Apparent magnitude

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Asteroid 65 Cybele and two stars, with their magnitudes labeled 65Cyb-LB3-apmag.jpg
Asteroid 65 Cybele and two stars, with their magnitudes labeled

Apparent magnitude (m) is a measure of the brightness of a star or other astronomical object observed from Earth. An object's apparent magnitude depends on its intrinsic luminosity, its distance from Earth, and any extinction of the object's light caused by interstellar dust along the line of sight to the observer.

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The word magnitude in astronomy, unless stated otherwise, usually refers to a celestial object's apparent magnitude. The magnitude scale dates back to the ancient Roman astronomer Claudius Ptolemy, whose star catalog listed stars from 1st magnitude (brightest) to 6th magnitude (dimmest). The modern scale was mathematically defined in a way to closely match this historical system.

The scale is reverse logarithmic: the brighter an object is, the lower its magnitude number. A difference of 1.0 in magnitude corresponds to a brightness ratio of , or about 2.512. For example, a star of magnitude 2.0 is 2.512 times brighter than a star of magnitude 3.0, 6.31 times brighter than a star of magnitude 4.0, and 100 times brighter than one of magnitude 7.0.

The brightest astronomical objects have negative apparent magnitudes: for example, Venus at −4.2 or Sirius at −1.46. The faintest stars visible with the naked eye on the darkest night have apparent magnitudes of about +6.5, though this varies depending on a person's eyesight and with altitude and atmospheric conditions. [1] The apparent magnitudes of known objects range from the Sun at −26.7 to objects in deep Hubble Space Telescope images of magnitude +31.5. [2]

The measurement of apparent magnitude is called photometry. Photometric measurements are made in the ultraviolet, visible, or infrared wavelength bands using standard passband filters belonging to photometric systems such as the UBV system or the Strömgren uvbyβ system.

Absolute magnitude is a measure of the intrinsic luminosity of a celestial object, rather than its apparent brightness, and is expressed on the same reverse logarithmic scale. Absolute magnitude is defined as the apparent magnitude that a star or object would have if it were observed from a distance of 10 parsecs (33 light-years; 3.1×1014 kilometres; 1.9×1014 miles). Therefore it is of greater use in stellar astrophysics since it refers to a property of a star regardless of how close it is to Earth. But in observational astronomy and popular stargazing, unqualified references to "magnitude" are understood to mean apparent magnitude.

History

Visible to
typical
human
eye [3]
Apparent
magnitude
Bright-
ness
relative
to Vega
Number of stars
(other than the Sun)
brighter than
apparent magnitude [4]
in the night sky
Yes−1.0251%1 (Sirius)
0.0100%4
1.040%15
2.016%48
3.06.3%171
4.02.5%513
5.01.0%1602
6.00.4%4800
6.50.25%9100 [5]
No7.00.16%14000
8.00.063%42000
9.00.025%121000
10.00.010%340000

The scale used to indicate magnitude originates in the Hellenistic practice of dividing stars visible to the naked eye into six magnitudes. The brightest stars in the night sky were said to be of first magnitude (m = 1), whereas the faintest were of sixth magnitude (m = 6), which is the limit of human visual perception (without the aid of a telescope). Each grade of magnitude was considered twice the brightness of the following grade (a logarithmic scale), although that ratio was subjective as no photodetectors existed. This rather crude scale for the brightness of stars was popularized by Ptolemy in his Almagest and is generally believed to have originated with Hipparchus. This cannot be proved or disproved because Hipparchus's original star catalogue is lost. The only preserved text by Hipparchus himself (a commentary to Aratus) clearly documents that he did not have a system to describe brightness with numbers: He always uses terms like "big" or "small", "bright" or "faint" or even descriptions like "visible at fullmoon". [6]

In 1856, Norman Robert Pogson formalized the system by defining a first magnitude star as a star that is 100 times as bright as a sixth-magnitude star, thereby establishing the logarithmic scale still in use today. This implies that a star of magnitude m is about 2.512 times as bright as a star of magnitude m + 1. This figure, the fifth root of 100, became known as Pogson's Ratio. [7] The zero point of Pogson's scale was originally defined by assigning Polaris a magnitude of exactly 2. Astronomers later discovered that Polaris is slightly variable, so they switched to Vega as the standard reference star, assigning the brightness of Vega as the definition of zero magnitude at any specified wavelength.

