(153591) 2001 SN263

Last updated

(153591) 2001 SN263
2001sn263 arecibo.png
Radar image of 2001 SN263 and its two satellites imaged by the Arecibo Observatory in 2008
Discovery [1]
Discovered by LINEAR
Discovery site Lincoln Lab's ETS
Discovery date20 September 2001
Designations
(153591) 2001 SN263
2001 SN263
NEO  · Amor [1] [2]
Orbital characteristics [2]
Epoch 4 September 2017 (JD 2458000.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc 25.18 yr (9,198 days)
Aphelion 2.9368 AU
Perihelion 1.0363 AU
1.9865 AU
Eccentricity 0.4783
2.80 yr (1,023 days)
148.57°
0° 21m 7.2s / day
Inclination 6.6853°
325.83°
172.86°
Known satellites 2 [3]
Earth  MOID 0.0520 AU ·20.3 LD
Physical characteristics
Mean diameter
2  km [3]
2.5±0.3 km [4]
2.6 km [5]
2.63±0.40 km [6]
Mass (917.5±2.2)×1010  kg [7]
Mean density
1.1±0.2  g/cm3 [4]
3.20±0.01  h [8]
3.423±0.001 h [lower-alpha 1]
3.42510±0.00007 h [9]
3.4256±0.0002 h [4]
0.048±0.015 [6]
C [8]  · B [lower-alpha 2]
16.81 [10]  ·16.9 [2]

    (153591) 2001 SN263 is a carbonaceous trinary [3] asteroid, classified as near-Earth object and former potentially hazardous asteroid of the Amor group, approximately 2.6 kilometers (1.6 miles) in diameter. It was discovered by the Lincoln Near-Earth Asteroid Research project at Lincoln Lab's Experimental Test Site in Socorro, New Mexico, on 20 September 2001. [1] The two synchronous minor-planet moons measure approximately 770 and 430 meters and have an orbital period of 16.46 and 150 hours, respectively. [4] [10]

    Contents

    Numbering and naming

    This minor planet was numbered by the Minor Planet Center on 2 April 2007. [11] As of 2018, the primary and its moons have not been named. [1] In the scientific literature, the components of the trinary system are generically referred to as Alpha, Beta and Gamma, but these labels are not recognized by the IAU. [5] [4]

    Primary

    2001 SN263, the primary object of this trinary system, is an unusual carbonaceous near-Earth asteroid of a C- or somewhat brighter B-type. [8] [lower-alpha 2] It orbits the Sun at a distance of 1.0–2.9  AU once every 2 years and 10 months (1,023 days). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.48 and an inclination of 7° with respect to the ecliptic. [2] A first precovery was taken at Palomar Observatory during the Digitized Sky Survey in 1990, extending the body's observation arc by 11 years prior to its official discovery observation at Socorro. [1]

    It has an Earth minimum orbital intersection distance (MOID) of 0.0520 AU (7,780,000 km), which translates into 20.3 lunar distances. [2] With an Earth MOID above 0.05 AU, 2001 SN263 is no longer a potentially hazardous asteroid, but it was classified as such by the MPC until early 2017. [1] [12]

    Radar observations show that it measures 2.5 kilometers in diameter. [4] Its surface has a low albedo of 0.048. [6] Rotational lightcurves obtained from photometric observations gave a rotation period of 3.423 hours (best result) with a brightness variation between 0.13 and 0.27 magnitude ( U=2/3/3 ). [8] [9] [lower-alpha 1] Radar observations gave a concurring period of 3.4256 hours, and subsequent modeling of both radiometric and photometric observations gave a spin axis of (309.0°, −80.0°) in ecliptic coordinates (λ, β). [4]

    Trinary system

    In 2008, scientists using the planetary radar at Arecibo Observatory discovered that the object is orbited by two satellites, when the triple asteroid made a close approach to Earth of 0.066 AU (nearly 10 million kilometers). The largest body (preliminarily called Alpha) is spheroid in shape, with principal axes of 2.8±0.1 km, 2.7±0.1 km, and 2.9±0.3 km, with an effective diameter of 2.5±0.3 km and a density of 1.1±0.2 g/cm3. The satellites, named Beta and Gamma, are several times smaller in size. Beta is 0.77±0.12 km in diameter and Gamma0.43±0.14 km. [4]

    The only other unambiguously identified triple asteroids in the near-Earth population are (136617) 1994 CC, which was discovered to be a triple system in 2009, and 3122 Florence, which was found to be a triple system in September 2017. [13]

    Orbital characteristics of satellites

    The orbital properties of the satellites are listed in this table. [7] The orbital planes of both satellites are inclined relative to each other; the relative inclination is about 14 degrees. Such a large inclination is suggestive of past evolutionary events (e.g. close encounter with a terrestrial planet, mean-motion-resonance crossing) that may have excited their orbits from a coplanar configuration to an inclined state.

