2000. It is named after Juyá, the mythological rain god of the Wayuu people native to South America.

Dysnomia (moon) Moon of Eris

Dysnomia (formally (136199) Eris I Dysnomia) is the only known moon of the dwarf planet Eris and likely the second-largest known moon of a dwarf planet, after Pluto I Charon. It was discovered in 2005 by Mike Brown and the laser guide star adaptive optics team at the W. M. Keck Observatory, and carried the provisional designation of S/2005 (2003 UB313) 1 until officially named Dysnomia (from the Ancient Greek word Δυσνομία meaning anarchy/lawlessness) after the daughter of the Greek goddess Eris.

Moons of Pluto Natural satellite orbiting Pluto

The dwarf planet Pluto has five natural satellites. In order of distance from Pluto, they are Charon, Styx, Nix, Kerberos, and Hydra. Charon, the largest, is mutually tidally locked with Pluto, and is massive enough that Pluto–Charon is sometimes considered a double dwarf planet.

<span class="nowrap">(55637) 2002 UX<sub>25</sub></span> Spitzer dwarf-planet candidate

(55637) 2002 UX25 is a trans-Neptunian object that orbits the Sun in the Kuiper belt beyond Neptune. This TNO briefly garnered scientific attention when it was found to have an unexpectedly low density of about 0.82 g/cm3.

Namaka (moon) Smaller moon of Haumea

Namaka is the smaller, inner moon of the trans-Neptunian dwarf planet Haumea. It is named after Nāmaka, the goddess of the sea in Hawaiian mythology and one of the daughters of Haumea.

Dwarf planet Planetary-mass object

A dwarf planet is a small planetary-mass object that is in direct orbit of the Sun – something smaller than any of the eight classical planets, but still a world in its own right. The prototypical dwarf planet is Pluto. The interest of dwarf planets to planetary geologists is that, being possibly differentiated and geologically active bodies, they may display planetary geology, an expectation borne out by the Dawn mission to Ceres and the New Horizons mission to Pluto in 2015.

<span class="nowrap">(208996) 2003 AZ<sub>84</sub></span> Plutino

(208996) 2003 AZ84 is a trans-Neptunian object with a possible moon from the outer regions of the Solar System. It is approximately 940 kilometers across its longest axis, as it has an elongated shape. It belongs to the plutinos – a group of minor planets named after its largest member Pluto – as it orbits in a 2:3 resonance with Neptune in the Kuiper belt. It is the third-largest known plutino, after Pluto and Orcus. It was discovered on 13 January 2003, by American astronomers Chad Trujillo and Michael Brown during the NEAT survey using the Samuel Oschin telescope at Palomar Observatory.

<span class="nowrap">(84922) 2003 VS<sub>2</sub></span> Trans-Neptunian object

(84922) 2003 VS2 is a trans-Neptunian object discovered by the Near Earth Asteroid Tracking program on 14 November 2003. Like Pluto, it is in a 2:3 orbital resonance with Neptune and is thus a plutino. Analysis of light-curve suggests that it is not a dwarf planet.

120347 Salacia Possible dwarf planet

120347 Salacia, provisional designation 2004 SB60, is a large planetoid in the Kuiper belt, approximately 850 kilometers in diameter. As of 2018, it is located 44.8 astronomical units from the Sun, and reaches apparent magnitude 20.7 at opposition.

50000 Quaoar Cold classical Kuiper belt object

Quaoar (50000 Quaoar), provisional designation 2002 LM60, is a dwarf planet in the Kuiper belt, a region of icy planetesimals beyond Neptune. A non-resonant object (cubewano), it measures approximately 1,121 km (697 mi) in diameter, about half the diameter of Pluto. The object was discovered by American astronomers Chad Trujillo and Michael Brown at the Palomar Observatory on 4 June 2002. Signs of water ice on the surface of Quaoar have been found, which suggests that cryovolcanism may be occurring on Quaoar. A small amount of methane is present on its surface, which can only be retained by the largest Kuiper belt objects. In February 2007, Weywot, a synchronous moon in orbit around Quaoar, was discovered by Brown. Weywot is measured to be 170 km (110 mi) across. Both objects were named after mythological figures from the Native American Tongva people in Southern California. Quaoar is the Tongva creator deity and Weywot is his son.

Vanth (moon) Moon of 90482 Orcus

Vanth, full designation (90482) Orcus I Vanth, is the single known natural satellite of the plutino and likely dwarf planet 90482 Orcus. With a diameter of about 440 km, it is half the size of Orcus and probably the third-largest known moon of a known trans-Neptunian object, after Pluto I Charon and Eris I Dysnomia, though it is possible that the poorly resolved Varda I Ilmarë or Haumea I Hiʻiaka might be comparable in size. Vanth was discovered by Michael Brown and T.-A. Suer using discovery images taken by the Hubble Space Telescope on 13 November 2005. The discovery was announced in an IAU Circular notice published on 22 February 2007.

Planetary-mass moon Moons comparable in size to small planets

A planetary-mass moon is a planetary-mass object that is also a natural satellite. They are large and ellipsoidal in shape. Two moons in the Solar System are larger than the planet Mercury : Ganymede and Titan, and seven are larger and more massive than the dwarf planet Pluto.

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