Equidistant

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Perpendicular bisector of a line segment. The point where the red line crosses the black line segment is equidistant from the two end points of the black line segment. Perpendicular bisector.gif
Perpendicular bisector of a line segment. The point where the red line crosses the black line segment is equidistant from the two end points of the black line segment.
The cyclic polygon P is circumscribed by the circle C. The circumcentre O is equidistant to each point on the circle, and a fortiori to each vertex of the polygon. Circumscribed Polygon.svg
The cyclic polygon P is circumscribed by the circle C. The circumcentre O is equidistant to each point on the circle, and a fortiori to each vertex of the polygon.

A point is said to be equidistant from a set of objects if the distances between that point and each object in the set are equal. [1]

Distance is a numerical measurement of how far apart objects are. In physics or everyday usage, distance may refer to a physical length or an estimation based on other criteria. In most cases, "distance from A to B" is interchangeable with "distance from B to A". In mathematics, a distance function or metric is a generalization of the concept of physical distance. A metric is a function that behaves according to a specific set of rules, and is a way of describing what it means for elements of some space to be "close to" or "far away from" each other.

In two-dimensional Euclidean geometry, the locus of points equidistant from two given (different) points is their perpendicular bisector. In three dimensions, the locus of points equidistant from two given points is a plane, and generalising further, in n-dimensional space the locus of points equidistant from two points in n-space is an (n1)-space.

Euclidean geometry mathematical system attributed to Euclid

Euclidean geometry is a mathematical system attributed to Alexandrian Greek mathematician Euclid, which he described in his textbook on geometry: the Elements. Euclid's method consists in assuming a small set of intuitively appealing axioms, and deducing many other propositions (theorems) from these. Although many of Euclid's results had been stated by earlier mathematicians, Euclid was the first to show how these propositions could fit into a comprehensive deductive and logical system. The Elements begins with plane geometry, still taught in secondary school as the first axiomatic system and the first examples of formal proof. It goes on to the solid geometry of three dimensions. Much of the Elements states results of what are now called algebra and number theory, explained in geometrical language.

Locus (mathematics) set of points whose location satisfies or is determined by one or more specified conditions

In geometry, a locus is a set of all points, whose location satisfies or is determined by one or more specified conditions.

For a triangle the circumcentre is a point equidistant from each of the three vertices. Every non-degenerate triangle has such a point. This result can be generalised to cyclic polygons: the circumcentre is equidistant from each of the vertices. Likewise, the incentre of a triangle or any other tangential polygon is equidistant from the points of tangency of the polygon's sides with the circle. Every point on a perpendicular bisector of the side of a triangle or other polygon is equidistant from the two vertices at the ends of that side. Every point on the bisector of an angle of any polygon is equidistant from the two sides that emanate from that angle.

Triangle shape with three sides

A triangle is a polygon with three edges and three vertices. It is one of the basic shapes in geometry. A triangle with vertices A, B, and C is denoted .

In geometry, a vertex is a point where two or more curves, lines, or edges meet. As a consequence of this definition, the point where two lines meet to form an angle and the corners of polygons and polyhedra are vertices.

Incenter

In geometry, the incenter of a triangle is a triangle center, a point defined for any triangle in a way that is independent of the triangle's placement or scale. The incenter may be equivalently defined as the point where the internal angle bisectors of the triangle cross, as the point equidistant from the triangle's sides, as the junction point of the medial axis and innermost point of the grassfire transform of the triangle, and as the center point of the inscribed circle of the triangle.

The center of a rectangle is equidistant from all four vertices, and it is equidistant from two opposite sides and also equidistant from the other two opposite sides. A point on the axis of symmetry of a kite is equidistant between two sides.

Rectangle quadrilateral with four right angles

In Euclidean plane geometry, a rectangle is a quadrilateral with four right angles. It can also be defined as an equiangular quadrilateral, since equiangular means that all of its angles are equal. It can also be defined as a parallelogram containing a right angle. A rectangle with four sides of equal length is a square. The term oblong is occasionally used to refer to a non-square rectangle. A rectangle with vertices ABCD would be denoted as  ABCD.

Kite (geometry) quadrilateral whose four sides can be grouped into two pairs of equal-length sides that are adjacent to each other

In Euclidean geometry, a kite is a quadrilateral whose four sides can be grouped into two pairs of equal-length sides that are adjacent to each other. In contrast, a parallelogram also has two pairs of equal-length sides, but they are opposite to each other rather than adjacent. Kite quadrilaterals are named for the wind-blown, flying kites, which often have this shape and which are in turn named for a bird. Kites are also known as deltoids, but the word "deltoid" may also refer to a deltoid curve, an unrelated geometric object.

The center of a circle is equidistant from every point on the circle. Likewise the center of a sphere is equidistant from every point on the sphere.

Circle simple curve of Euclidean geometry

A circle is a simple closed shape. It is the set of all points in a plane that are at a given distance from a given point, the centre; equivalently it is the curve traced out by a point that moves in a plane so that its distance from a given point is constant. The distance between any of the points and the centre is called the radius. This article is about circles in Euclidean geometry, and, in particular, the Euclidean plane, except where otherwise noted.

