General view of the town
|Subdivisions||Kernstadt and 4 Stadtteile|
|• Mayor||Michael Dambacher (CDU)|
|• Total||127.4 km2 (49.2 sq mi)|
|Elevation||440 m (1,440 ft)|
|• Density||190/km2 (500/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)|
|Dialling codes||07961, 07965|
Ellwangen an der Jagst, officially Ellwangen (Jagst), in common use simply Ellwangen is a town in the district of Ostalbkreis in the east of Baden-Württemberg in Germany. It is situated about 17 kilometres (11 mi) north of Aalen.
Ellwangen has 25,000 inhabitants.
Ellwangen is situated in the valley of the river Jagst, between the foothills of the Swabian Alb and Virngrund (ancient Virgundia) forest, the latter being part of the Swabian-Franconian Forest. The Jagst runs through Ellwangen from south to north.
The town developed in the 7th century as an Alemanic settlement in the Virgunna forest next to the Franconian-Swabian border. In 764 the Frankish noble Hariolf, Bishop of Langres, founded a Benedictine monastery, Ellwangen Abbey, on a hill next to the settlement. The monastery was mentioned in a document of Louis the Pious as Elehenuuwang in 814. It became a Reichsabtei in 817.
From 870 to 873 the Byzantine Greek "Apostle of the Slavs" Saint Methodius was imprisoned in Ellwangen, after he had been arrested by Ermanrich, bishop of Passau. He was set free in 873 thanks to the intervention of Pope John VIII.
The monastery was "exempt" from 1124 on (maybe earlier), which means it was directly responsible to the pope. The abbots were granted Reichsfreiheit in 1215. The office of Vogt was first held by the counts of Oettingen, from 1370 on by the counts of Württemberg. In 1460 the abbey was converted into an exempt house of secular canons, led by a prince-provost and a chapter consisting of 12 noble canons and 10 vicars. Initially its territory included the districts of Ellwangen, Tannenberg and Kochenburg. The district of Rötlen was acquired in 1471, Wasseralfingen in 1545, and Heuchlingen in 1609.
In 1588 and from 1611 to 1618 about 450 people in Ellwangen were killed in witch-hunts.
After the German Mediatisation of 1802, Ellwangen became a part of the duchy of Württemberg. At first it was the government seat of Neuwürttemberg, the territories Württemberg had acquired by mediatisation. In 1803 the town became centre of a district (Oberamt), which in 1806 was included into the new Kingdom of Württemberg. In 1807 Ellwangen became seat of the Jagstkreis (Jagst District), until the district was merged into a larger unit in 1924. The king of Württemberg, who had acquired large areas with a predominantly Roman Catholic population, wanted Ellwangen to become the seat of a Roman Catholic diocese. To achieve this, in 1812 he founded an ordinary and a seminary, as well as a Roman Catholic theological faculty. The faculty was soon moved to Tübingen, where it became part of Eberhard Karls University. In 1817, the seminary and the ordinary went to Rottenburg am Neckar, which in 1821 became the seat of the newly formed diocese for Württemberg.
After World War II members of the 17th SS Panzergrenadier Division were convicted of a number of war crimes, involving the shooting of foreign concentration camp prisoners in Ellwangen during the war.
In April 1945, US Army troops occupied Ellwangen and until 1946, stationed various Army units at the kaserne — the former German Tank School. From 1946 the International Refugee Organisation (IRO) used the kaserne as a displaced persons' camp for 3,000 Ukrainian refugees until 1951. In 1951, the US Army — the combat engineer battalion and medical battalion of the 28th Infantry Division again took over the facility. In September 1955 the Americans returned the kaserne to the German government.
In April and May 2018, two police raids at a migrant shelter in the town led to national and international media attention and a public debate about legal deportations.
Ellwangen is served by the Upper Jagst Railway which is operated by both GoAhead and Deutsche Bahn. There are also several regional bus lines operated by FahrBus Ostalb. Ellwangen also is a "City Stop" for the Inter-City Train line of Deutsche Bahn. Since 2014, a so called Stadtbus Ellwangen was established. A Stadtbus only stops if requested by the passengers and was established for older residents and the population surrounding the historic center of the town.
Sights of the city are the medieval town centre with its churches, notably Ellwangen Basilica. Also well known are the Baroque pilgrimage church, Schönenberg, and the castle, both on hills near to the city.
Ellwangen is twinned with:
Aalen is a former Free Imperial City located in the eastern part of the German state of Baden-Württemberg, about 70 kilometres (43 mi) east of Stuttgart and 48 kilometres (30 mi) north of Ulm. It is the seat of the Ostalbkreis district and is its largest town. It is also the largest town in the Ostwürttemberg region. Since 1956, Aalen has had the status of Große Kreisstadt. It is noted for its many half-timbered houses constructed from the 16th century through the 18th century.
Franconia is a region in Germany, characterised by its culture and language, and may be roughly associated with the areas in which the East Franconian dialect group, colloquially referred to as "Franconian", is spoken. There are several other Franconian dialects, but only the East Franconian ones are colloquially referred to as "Franconian".