Apart from small corrections, the brightness of Vega still serves as the definition of zero magnitude for visible and near infrared wavelengths, where its spectral energy distribution (SED) closely approximates that of a black body for a temperature of 11000 K. However, with the advent of infrared astronomy it was revealed that Vega's radiation includes an infrared excess presumably due to a circumstellar disk consisting of dust at warm temperatures (but much cooler than the star's surface). At shorter (e.g. visible) wavelengths, there is negligible emission from dust at these temperatures. However, in order to properly extend the magnitude scale further into the infrared, this peculiarity of Vega should not affect the definition of the magnitude scale. Therefore, the magnitude scale was extrapolated to all wavelengths on the basis of the black-body radiation curve for an ideal stellar surface at 11000 K uncontaminated by circumstellar radiation. On this basis the spectral irradiance (usually expressed in janskys) for the zero magnitude point, as a function of wavelength, can be computed. [8] Small deviations are specified between systems using measurement apparatuses developed independently so that data obtained by different astronomers can be properly compared, but of greater practical importance is the definition of magnitude not at a single wavelength but applying to the response of standard spectral filters used in photometry over various wavelength bands.

Limiting Magnitudes for Visual Observation at High Magnification [9]
Telescope
aperture
(mm)
Limiting
Magnitude
3511.3
6012.3
10213.3
15214.1
20314.7
30515.4
40615.7
50816.4

With the modern magnitude systems, brightness over a very wide range is specified according to the logarithmic definition detailed below, using this zero reference. In practice such apparent magnitudes do not exceed 30 (for detectable measurements). The brightness of Vega is exceeded by four stars in the night sky at visible wavelengths (and more at infrared wavelengths) as well as the bright planets Venus, Mars, and Jupiter, and these must be described by negative magnitudes. For example, Sirius, the brightest star of the celestial sphere, has a magnitude of −1.4 in the visible. Negative magnitudes for other very bright astronomical objects can be found in the table below.

Astronomers have developed other photometric zero point systems as alternatives to the Vega system. The most widely used is the AB magnitude system, [10] in which photometric zero points are based on a hypothetical reference spectrum having constant flux per unit frequency interval, rather than using a stellar spectrum or blackbody curve as the reference. The AB magnitude zero point is defined such that an object's AB and Vega-based magnitudes will be approximately equal in the V filter band.

Measurement

Precision measurement of magnitude (photometry) requires calibration of the photographic or (usually) electronic detection apparatus. This generally involves contemporaneous observation, under identical conditions, of standard stars whose magnitude using that spectral filter is accurately known. Moreover, as the amount of light actually received by a telescope is reduced due to transmission through the Earth's atmosphere, the airmasses of the target and calibration stars must be taken into account. Typically one would observe a few different stars of known magnitude which are sufficiently similar. Calibrator stars close in the sky to the target are favoured (to avoid large differences in the atmospheric paths). If those stars have somewhat different zenith angles (altitudes) then a correction factor as a function of airmass can be derived and applied to the airmass at the target's position. Such calibration obtains the brightness as would be observed from above the atmosphere, where apparent magnitude is defined.

For those new to astronomy, Apparent Magnitude scales with the received power (as opposed to amplitude), so for astrophotography you can use the relative brightness measure to scale the exposure times between stars. Apparent magnitude also adds up (integrates) over the entire object, so it is focus independent. This needs to be taken into account when scaling exposure times for objects with significant apparent size, like the sun, moon and planets. For example, directly scaling the exposure time from the moon to the sun works, because they are approximately the same size in the sky, but scaling the exposure from the moon to Saturn would result in an overexposure, if the image of Saturn takes up a smaller area on your sensor than the moon did. (at the same magnification or more generally f/#)

Calculations

Image of 30 Doradus taken by ESO's VISTA. This nebula has a visual magnitude of 8. VISTA Magellanic Cloud Survey view of the Tarantula Nebula.jpg
Image of 30 Doradus taken by ESO's VISTA. This nebula has a visual magnitude of 8.
Graph of relative brightness versus magnitude Apparent magnitude.svg
Graph of relative brightness versus magnitude

The dimmer an object appears, the higher the numerical value given to its magnitude, with a difference of 5 magnitudes corresponding to a brightness factor of exactly 100. Therefore, the magnitude m, in the spectral band x, would be given by

which is more commonly expressed in terms of common (base-10) logarithms as

where Fx is the observed flux density using spectral filter x, and Fx,0 is the reference flux (zero-point) for that photometric filter. Since an increase of 5 magnitudes corresponds to a decrease in brightness by a factor of exactly 100, each magnitude increase implies a decrease in brightness by the factor (Pogson's ratio). Inverting the above formula, a magnitude difference m1m2 = Δm implies a brightness factor of

Example: Sun and Moon

What is the ratio in brightness between the Sun and the full Moon?