    NameMass (est.)Semi-major axisOrbital periodEccentricity
    Gamma (inner)10×1010  kg 3.8 km0.686 days0.016
    Beta (outer)24×1010 kg16.6 km6.225 days0.015

    Exploration

    This triple asteroid system is the target for the planned ASTER mission scheduled for launch in 2021 by the Brazilian Space Agency. [14]

    Notes

    1. 1 2 Warner (2011) web: lightcurve plot of (153591) 2001 SN263, Palmer Divide Observatory, Brian D. Warner (2008). Photometric observations from 20 February 2008: rotation period 3.423±0.001 hours with a brightness amplitude of 0.14±0.02 magnitude. Quality code: 3. Summary figures for all obtained lightcurves at Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link (CALL) for (153591)
    2. 1 2 Perna (2014): photometric observation from 24 June 2011: with a brightness amplitude of mag. Summary figures at Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link (CALL) for (153591)

    Related Research Articles

    1620 Geographos

    1620 Geographos, provisional designation 1951 RA, is a highly elongated, stony asteroid, near-Earth object and potentially hazardous asteroid of the Apollo group, with a mean-diameter of approximately 2.5 km (1.6 mi). It was discovered on 14 September 1951, by astronomers Albert George Wilson and Rudolph Minkowski at the Palomar Observatory in California, United States. The asteroid was named in honor of the National Geographic Society.

    2063 Bacchus, provisional designation 1977 HB, is a stony asteroid and near-Earth object of the Apollo group, approximately 1 kilometer in diameter. The contact binary was discovered on 24 April 1977, by American astronomer Charles Kowal at the Palomar Observatory in California, United States. It was named after Bacchus from Roman mythology.

    <span class="nowrap">(53319) 1999 JM<sub>8</sub></span>

    (53319) 1999 JM8 is an asteroid, slow rotator and tumbler, classified as a near-Earth object and potentially hazardous asteroid (PHA) of the Apollo group, approximately 7 kilometers (4 miles) in diameter, making it the largest PHA known to exist. It was discovered on 13 May 1999, by astronomers of the Lincoln Near-Earth Asteroid Research at the Lincoln Laboratory's Experimental Test Site near Socorro, New Mexico.

    66391 Moshup

    66391 Moshup, provisional designation 1999 KW4, is a binary asteroid, classified as a near-Earth object and potentially hazardous asteroid of the Aten group, approximately 1.3 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered on 20 May 1999, by Lincoln Near-Earth Asteroid Research (LINEAR) at the Lincoln Laboratory's Experimental Test Site in Socorro, New Mexico, United States. It is also a Mercury-crosser and the closest known binary system to the Sun with a perihelion of just 0.2 AU.

    69230 Hermes

    69230 Hermes is a sub-kilometer sized asteroid and binary system on an eccentric orbit, classified as a potentially hazardous asteroid and near-Earth object of the Apollo group, that passed Earth at approximately twice the distance of the Moon on 30 October 1937. The asteroid was named after Hermes from Greek mythology. It is noted for having been the last remaining named lost asteroid, rediscovered in 2003. The S-type asteroid has a rotation period of 13.9 hours. Its synchronous companion was discovered in 2003. The primary and secondary are similar in size; they measure approximately 810 meters (2,700 ft) and 540 meters (1,800 ft) in diameter, respectively.

    2100 Ra-Shalom

    2100 Ra-Shalom is an asteroid and near-Earth object of the Aten group on an eccentric orbit in the inner Solar System. It was discovered on 10 September 1978, by American astronomer Eleanor Helin at the Palomar Observatory, California, who named it in commemoration of the Camp David Peace Accords. The C-type asteroid has a rotation period of 19.8 hours and measures approximately 2.7 kilometers in diameter.

    1627 Ivar

    1627 Ivar, provisional designation 1929 SH, is an elongated stony asteroid and near-Earth object of the Amor group, approximately 15×6×6 km. It was discovered on 25 September 1929, by Danish astronomer Ejnar Hertzsprung at Leiden Southern Station, annex to the Johannesburg Observatory in South Africa. It was named after Ivar Hertzsprung, brother of the discoverer.

    <span class="nowrap">(185851) 2000 DP<sub>107</sub></span>

    (185851) 2000 DP107 is a sub-kilometer sized asteroid, classified as potentially hazardous asteroid and near-Earth object of the Apollo group that is notable because it provided evidence for binary asteroids in the near-Earth population.