Baden-Württemberg is a state in southwest Germany, east of the Rhine, which forms the border with France. It is Germany’s third-largest state, with an area of 35,751 km2 (13,804 sq mi) and 11 million inhabitants. Baden-Württemberg is a parliamentary republic and partly sovereign, federated state which was formed in 1952 by a merger of the states of Württemberg-Baden, Baden and Württemberg-Hohenzollern. The largest city in Baden-Württemberg is the state capital of Stuttgart, followed by Karlsruhe and Mannheim. Other cities are Freiburg im Breisgau, Heidelberg, Heilbronn, Pforzheim, Reutlingen and Ulm.
Schwäbisch Hall is a Landkreis (district) in the northeast of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Neighboring districts are Main-Tauber, the Bavarian district Ansbach, Ostalbkreis, Rems-Murr, and Hohenlohe.
Reutlingen is a city in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is the capital of the eponymous district of Reutlingen. As of June 2018, it has a population of 115,818. Reutlingen has a university of applied sciences, which was founded in 1855, originally as a weavers' school. Today Reutlingen is home to an established textile industry and also houses machinery, leather goods and steel manufacturing facilities. It has the narrowest street in the world, Spreuerhofstraße.
The Jagst is a right tributary of the Neckar in northern Baden-Württemberg. It is 190 km long. Its source is in the hills east of Ellwangen, close to the Bavarian border. It winds through the towns Ellwangen, Crailsheim, Kirchberg an der Jagst, Langenburg, Krautheim, Möckmühl and Neudenau. Near Bad Wimpfen the Jagst flows into the Neckar, a few km downstream from the mouth of the river Kocher, that flows more or less parallel to the Jagst.
Öhringen is the largest town in Hohenlohe (district) in the state of Baden-Württemberg, in southwest Germany, near Heilbronn. Öhringen is on the railline to Schwäbisch Hall and Crailsheim.
Lorch is a small town situated in the Ostalbkreis district, in Baden-Württemberg, Germany, by the river Rems, 8 kilometers west of Schwäbisch Gmünd. It is a part of the Ostwürttemberg region.
Ellwangen Abbey was the earliest Benedictine monastery established in the Duchy of Swabia, at the present-day town of Ellwangen an der Jagst, Baden-Württemberg about 100 km (60 mi) north-east of Stuttgart.
Schelklingen is a town in the district of Alb-Donau in Baden-Württemberg in Germany. It is situated 10 km north of Ehingen, and 20 km west of Ulm. Schelklingen and 82% of its territory form part of the Swabian Jura Biosphere Reserve.
Tannhausen is a municipality in the German state of Baden-Württemberg, in Ostalbkreis district.
Wört is a municipality and town in the district of Ostalbkreis in Baden-Württemberg in Germany.
Prince-provost is a rare title for a monastic superior with the ecclesiastical style of provost who is a Prince of the Church in the sense that he also ranks as a secular 'prince', notably a Prince of the Holy Roman Empire (Reichsfürst), holding a direct vote in the Imperial Diet assembly coequal to an actual Prince-abbot, as in each case treated below.
Rudolf Joachim Seck was an SS-Oberscharführer during World War II during the course of which he committed a large numbers of crimes against humanity, for which he was later sentenced to serve life in prison by a West German court.
Ostwürttemberg is a region in eastern Baden-Württemberg, Germany, in the Stuttgart subdivision (Regierungsbezirk). It is located in the southwestern part of Germany. It consists of the districts of Heidenheim and Ostalb. It borders the Stuttgart Region to the west, the Heilbronn-Franken Region to the north, western Middle Franconia (Bavaria) to the east, Bavarian Swabia to the southeast, and the Alb-Danube district to the south.
The Upper Jagst Railway is a line from Goldshöfe to Crailsheim in the German state of Baden-Württemberg. It is part of the route of InterCity services between Karlsruhe and Nuremberg and is single-track and electrified. The line follows the course of the upper Jagst river, which it is named after. The prefix distinguishes it from the Lower Jagst Railway, which is the Bad Friedrichshall–Osterburken section of the modern Franconia Railway (Frankenbahn).
The Swabian-Franconian Forest is a mainly forested, deeply incised upland region, 1,187 km² in area and up to 586.4 m above sea level (NHN), in the northeast of Baden-Württemberg. It forms natural region major unit number 108 within the Swabian Keuper-Lias Land. Its name is derived from the fact that, in medieval times, the border between the duchies of Franconia and Swabia ran through this forested region. In addition, the Swabian dialect in the south transitions to the East Franconian dialect in the north here.
The Virngrund is a historical landscape in the counties of Ostalbkreis and Schwäbisch Hall in the German state of Baden-Württemberg. it is forested in many places and up to 580 m above sea level (NHN).
The Franconian Heights are a hill ridge, up to 554 m above sea level (NN), in Bavaria and Baden-Württemberg in South Germany.
The Faculty of Roman-Catholic Theology is one of the seven faculties of the University of Tübingen located in Tübingen, Baden-Württemberg in Germany. In 1812 the Faculty was founded as University of Ellwangen. The newly founded university was dissolved in 1817 and incorporated as a Faculty into the University of Tübingen.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ellwangen (Jagst) .|
|Wikisource has the text of the 1879 American Cyclopædia article Ellwangen .|