The apparent magnitude of the Sun is −26.74 [11] (brighter), and the mean magnitude of the full moon is −12.74 [12] (dimmer).

Difference in magnitude:

Brightness factor:

The Sun appears about 400000 times brighter than the full moon.

Magnitude addition

Sometimes one might wish to add brightness. For example, photometry on closely separated double stars may only be able to produce a measurement of their combined light output. How would we reckon the combined magnitude of that double star knowing only the magnitudes of the individual components? This can be done by adding the brightness (in linear units) corresponding to each magnitude. [13]

Solving for yields

where mf is the resulting magnitude after adding the brightnesses referred to by m1 and m2.

Apparent bolometric magnitude

While magnitude generally refers to a measurement in a particular filter band corresponding to some range of wavelengths, the apparent or absolute bolometric magnitude (mbol) is a measure of an object's apparent or absolute brightness integrated over all wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum (also known as the object's irradiance or power, respectively). The zero point of the apparent bolometric magnitude scale is based on the definition that an apparent bolometric magnitude of 0 mag is equivalent to a received irradiance of 2.518×10−8 watts per square metre (W·m−2). [14]

Absolute magnitude

While apparent magnitude is a measure of the brightness of an object as seen by a particular observer, absolute magnitude is a measure of the intrinsic brightness of an object. Flux decreases with distance according to an inverse-square law, so the apparent magnitude of a star depends on both its absolute brightness and its distance (and any extinction). For example, a star at one distance will have the same apparent magnitude as a star four times brighter at twice that distance. In contrast, the intrinsic brightness of an astronomical object, does not depend on the distance of the observer or any extinction.

The absolute magnitude M, of a star or astronomical object is defined as the apparent magnitude it would have as seen from a distance of 10 parsecs (33  ly ). The absolute magnitude of the Sun is 4.83 in the V band (visual), 4.68 in the Gaia satellite's G band (green) and 5.48 in the B band (blue). [15] [16] [17]

In the case of a planet or asteroid, the absolute magnitude H rather means the apparent magnitude it would have if it were 1 astronomical unit (150,000,000 km) from both the observer and the Sun, and fully illuminated at maximum opposition (a configuration that is only theoretically achievable, with the observer situated on the surface of the Sun). [18]

Standard reference values

Standard apparent magnitudes and fluxes for typical bands [19]
Bandλ
(μm)
Δλ/λ
(FWHM)
Flux at m = 0, Fx,0
Jy 10−20 erg/(s·cm2·Hz)
U0.360.1518101.81
B0.440.2242604.26
V0.550.1636403.64
R0.640.2330803.08
I0.790.1925502.55
J1.260.1616001.60
H1.600.2310801.08
K2.220.236700.67
L3.50
g0.520.1437303.73
r0.670.1444904.49
i0.790.1647604.76
z0.910.1348104.81

The magnitude scale is a reverse logarithmic scale. A common misconception is that the logarithmic nature of the scale is because the human eye itself has a logarithmic response. In Pogson's time this was thought to be true (see Weber–Fechner law), but it is now believed that the response is a power law (see Stevens' power law). [20]

Magnitude is complicated by the fact that light is not monochromatic. The sensitivity of a light detector varies according to the wavelength of the light, and the way it varies depends on the type of light detector. For this reason, it is necessary to specify how the magnitude is measured for the value to be meaningful. For this purpose the UBV system is widely used, in which the magnitude is measured in three different wavelength bands: U (centred at about 350 nm, in the near ultraviolet), B (about 435 nm, in the blue region) and V (about 555 nm, in the middle of the human visual range in daylight). The V band was chosen for spectral purposes and gives magnitudes closely corresponding to those seen by the human eye. When an apparent magnitude is discussed without further qualification, the V magnitude is generally understood.[ citation needed ]

Because cooler stars, such as red giants and red dwarfs, emit little energy in the blue and UV regions of the spectrum, their power is often under-represented by the UBV scale. Indeed, some L and T class stars have an estimated magnitude of well over 100, because they emit extremely little visible light, but are strongest in infrared.[ citation needed ]