    1580 Betulia

    1580 Betulia, provisional designation 1950 KA, is an eccentric, carbonaceous asteroid, classified as near-Earth object of the Amor group, approximately 4.2 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered on 22 May 1950, by South African astronomer Ernest Johnson at the Union Observatory in Johannesburg. The asteroid was named for Betulia Toro, wife of astronomer Samuel Herrick.

    3122 Florence Asteroid

    3122 Florence is a stony trinary asteroid of the Amor group. It is classified as a near-Earth object and potentially hazardous asteroid. It measures approximately 5 kilometers in diameter. It orbits the Sun at a distance of 1.0–2.5 AU once every 2 years and 4 months ; the orbit has an eccentricity of 0.42 and an inclination of 22° with respect to the ecliptic. Florence has two moons.

    5143 Heracles, provisional designation 1991 VL, is a highly eccentric, rare-type asteroid and synchronous binary system, classified as near-Earth object of the Apollo group, approximately 4.8 kilometers in diameter. The asteroid was discovered on 7 November 1991, by American astronomer Carolyn Shoemaker at Palomar Observatory in California, United States. It is named for the Greek divine hero Heracles. It has an Earth minimum orbit intersection distance of 0.058 AU (8.7 million km) and is associated with the Beta Taurids daytime meteor shower.

    7088 Ishtar, provisional designation 1992 AA, is a synchronous binary asteroid and near-Earth object from the Amor group, approximately 1.3 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered on 1 January 1992, by American astronomer Carolyn Shoemaker at the Palomar Observatory in California. The relatively bright asteroid with an unknown spectral type has a rotation period of 2.7 hours. In December 2005, a 330-meter sized satellite was discovered, orbiting its primary every 20.65 hours.

    (450894) 2008 BT18 is a sub-kilometer asteroid and synchronous binary system, classified as near-Earth object and potentially hazardous asteroid of the Apollo group. It was discovered on 31 January 2008, by the LINEAR program at Lincoln Laboratory's Experimental Test Site near Socorro, New Mexico, United States. The eccentric asteroid measures approximately 600 meters in diameter and has a composition of a basaltic achondrite.

    (136617) 1994 CC

    (136617) 1994 CC is a sub-kilometer trinary asteroid, classified as near-Earth object and potentially hazardous asteroid of the Apollo group.

    (31345) 1998 PG is an eccentric, stony asteroid and binary system, classified as near-Earth object of the Amor group of asteroids, approximately 900 meters in diameter. It minor-planet moon, S/2001 (31345) 1, has an estimated diameter of 270 meters.

    <span class="nowrap">(66063) 1998 RO<sub>1</sub></span>

    (66063) 1998 RO1 is a stony near-Earth object of the Aten group on a highly-eccentric orbit. The synchronous binary system measures approximately 800 meters (0.50 miles) in diameter. It was discovered by astronomers of the Lincoln Near-Earth Asteroid Research at the Lincoln Laboratory's Experimental Test Site near Socorro, New Mexico, on 14 September 1998.

    <span class="nowrap">(436724) 2011 UW<sub>158</sub></span>

    (436724) 2011 UW158, provisionally known as 2011 UW158, is a stony, walnut-shaped asteroid and fast rotator, classified as near-Earth object and potentially hazardous asteroid of the Apollo group, approximately 300 meters in diameter. It was discovered on 25 October 2011, by Pan-STARRS at Haleakala Observatory on the island of Maui, Hawaii, in the United States.

    (162421) 2000 ET70 is a dark, elongated and oblate asteroid, classified as near-Earth object and potentially hazardous asteroid of the Aten group, approximately 2.2 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered on 8 March 2000, by astronomers of the Lincoln Near-Earth Asteroid Research at the Lincoln Laboratory's Experimental Test Site near Socorro, New Mexico. The body has a notably low albedo, and its shape resembles that of a "clenched fist".

    <span class="nowrap">(52768) 1998 OR<sub>2</sub></span>

    (52768) 1998 OR2 (provisional designation 1998 OR2) is an asteroid on an eccentric orbit, classified as a near-Earth object and potentially hazardous asteroid of the Amor group, with a diameter of 2 kilometers (1.2 mi). It was discovered on 24 July 1998, by astronomers of the Near-Earth Asteroid Tracking (NEAT) program at the Haleakala Observatory, Hawaii. It is one of the brightest and therefore largest potentially hazardous asteroids known to exist. With an observation arc of 32 years, the asteroid has a well-determined orbit, and its trajectory is well known through the year 2197. The asteroid's orbit is only potentially hazardous on a time scale of thousands of years.

