(532037) 2013 FY27

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(532037) 2013 FY27
2013 FY27.png
2013 FY27 and its satellite, imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope on 15 January 2018
Discovery [1]
Discovered by
Discovery date17 March 2013
(announced on 31 March 2014)
2013 FY27
Orbital characteristics [3]
Epoch 31 May 2020 (JD  2458900.5)
Uncertainty parameter 4
Observation arc 2585 days (7.08 yr)
Earliest precovery date15 March 2011 (Pan-STARRS)
Aphelion 82.07455  AU (12.278178  Tm)
Perihelion 35.24656 AU (5.272810 Tm)
58.66055 AU (8.775493 Tm)
Eccentricity 0.39914
449.29  yr (164,103  d)
214.95673° (M)
0° 0m 7.897s /day
Inclination 33.1626°
≈ November 2202 [4]
±4 months
Known satellites 1 [5] [6] [7]
Physical characteristics
Mean diameter
(effective diameter) [5]
(primary) [lower-alpha 1] [5]

    (532037) 2013 FY27 is a trans-Neptunian object and binary system that belongs to the scattered disc (like Eris). [8] Its discovery was announced on 31 March 2014. [1] It has an absolute magnitude (H) of 3.2. [3] 2013 FY27 is a binary object, with two components approximately 740 kilometres (460 mi) and 190 kilometres (120 mi) in diameter. It is the ninth-intrinsically-brightest known trans-Neptunian object, [9] and is approximately tied with 2002 AW197 and 2002 MS4 (to within measurement uncertainties) as the largest unnamed object in the Solar System.



    Orbit of 2013 FY27 2013 FY27-orbit.png
    Orbit of 2013 FY27

    2013 FY27 orbits the Sun once every 449 years. It will come to perihelion around November 2202, [4] [lower-alpha 2] at a distance of about 35.6  AU. It is currently near aphelion, 80 AU from the Sun, and, as a result, it has an apparent magnitude of 22. [1] Its orbit has a significant inclination of 33°. [3] The sednoid 2012 VP113 and the scattered-disc object 2013 FZ27 were discovered by the same survey as 2013 FY27 and were announced within about a week of one another.

    Physical properties

    2013 FY27 has a diameter of about 740 kilometres (460 mi), placing it at a transition zone between medium-sized and large TNOs. Using the Atacama Large Millimeter Array and Magellan Telescopes, its albedo was found to be 0.17, and its colour to be moderately red. 2013 FY27 is one of the largest moderately red TNOs. The physical processes that lead to a lack of such moderately red TNOs larger than 800 kilometres (500 mi) are not yet well understood.

    The brightness of 2013 FY27 varies by less than 0.06 mag over hours and days, suggesting that it either has a very long rotation period, an approximately spheroidal shape, or a rotation axis pointing towards Earth. [5]

    Brown estimated, prior to the discovery of its satellite, that 2013 FY27 was very likely to be a dwarf planet, due to its large size. [10] However, Grundy et al. calculate that bodies such as 2013 FY27, less than about 1000 km in diameter, with albedos less than ≈0.2 and densities of ≈1.2 g/cm3 or less, may retain a degree of porosity in their physical structure, having never collapsed into fully solid bodies. [11]


    Animation of 2013 FY27 and its satellite, imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope from January to July 2018 2013FY27.gif
    Animation of 2013 FY27 and its satellite, imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope from January to July 2018

    Using Hubble Space Telescope observations taken in January 2018, Scott Sheppard found a satellite around 2013 FY27, 0.17 arcseconds away and 3.0±0.2 mag fainter than the primary. The discovery was announced on 10 August 2018. [12] Assuming the two components have equal albedos, they are about 740 kilometres (460 mi) and 190 kilometres (120 mi) in diameter, respectively. [5] Follow up observations were taken between May and July 2018 in order to determine the orbit of the satellite, [6] but the results of those observations have not yet been released. Once the orbit is known, the mass and density of the system can be determined.

    See also


    1. Assuming the two components have equal albedos
    2. The uncertainty in the time of perihelion passage is ≈1 month (1-sigma) or 3.6 months (3-sigma). [3]

    Related Research Articles

    Trans-Neptunian object Any object in the Solar System that orbits the Sun at a greater average distance than Neptune

    A trans-Neptunian object (TNO), also written transneptunian object, is any minor planet or dwarf planet in the Solar System that orbits the Sun at a greater average distance than Neptune, which has a semi-major axis of 30.1 astronomical units (AU).

    90482 Orcus Trans-Neptunian object and dwarf planet

    90482 Orcus, provisional designation 2004 DW, is a trans-Neptunian dwarf planet with a large moon, Vanth. It has a diameter of 910 km (570 mi). The surface of Orcus is relatively bright with albedo reaching 23 percent, neutral in color and rich in water ice. The ice is predominantly in crystalline form, which may be related to past cryovolcanic activity. Other compounds like methane or ammonia may also be present on its surface. Orcus was discovered by American astronomers Michael Brown, Chad Trujillo, and David Rabinowitz on 17 February 2004.