Measures of magnitude need cautious treatment and it is extremely important to measure like with like. On early 20th century and older orthochromatic (blue-sensitive) photographic film, the relative brightnesses of the blue supergiant Rigel and the red supergiant Betelgeuse irregular variable star (at maximum) are reversed compared to what human eyes perceive, because this archaic film is more sensitive to blue light than it is to red light. Magnitudes obtained from this method are known as photographic magnitudes, and are now considered obsolete.[ citation needed ]

For objects within the Milky Way with a given absolute magnitude, 5 is added to the apparent magnitude for every tenfold increase in the distance to the object. For objects at very great distances (far beyond the Milky Way), this relationship must be adjusted for redshifts and for non-Euclidean distance measures due to general relativity. [21] [22]

For planets and other Solar System bodies, the apparent magnitude is derived from its phase curve and the distances to the Sun and observer.[ citation needed ]

List of apparent magnitudes

Apparent visual magnitudes of celestial objects
Apparent
magnitude
(V)
ObjectSeen from...Notes
−67.57 gamma-ray burst GRB 080319B seen from 1  AU awaywould be over 2×1016 (20 quadrillion) times as bright as the Sun when seen from the Earth
−41.39star Cygnus OB2-12 seen from 1 AU away
−40.67star M33-013406.63 seen from 1 AU away
–40.17star Eta Carinae Aseen from 1 AU away
−40.07star Zeta1 Scorpii seen from 1 AU away
−39.66star R136a1 seen from 1 AU away
–39.47star P Cygni seen from 1 AU away
−38.00star Rigel seen from 1 AU awaywould be seen as a large, very bright bluish disk of 35° apparent diameter
−30.30star Sirius Aseen from 1 AU away
−29.30star Sun seen from Mercury at perihelion
−27.40star Sunseen from Venus at perihelion
−26.74star Sunseen from Earth [11] about 400,000 times brighter than mean full moon
−25.60star Sunseen from Mars at aphelion
−25.00Minimum brightness that causes the typical eye slight pain to look at
−23.00star Sunseen from Jupiter at aphelion
−21.70star Sunseen from Saturn at aphelion
−20.20star Sunseen from Uranus at aphelion
−19.30star Sunseen from Neptune
−18.20star Sunseen from Pluto at aphelion
−17.70planet Earthseen as earthlight from Moon [23]
−16.70star Sunseen from Eris at aphelion
−14.20An illumination level of 1 lux [24] [25]
−12.90 full moon seen from Earth at perihelionmaximum brightness of perigee + perihelion + full moon (mean distance value is −12.74, [12] though values are about 0.18 magnitude brighter when including the opposition effect)
−12.40 Betelgeuse seen from Earth when it goes supernova [26]
−11.20star Sunseen from Sedna at aphelion
−10.00Comet Ikeya–Seki (1965)seen from Earthwhich was the brightest Kreutz Sungrazer of modern times [27]
−9.50 Iridium (satellite) flare seen from Earthmaximum brightness
−9 to −10 Phobos (moon) seen from Marsmaximum brightness
−7.50 supernova of 1006 seen from Earththe brightest stellar event in recorded history (7200 light-years away) [28]
−6.50The total integrated magnitude of the night sky seen from Earth
−6.00 Crab Supernova of 1054 seen from Earth(6500 light-years away) [29]
−5.90 International Space Station seen from Earthwhen the ISS is at its perigee and fully lit by the Sun [30]
−4.92planet Venusseen from Earthmaximum brightness [31] when illuminated as a crescent
−4.14planet Venusseen from Earthmean brightness [31]
−4Faintest objects observable during the day with naked eye when Sun is high. An astronomical object casts human-visible shadows when its apparent magnitude is equal to or lower than -4 [32]
−3.99star Epsilon Canis Majoris seen from Earthmaximum brightness of 4.7 million years ago, the historical brightest star of the last and next five million years
−3.69Moonlit by earthlight, reflecting earthshine seen from Earth (maximum) [23]