    (164121) 2003 YT1, provisional designation 2003 YT1, is a bright asteroid and synchronous binary system on a highly eccentric orbit, classified as near-Earth object and potentially hazardous asteroid of the Apollo group, approximately 2 kilometers (1.2 miles) in diameter. It was discovered on 18 December 2003, by astronomers with the Catalina Sky Survey at the Catalina Station near Tucson, Arizona, in the United States. The V-type asteroid has a short rotation period of 2.3 hours. Its 210-meter sized minor-planet moon was discovered at Arecibo Observatory in May 2004.

    References

    1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "153591 (2001 SN263)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 3 September 2017.
    2. 1 2 3 4 5 "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 153591 (2001 SN263)" (2015-12-01 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory . Retrieved 1 June 2017.
    3. 1 2 3 Nolan, M. C.; Howell, E. S.; Benner, L. A. M.; Ostro, S. J.; Giorgini, J. D.; Busch, M. W.; et al. (February 2008). "(153591) 2001 SN_263". Central Bureau Electronic Telegrams (1254). Bibcode:2008CBET.1254....1N . Retrieved 22 March 2017.
    4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Becker, Tracy M.; Howell, Ellen S.; Nolan, Michael C.; Magri, Christopher; Pravec, Petr; Taylor, Patrick A.; et al. (March 2015). "Physical modeling of triple near-Earth Asteroid (153591) 2001 SN263 from radar and optical light curve observations" (PDF). Icarus. 248: 499–515. Bibcode:2015Icar..248..499B. doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2014.10.048 . Retrieved 22 March 2017.
    5. 1 2 Becker, Tracy; Howell, E. S.; Nolan, M. C.; Magri, C. (September 2008). "Physical Modeling of Triple Near-Earth Asteroid 153591 (2001 SN263)". American Astronomical Society. 40: 437. Bibcode:2008DPS....40.2806B . Retrieved 22 March 2017.
    6. 1 2 3 Delbo, Marco; Walsh, Kevin; Mueller, Michael; Harris, Alan W.; Howell, Ellen S. (March 2011). "The cool surfaces of binary near-Earth asteroids". Icarus. 212 (1): 138–148. Bibcode:2011Icar..212..138D. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2010.12.011 . Retrieved 22 March 2017.
    7. 1 2 Fang, Julia; Margot, Jean-Luc; Brozovic, Marina; Nolan, Michael C.; Benner, Lance A. M.; Taylor, Patrick A. (May 2011). "Orbits of Near-Earth Asteroid Triples 2001 SN263 and 1994 CC: Properties, Origin, and Evolution". The Astronomical Journal. 141 (5): 15. arXiv: 1012.2154 . Bibcode:2011AJ....141..154F. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/141/5/154 . Retrieved 1 June 2017.
    8. 1 2 3 4 Betzler, Alberto Silva; Novaes, Alberto Brum; Celedon, Julian Hermogenes Quesada (October 2008). "A Study of the Trinary NEA 2001 SN263". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 35 (4): 182–184. Bibcode:2008MPBu...35..182B. ISSN   1052-8091 . Retrieved 22 March 2017.
    9. 1 2 Oey, Julian (January 2009). "Lightcurve Analysis of Asteroids from Leura and Kingsgrove Observatories in the First Half of 2008". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 36 (1): 4–6. Bibcode:2009MPBu...36....4O. ISSN   1052-8091 . Retrieved 22 March 2017.
    10. 1 2 "LCDB Data for (153591)". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 3 September 2017.
    11. "MPC/MPO/MPS Archive". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 24 February 2018.
    12. "153591 (2001 SN263)". Minor Planet Center. web.archive.org. 22 March 2017. Archived from the original on 22 March 2017. Retrieved 3 September 2017.
    13. "Radar Reveals Two Moons Orbiting Asteroid Florence". Jet Propulsion Laboratory. 1 September 2017.
    14. Development of a Solar Electric Propulsion System for the First Brazilian Deep Space Mission. [ permanent dead link ] José Leonardo Ferreira, Alexandre A. Martins, Rodrigo Andres Miranda, Helbert O. C. Junior, Alvaro Q. D. R. Silva, and Ivan Soares Ferreira, Alexander Sukhanov, Othon Cabo Winter. Presented at the 35th International Electric Propulsion Conference. IEPC-2017-166. Georgia Institute of Technology - Atlanta, Georgia, USA. October 8–12, 2017.