    (15874) 1996 TL66, provisional designation 1996 TL66, is a trans-Neptunian object of the scattered disc orbiting in the outermost region of the Solar System.

    <span class="nowrap">(55565) 2002 AW<sub>197</sub></span> Classical Kuiper belt object

    (55565) 2002 AW197 is a classical, non-resonant trans-Neptunian object from the Kuiper belt in the outermost region of the Solar System, also known as cubewano. With a likely diameter of at least 700 kilometers (430 miles), Brown considers it a highly likely dwarf planet candidate. Tancredi notes that photometric observations suggest that it is a spheroid with a high albedo and small albedo spots. However, its low albedo suggests it does not have planetary geology. It is approximately tied with 2002 MS4 and 2013 FY27 (to within measurement uncertainties) as the largest unnamed object in the Solar System. It was discovered at Palomar Observatory in 2002 and has a rotation period of 8.8 hours and a moderately red color.

    <span class="nowrap">(208996) 2003 AZ<sub>84</sub></span> Plutino

    (208996) 2003 AZ84 is a trans-Neptunian object with a possible moon from the outer regions of the Solar System. It is approximately 940 kilometers across its longest axis, as it has an elongated shape. It belongs to the plutinos – a group of minor planets named after its largest member Pluto – as it orbits in a 2:3 resonance with Neptune in the Kuiper belt. It is the third-largest known plutino, after Pluto and Orcus. It was discovered on 13 January 2003, by American astronomers Chad Trujillo and Michael Brown during the NEAT survey using the Samuel Oschin telescope at Palomar Observatory.

    174567 Varda Trans-Neptunian object

    174567 Varda (provisional designation 2003 MW12) is a binary trans-Neptunian planetoid of the resonant hot classical population of the Kuiper belt, located in the outermost region of the Solar System. Its moon, Ilmarë, was discovered in 2009.

    474640 Alicanto, provisionally designated 2004 VN112, is a detached extreme trans-Neptunian object. It was discovered on 6 November 2004, by American astronomer Andrew C. Becker at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile. It never gets closer than 47 AU from the Sun (near the outer edge of the main Kuiper belt) and averages more than 300 AU from the Sun. Its large eccentricity strongly suggests that it was gravitationally scattered onto its current orbit. Because it is, like all detached objects, outside the current gravitational influence of Neptune, how it came to have this orbit cannot yet be explained. It was named after Alicanto, a nocturnal bird in Chilean mythology.

    229762 Gǃkúnǁʼhòmdímà Trans-Neptunian object

    229762 Gǃkúnǁʼhòmdímà, provisional designation 2007 UK126, is a trans-Neptunian object and binary system from the extended scattered disc, located in the outermost region of the Solar System. It was discovered on 19 October 2007 by American astronomers Megan Schwamb, Michael Brown, and David Rabinowitz at the Palomar Observatory in California and measures approximately 600 kilometers (400 miles) in diameter. This medium-sized TNO appears to be representative of a class of mid-sized objects under approximately 1000 km that have not collapsed into fully solid bodies. Its 100-kilometer moon was discovered by Keith Noll, Will Grundy, and colleagues with the Hubble Space Telescope in 2008, and named Gǃòʼé ǃHú.

    (82075) 2000 YW134, provisional designation: 2000 YW134, is a resonant trans-Neptunian object and binary system, located in the outermost region of the Solar System. It was discovered on 26 December 2000, by astronomers with the Spacewatch survey at Kitt Peak Observatory near Tucson, Arizona. The reddish object stays in a rare 3:8 resonance with Neptune and measures approximately 216 kilometers (130 miles). Its 75-kilometer sized companion was discovered by the Hubble Space Telescope in October 2002. As of 2021, neither the primary body nor its satellite have been named.

    <span class="nowrap">(386723) 2009 YE<sub>7</sub></span>

    (386723) 2009 YE7, provisional designation 2009 YE7, is a trans-Neptunian object (TNO) discovered by David Rabinowitz on December 17, 2009 at the La Silla Observatory in Chile.

    2010 FX86, also written 2010 FX86, is a relatively bright trans-Neptunian object with an absolute magnitude of about 4.65.

    (523671) 2013 FZ27, provisional designation 2013 FZ27, is a trans-Neptunian object located in the Kuiper belt in the outermost region of the Solar System, approximately 570 kilometers (350 miles) in diameter. It was discovered on 16 March 2013, by American astronomers Scott Sheppard and Chad Trujillo at the CTIO in Chile. Numbered in 2018, this minor planet has not been named.

    <span class="nowrap">(524366) 2001 XR<sub>254</sub></span>

    (524366) 2001 XR254, provisional designation 2001 XR254, is a trans-Neptunian object and binary system from the classical Kuiper belt, located in the outermost region of the Solar System. The cubewano belongs to the cold population and measures approximately 171 kilometers (110 miles). It was first observed on 10 December 2001, by astronomers at the Mauna Kea Observatory, Hawaii. Its 140-kilometer sized companion was discovered by the Hubble Space Telescope in June 2006.