−2.98planet Venusseen from Earthminimum brightness when it is on the far side of the Sun [31]
−2.94planet Jupiterseen from Earthmaximum brightness [31]
−2.94planet Marsseen from Earthmaximum brightness [31]
−2.5Faintest objects visible during the day with naked eye when Sun is less than 10° above the horizon
−2.50 new moon seen from Earthminimum brightness
−2.50planet Earthseen from Marsmaximum
−2.48planet Mercuryseen from Earthmaximum brightness at superior conjunction (unlike Venus, Mercury is at its brightest when on the far side of the Sun, the reason being their different phase curves) [31]
−2.20planet Jupiterseen from Earthmean brightness [31]
−1.66planet Jupiterseen from Earthminimum brightness [31]
−1.47star system Siriusseen from EarthBrightest star except for the Sun at visible wavelengths [33]
−0.83star Eta Carinae seen from Earthapparent brightness as a supernova impostor in April 1843
−0.72star Canopus seen from Earth2nd brightest star in night sky [34]
−0.55planet Saturnseen from Earthmaximum brightness near opposition and perihelion when the rings are angled toward Earth [31]
−0.3 Halley's comet seen from EarthExpected apparent magnitude at 2061 passage
−0.27star system Alpha Centauri ABseen from EarthCombined magnitude (3rd brightest star in night sky)
−0.04star Arcturus seen from Earth4th brightest star to the naked eye [35]
−0.01star Alpha Centauri Aseen from Earth4th brightest individual star visible telescopically in the night sky
+0.03star Vega seen from Earthwhich was originally chosen as a definition of the zero point [36]
+0.23planet Mercuryseen from Earthmean brightness [31]
+0.46star Sunseen from Alpha Centauri
+0.46planet Saturnseen from Earthmean brightness [31]
+0.71planet Marsseen from Earthmean brightness [31]
+1.17planet Saturnseen from Earthminimum brightness [31]
+1.86planet Marsseen from Earthminimum brightness [31]
+1.98star Polaris seen from Earthmean brightness [37]
+3.03supernova SN 1987A seen from Earthin the Large Magellanic Cloud (160,000 light-years away)
+3 to +4Faintest stars visible in an urban neighborhood with naked eye
+3.44 Andromeda Galaxy seen from EarthM31 [38]
+4 Orion Nebula seen from EarthM42
+4.38moon Ganymede seen from Earthmaximum brightness [39] (moon of Jupiter and the largest moon in the Solar System)
+4.50open cluster M41 seen from Earthan open cluster that may have been seen by Aristotle [40]
+4.5 Sagittarius Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy seen from Earth
+5.20asteroid Vesta seen from Earthmaximum brightness
+5.38 [41] planet Uranusseen from Earthmaximum brightness [31] (Uranus comes to perihelion in 2050)
+5.68planet Uranusseen from Earthmean brightness [31]
+5.72spiral galaxy M33 seen from Earthwhich is used as a test for naked eye seeing under dark skies [42] [43]
+5.8 gamma-ray burst GRB 080319B seen from EarthPeak visual magnitude (the "Clarke Event") seen on Earth on 19 March 2008 from a distance of 7.5 billion light-years.
+6.03planet Uranusseen from Earthminimum brightness [31]
+6.49asteroid Pallas seen from Earthmaximum brightness
+6.5Approximate limit of stars observed by a mean naked eye observer under very good conditions. There are about 9,500 stars visible to mag 6.5. [3]
+6.64dwarf planet Ceres seen from Earthmaximum brightness
+6.75asteroid Iris seen from Earthmaximum brightness
+6.90spiral galaxy M81 seen from EarthThis is an extreme naked-eyetarget that pushes human eyesight and the Bortle scale to the limit [44]
+7.25planet Mercuryseen from Earthminimum brightness [31]
+7.67 [45] planet Neptuneseen from Earthmaximum brightness [31] (Neptune comes to perihelion in 2042)
+7.78planet Neptuneseen from Earthmean brightness [31]
+8.00planet Neptuneseen from Earthminimum brightness [31]
+8Extreme naked-eye limit, Class 1 on Bortle scale, the darkest skies available on Earth. [46]
+8.10moon Titan seen from Earthmaximum brightness; largest moon of Saturn; [47] [48] mean opposition magnitude 8.4 [49]