Sphere round geometrical and circular object in three-dimensional space; special case of spheroid

A sphere is a perfectly round geometrical object in three-dimensional space that is the surface of a completely round ball.

A parabola is the set of points in a plane equidistant from a fixed point (the focus) and a fixed line (the directrix), where distance from the directrix is measured along a line perpendicular to the directrix.

Parabola two-dimensional, mirror-symmetrical curve

In mathematics, a parabola is a plane curve that is mirror-symmetrical and is approximately U-shaped. It fits several superficially different other mathematical descriptions, which can all be proved to define exactly the same curves.

Focus (geometry) fixed reference point; special points with reference to which any of a variety of curves is constructed

In geometry, focuses or foci, singular focus, are special points with reference to which any of a variety of curves is constructed. For example, one or two foci can be used in defining conic sections, the four types of which are the circle, ellipse, parabola, and hyperbola. In addition, two foci are used to define the Cassini oval and the Cartesian oval, and more than two foci are used in defining an n-ellipse.

In shape analysis, the topological skeleton or medial axis of a shape is a thin version of that shape that is equidistant from its boundaries.

In Euclidean geometry, parallel lines (lines that never intersect) are equidistant in the sense that the distance of any point on one line from the nearest point on the other line is the same for all points.

In hyperbolic geometry the set of points that are equidistant from and on one side of a given line form a hypercycle (which is a curve not a line). [2]

See also

Related Research Articles

Perpendicular property of being perpendicular (perpendicularity) is the relationship between two lines which meet at a right angle (90 degrees). The property extends to other related geometric objects

In elementary geometry, the property of being perpendicular (perpendicularity) is the relationship between two lines which meet at a right angle. The property extends to other related geometric objects.

Bisection division of something into two equal or congruent parts

In geometry, bisection is the division of something into two equal or congruent parts, usually by a line, which is then called a bisector. The most often considered types of bisectors are the segment bisector and the angle bisector.

Hyperbolic geometry Non-Euclidean geometry

In mathematics, hyperbolic geometry is a non-Euclidean geometry. The parallel postulate of Euclidean geometry is replaced with:

Thaless theorem theorem

In geometry, Thales' theorem states that if A, B, and C are distinct points on a circle where the line AC is a diameter, then the angle ∠ABC is a right angle. Thales' theorem is a special case of the inscribed angle theorem, and is mentioned and proved as part of the 31st proposition, in the third book of Euclid's Elements. It is generally attributed to Thales of Miletus, who is said to have offered an ox as a sacrifice of thanksgiving for the discovery, but sometimes it is attributed to Pythagoras.

Midpoint middle point of a line segment

In geometry, the midpoint is the middle point of a line segment. It is equidistant from both endpoints, and it is the centroid both of the segment and of the endpoints. It bisects the segment.

Concyclic points a set of points that lie on a single circle

In geometry, a set of points are said to be concyclic if they lie on a common circle. All concyclic points are the same distance from the center of the circle. Three points in the plane that do not all fall on a straight line are concyclic, but four or more such points in the plane are not necessarily concyclic.

Circumscribed circle circle that passes through all the vertices of a polygon

In geometry, the circumscribed circle or circumcircle of a polygon is a circle that passes through all the vertices of the polygon. The center of this circle is called the circumcenter and its radius is called the circumradius.

Concurrent lines

In geometry, three or more lines in a plane or higher-dimensional space are said to be concurrent if they intersect at a single point.

In geometry, collinearity of a set of points is the property of their lying on a single line. A set of points with this property is said to be collinear. In greater generality, the term has been used for aligned objects, that is, things being "in a line" or "in a row".

Centre (geometry) middle of the object in geometry

In geometry, a centre of an object is a point in some sense in the middle of the object. According to the specific definition of centre taken into consideration, an object might have no centre. If geometry is regarded as the study of isometry groups then a centre is a fixed point of all the isometries which move the object onto itself.

Sum of angles of a triangle triangle in Euclidean geometry

In several geometries, a triangle has three vertices and three sides, where three angles of a triangle are formed at each vertex by a pair of adjacent sides. In a Euclidean space, the sum of measures of these three angles of any triangle is invariably equal to the straight angle, also expressed as 180 °, π radians, two right angles, or a half-turn.

Horocycle

In hyperbolic geometry, a horocycle is a curve whose normal or perpendicular geodesics all converge asymptotically in the same direction. It is the two-dimensional example of a horosphere.

Line segment part of a line that is bounded by two distinct end points; line with two endpoints

In geometry, a line segment is a part of a line that is bounded by two distinct end points, and contains every point on the line between its endpoints. A closed line segment includes both endpoints, while an open line segment excludes both endpoints; a half-open line segment includes exactly one of the endpoints.

Extended side the geometric line that contains the side of a triangle

In plane geometry, an extended side or sideline of a polygon is the line that contains one side of the polygon. The extension of a side arises in various contexts.

References

  1. Clapham, Christopher; Nicholson, James (2009). The concise Oxford dictionary of mathematics. Oxford University Press. pp. 164–165. ISBN   978-0-19-923594-0.
  2. Smart, James R. (1997), Modern Geometries (5th ed.), Brooks/Cole, p. 392, ISBN   0-534-35188-3