    <span class="nowrap">(127546) 2002 XU<sub>93</sub></span>

    (127546) 2002 XU93, provisional designation 2002 XU93, is a trans-Neptunian object and centaur on highly inclined and eccentric orbit in the outer region of the Solar System. It measures approximately 170 kilometers (110 mi) in diameter and is one of few objects with such an unusual orbit. It was discovered on 4 December 2002, by American astronomer Marc Buie at the Kitt Peak National Observatory in Arizona, United States.

    541132 Leleākūhonua

    541132 Leleākūhonua, provisionally designated 2015 TG387, is an extreme trans-Neptunian object and sednoid in the outermost part of the Solar System. It was first observed on 13 October 2015, by astronomers at the Mauna Kea Observatories, Hawaii. Based on its discovery date and the letters in its provisional designation 2015 TG387, the object was informally nicknamed "The Goblin" by its discoverers and later named Leleākūhonua, comparing its orbit to the flight of the Pacific golden plover. It was the third sednoid discovered, after Sedna and 2012 VP113, and measures around 220 kilometers (140 miles) in diameter.

    <span class="nowrap">2013 FQ<sub>28</sub></span>

    2013 FQ28 is a trans-Neptunian object, both considered a scattered and detached object, located in the outermost region of the Solar System. It was first observed on 17 March 2013, by a team of astronomers at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile. It orbits the Sun in a moderate inclined, moderate-eccentricity orbit. The weak dwarf planet candidate measures approximately 260 kilometers (160 miles) in diameter.

    2018 VG18 is a distant trans-Neptunian object that was discovered well beyond 100 AU (15 billion km) from the Sun. It was first observed on 10 November 2018 by astronomers Scott Sheppard, David Tholen, and Chad Trujillo during a search for distant trans-Neptunian objects whose orbits might be gravitationally influenced by the hypothetical Planet Nine. They announced their discovery on 17 December 2018 and nicknamed the object "Farout" to emphasize its distance from the Sun.

    (523764) 2014 WC510, is a binary trans-Neptunian object discovered on 8 September 2011 by the Pan-STARRS survey at the Haleakalā Observatory in Hawaii. It was found by Pan-STARRS on 20 November 2014 and was announced later in July 2016 after additional observations and precovery identifications. It is in the Kuiper belt, a region of icy objects orbiting beyond Neptune in the outer Solar System. It is classified as a plutino, a dynamical class of objects in a 2:3 orbital resonance with Neptune. On 1 December 2018, a team of astronomers observed a stellar occultation by the object, which revealed that it is a compact binary system consisting of two separate components in close orbit around each other. The primary and secondary components are estimated to have diameters of around 180 km (110 mi) and 140 km (87 mi), respectively.


    1. 1 2 3 "MPEC 2014-F82 : 2013 FY27". IAU Minor Planet Center. 31 March 2014. Retrieved 29 March 2018. (K13F27Y)
    2. "List Of Centaurs and Scattered-Disk Objects". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 2 April 2014.
    3. 1 2 3 4 5 "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: (2013 FY27)" (last observation: 2018-04-12; arc: 7.08 years). Jet Propulsion Laboratory . Retrieved 20 February 2020.
    4. 1 2 JPL Horizons Observer Location: @sun (perihelion occurs when deldot changes from negative to positive)
    5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Sheppard, Scott; Fernandez, Yanga; Moullet, Arielle (6 September 2018). "The Albedos, Sizes, Colors and Satellites of Dwarf Planets Compared with Newly Measured Dwarf Planet 2013 FY27". The Astronomical Journal. 156 (6): 270. arXiv: 1809.02184 . Bibcode:2018AJ....156..270S. doi:10.3847/1538-3881/aae92a.
    6. 1 2 Scott Sheppard (21 March 2018). "The Orbit of the Newly Discovered Satellite around the Dwarf Planet 2013 FY27 - HST Proposal 15460" . Retrieved 9 September 2018.
    7. Scott Sheppard (7 April 2017). "A Satellite Search of a Newly Discovered Dwarf Planet  HST Proposal 15248" . Retrieved 9 September 2018.
    8. Lakdawalla, Emily (2 April 2014). "More excitement in the outermost solar system: 2013 FY27, a new dwarf planet". www.planetary.org/blogs. The Planetary Society . Retrieved 18 January 2017.
    9. "JPL Small-Body Database Search Engine: orbital class (TNO) and H < 3.2 (mag)". JPL Solar System Dynamics. Retrieved 1 June 2019.
    10. Mike Brown, How many dwarf planets are there in the outer solar system? Archived 18 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine (assumes H = 3.3)
    11. W.M. Grundy, K.S. Noll, M.W. Buie, S.D. Benecchi, D. Ragozzine & H.G. Roe, 'The Mutual Orbit, Mass, and Density of Transneptunian Binary Gǃkúnǁʼhòmdímà ((229762) 2007 UK126)', Icarus Archived 7 April 2019 at the Wayback Machine doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2018.12.037,
    12. "CBET 4537: 2013 FY27". cbat.eps.harvard.edu. 10 August 2018. Retrieved 9 September 2018.