+8.29star UY Scuti seen from EarthMaximum brightness; one of largest known stars by radius
+8.94asteroid 10 Hygiea seen from Earthmaximum brightness [50]
+9.50Faintest objects visible using common 7×50 binoculars under typical conditions [51]
+10.20moon Iapetus seen from Earthmaximum brightness, [48] brightest when west of Saturn and takes 40 days to switch sides
+11.05star Proxima Centauri seen from Earthclosest star
+11.8moon Phobos seen from EarthMaximum brightness; brightest moon of Mars
+12.23star R136a1 seen from EarthMost luminous and massive star known [52]
+12.89moon Deimos seen from EarthMaximum brightness
+12.91 quasar 3C 273 seen from Earthbrightest (luminosity distance of 2.4 billion light-years)
+13.42moon Triton seen from EarthMaximum brightness [49]
+13.65dwarf planet Pluto seen from Earthmaximum brightness, [53] 725 times fainter than magnitude 6.5 naked eye skies
+13.9moon Titania seen from EarthMaximum brightness; brightest moon of Uranus
+14.1star WR 102 seen from EarthHottest known star
+15.4 centaur Chiron seen from Earthmaximum brightness [54]
+15.55moon Charon seen from Earthmaximum brightness (the largest moon of Pluto)
+16.8dwarf planet Makemake seen from EarthCurrent opposition brightness [55]
+17.27dwarf planet Haumea seen from EarthCurrent opposition brightness [56]
+18.7dwarf planet Eris seen from EarthCurrent opposition brightness
+19.5Faintest objects observable with the Catalina Sky Survey 0.7-meter telescope using a 30-second exposure [57] and also the approximate limiting magnitude of Asteroid Terrestrial-impact Last Alert System (ATLAS)
+20.7moon Callirrhoe seen from Earth(small ≈8 km satellite of Jupiter) [49]
+22Faintest objects observable in visible light with a 600 mm (24″) Ritchey-Chrétien telescope with 30 minutes of stacked images (6 subframes at 5 minutes each) using a CCD detector [58]
+22.8 Luhman 16 seen from EarthClosest brown dwarfs (Luhman 16A=23.25, Luhman 16B=24.07) [59]
+22.91moon Hydra seen from Earthmaximum brightness of Pluto's moon
+23.38moon Nix seen from Earthmaximum brightness of Pluto's moon
+24Faintest objects observable with the Pan-STARRS 1.8-meter telescope using a 60-second exposure [60] This is currently the limiting magnitude of automated allsky astronomical surveys.
+25.0moon Fenrir seen from Earth(small ≈4 km satellite of Saturn) [61]
+25.3Trans-Neptunian object 2018 AG37 seen from EarthFurthest known observable object in the Solar System about 132 AU (19.7 billion km) from the Sun
+26.2Trans-Neptunian object 2015 TH367 seen from Earth200 km sized object about 90 AU (13 billion km) from the Sun and about 75 million times fainter than what can be seen with the naked eye.
+27.7Faintest objects observable with a single 8-meter class ground-based telescope such as the Subaru Telescope in a 10-hour image [62]
+28.2 Halley's Comet seen from Earth (2003)in 2003 when it was 28 AU (4.2 billion km) from the Sun, imaged using 3 of 4 synchronised individual scopes in the ESO's Very Large Telescope array using a total exposure time of about 9 hours [63]
+28.4asteroid 2003 BH91 seen from Earth orbitobserved magnitude of ≈15-kilometer Kuiper belt object Seen by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in 2003, dimmest known directly observed asteroid.
+31.5Faintest objects observable in visible light with Hubble Space Telescope via the EXtreme Deep Field with ~23 days of exposure time collected over 10 years [64]
+34Faintest objects observable in visible light with James Webb Space Telescope [65]
+35unnamed asteroidseen from Earth orbitexpected magnitude of dimmest known asteroid, a 950-meter Kuiper belt object discovered by the HST passing in front of a star in 2009. [66]
+35star LBV 1806-20 seen from Eartha luminous blue variable star, expected magnitude at visible wavelengths due to interstellar extinction

Some of the listed magnitudes are approximate. Telescope sensitivity depends on observing time, optical bandpass, and interfering light from scattering and airglow.

See also

Related Research Articles

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The Sombrero Galaxy is a spiral galaxy in the constellation borders of Virgo and Corvus, being about 9.55 megaparsecs from our galaxy, within the local supercluster. It has a diameter of approximately 15 kiloparsecs, three-tenths the size of the Milky Way. It has a bright nucleus, an unusually large central bulge, and a prominent dust lane in its outer disk, which is viewed almost edge-on. The dark dust lane and the bulge give it the appearance of a sombrero hat. Astronomers initially thought the halo was small and light, indicative of a spiral galaxy; but the Spitzer Space Telescope found that the dust ring was larger and more massive than previously thought, indicative of a giant elliptical galaxy. The galaxy has an apparent magnitude of +8.0, making it easily visible with amateur telescopes, and is considered by some authors to be the galaxy with the highest absolute magnitude within a radius of 10 megaparsecs of the Milky Way. Its large bulge, central supermassive black hole, and dust lane all attract the attention of professional astronomers.

In astronomy, surface brightness (SB) quantifies the apparent brightness or flux density per unit angular area of a spatially extended object such as a galaxy or nebula, or of the night sky background. An object's surface brightness depends on its surface luminosity density, i.e., its luminosity emitted per unit surface area. In visible and infrared astronomy, surface brightness is often quoted on a magnitude scale, in magnitudes per square arcsecond (MPSAS) in a particular filter band or photometric system.

The Malmquist bias is an effect in observational astronomy which leads to the preferential detection of intrinsically bright objects. It was first described in 1922 by Swedish astronomer Gunnar Malmquist (1893–1982), who then greatly elaborated upon this work in 1925. In statistics, this bias is referred to as a selection bias or data censoring. It affects the results in a brightness-limited survey, where stars below a certain apparent brightness cannot be included. Since observed stars and galaxies appear dimmer when farther away, the brightness that is measured will fall off with distance until their brightness falls below the observational threshold. Objects which are more luminous, or intrinsically brighter, can be observed at a greater distance, creating a false trend of increasing intrinsic brightness, and other related quantities, with distance. This effect has led to many spurious claims in the field of astronomy. Properly correcting for these effects has become an area of great focus.

Magnitude (astronomy) Logarithmic measure of the brightness of an astronomical object

In astronomy, magnitude is a unitless measure of the brightness of an object in a defined passband, often in the visible or infrared spectrum, but sometimes across all wavelengths. An imprecise but systematic determination of the magnitude of objects was introduced in ancient times by Hipparchus.

Photographic magnitude is a measure of the relative brightness of a star or other astronomical object as imaged on a photographic film emulsion with a camera attached to a telescope. An object's apparent photographic magnitude depends on its intrinsic luminosity, its distance and any extinction of light by interstellar matter existing along the line of sight to the observer.

Kappa Arae Star in the constellation Ara

Kappa Arae is the Bayer designation for a single star in the southern constellation of Ara. Based upon parallax measurements, it is approximately 460 light-years distant from Earth, give or take a 30 light-year margin of error. With an apparent visual magnitude of 5.21, this star is faintly visible to the naked eye.

21 Aquilae is a solitary variable star in the equatorial constellation of Aquila. It has the variable star designation V1288 Aql; 21 Aquilae is its Flamsteed designation. This object is visible to the naked eye as a dim, blue-white hued star with a baseline apparent visual magnitude of 5.14. The star is located at a distance of around 740 light-years from Earth, give or take a 30 light-year margin of error. It is moving closer to the Earth with a heliocentric radial velocity of –5 km/s.

NGC 6302 Bipolar planetary nebula in the constellation Scorpius

NGC 6302 is a bipolar planetary nebula in the constellation Scorpius. The structure in the nebula is among the most complex ever observed in planetary nebulae. The spectrum of NGC 6302 shows that its central star is one of the hottest stars known, with a surface temperature in excess of 250,000 degrees Celsius, implying that the star from which it formed must have been very large.

Eta Crucis is a solitary star in the southern constellation of Crux. It can be seen with the naked eye, having an apparent visual magnitude of 4.14m. Based upon parallax measurements, η Crucis is located 64 light-years from the Sun. The system made its closest approach about 1.6 million years ago when it achieved perihelion at a distance of roughly 26 light years.

In astronomy, the bolometric correction is the correction made to the absolute magnitude of an object in order to convert its visible magnitude to its bolometric magnitude. It is large for stars which radiate most of their energy outside of the visible range. A uniform scale for the correction has not yet been standardized.

Chi Ceti Star in the constellation Cetus

Chi Ceti , is the Bayer designation for a double star in the equatorial constellation of Cetus. They appear to be common proper motion companions, sharing a similar motion through space. The brighter component, HD 11171, is visible to the naked eye with an apparent visual magnitude of 4.66, while the fainter companion, HD 11131, is magnitude 6.75. Both lie at roughly the same distance, with the brighter component lying at an estimated distance of 75.6 light years from the Sun based upon an annual parallax shift of 43.13 mass.

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