|Branchlet with leaves and flowers|
Escallonia myrtilloides is an evergreen shrub or tree in the Escalloniaceae family, native to open montane wet forests and paramos from Costa Rica to Bolivia. It occurs at elevations between 1900 and 4200 meters above sea level.
Escalloniaceae is a family of flowering plants consisting of about 130 species in seven genera. In the APG II system it is one of eight families in the euasterids II clade (campanulids) that are unplaced as to order. More recent research has provided evidence that two of those families, Eremosynaceae and Tribelaceae, arose from within Escalloniaceae; the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website therefore merges these two families into Escalloniaceae, and also places the family alone in order Escalloniales.
Trees or shrubs from 2–6 metres (6 ft 7 in–19 ft 8 in) high, with irregular to conical shaped crown and branches growing almost horizontally, giving the tree the appearance of a Chinese pagoda. Leaves dark green, leathery, obovate, of 0.8–2.3 centimetres (0.31–0.91 in) long, 0.4–1 centimetre (0.16–0.39 in) wide; borne on short twigs. Inflorescences in corymbs of 1–1.5 centimetres (0.39–0.59 in) long; flowers greenish white to pale yellow; fruits green, ca. 0.6 centimetres (0.24 in) wide, with numerous seeds.
High Andean wet forests, in open areas and paramos, often dominant on rocky slopes.
Escallonia myrtilloides furnishes a reddish wood, with resistance to tension and shocks and easy drying. Because of this, it is useful for fences and woodcrafts.
The tree has an ornamental quality due to its distinctive crown shape, and is also used for hedges.
Broussaisia arguta, the kanawao, is a species of perennial flowering plant in the Hydrangea family, Hydrangeaceae, that is endemic to Hawaiʻi. It is the only species in the monotypic genus Broussaisia.
Páramo can refer to a variety of alpine tundra ecosystems. Some ecologists describe the páramo broadly as "all high, tropical, montane vegetation above the continuous timberline". A more narrow term classifies the páramo according to its regional placement in the northern Andes of South America and adjacent southern Central America. The páramo is the ecosystem of the regions above the continuous forest line, yet below the permanent snowline. It is a "Neotropical high mountain biome with a vegetation composed mainly of giant rosette plants, shrubs and grasses". According to scientists, páramos may be "evolutionary hot spots" and among the fastest evolving regions on Earth.
Acer circinatum is a species of maple native to western North America, from southwest British Columbia to northern California, usually within 300 kilometres (190 mi) of the Pacific Ocean coast, found along the Columbia Gorge and Coastal Forest. It belongs to the Palmatum group of maple trees native to East Asia with its closest relatives being the Acer japonicum and Acer pseudosieboldianum. It can be difficult to distinguish from these species in cultivation. It is the only member of the Palmatum group that resides outside of Asia.
Bangs's mountain squirrel is a poorly known species of tree squirrel, that only lives in Costa Rica and Panama. It can be found in mountain rain forests at an altitude between 1,900 and 2,600 metres, and lives mainly in the tree tops, but sometimes on the forest floor as well. One of its habitats is at the summit of the Poás Volcano in Costa Rica, in a Clusia forest that is almost inaccessible to humans.
Bothriechis lateralis is a venomous pit viper species found in the mountains of Costa Rica and western Panama. No subspecies are currently recognized.
The green thorntail is a small hummingbird that is a resident breeder from Costa Rica to western Ecuador. It occurs at middle elevations from 700–1,400 m (2,300–4,600 ft) but may descend lower early in the wet season. In Costa Rica and Panama it is confined to the Caribbean slopes.
The ruddy pigeon is a largish pigeon which breeds from Costa Rica south to western Ecuador, Bolivia, and central Brazil. It belongs to a clade of small and rather plain species of Patagioenas with characteristic calls that constitute the subgenus Oenoenas. Like the other New World pigeons, it was formerly united with their Old World relatives in Columba, but today the New World genus Patagioenas is recognized as distinct again.
The Cordillera de Talamanca is a mountain range that lies on the southeast half of Costa Rica and the far west of Panama. Much of the range and the area around it is included in the La Amistad International Park, which also is shared between the two countries.
Chirripó National Park is a national park of Costa Rica, encompassing parts of three provinces: San José, Limón and Cartago. It was established in 1975.
The silver-throated tanager is a small passerine bird. This brightly coloured tanager is a resident from Costa Rica, through Panama and western Colombia, to western Ecuador.
The green-crowned brilliant is a large, robust hummingbird that is a resident breeder in the highlands from Costa Rica to western Ecuador. It is also known as the green-fronted brilliant, notably by the Handbook of the Birds of the World.
The rufous-and-white wren is a small songbird of the wren family. It is a resident breeding species from southwesternmost Mexico to northern Colombia and northwestern Venezuela. It was formerly placed in the genus Thryothorus.
Ampay National Sanctuary is a wildlife sanctuary established in 1987. It is located in the district of Tamburco, just north of the city of Abancay, Peru. Its 36.35 square kilometres (14.03 sq mi), which include Mount Ampay, protect the Pachachaca River basin and several endangered plant species, being the most representative the conifer called Intimpa.
Desfontainia is a genus of flowering plants placed currently in the family Columelliaceae, though formerly in Loganiaceae, Potaliaceae, or a family of its own, Desfontainiaceae.
Erythrochiton gymnanthus is an endangered tree or shrub from the family Rutaceae. It is endemic to Costa Rica. The genus Erythrochiton consists of only twelve species and it native to the Neotropical region.
Olearia ilicifolia is a shrub or small tree endemic to New Zealand. Common names include Maori-holly, mountain holly, hakeke or hakekeke and New Zealand holly. It is a spreading shrub or small tree of the family Asteraceae, and has largely serrated and undulating grey-green leaves. It is closely related to the sub-alpine Olearia macrodonta, with which it shares the names mountain holly and New Zealand holly, however it is much more common than Olearia macrodonta. It is found in lowland and sub-alpine forests from sea level to 1,200 metres (3,900 ft).
Persoonia myrtilloides, commonly known as myrtle geebung, is a shrub species that is endemic to New South Wales in Australia. It grows to between 0.5 and 2.5 metres in height and has leaves that are between 12 and 50 millimetres long and 4 to 30 millimetres wide. Yellow flowers appear between December and April in the species' native range.
Escallonia resinosa is an evergreen shrub or tree native to the Andean forests of Peru, Bolivia and southern Ecuador from 2600 to 4200 meters above sea level. A component of high Andean forests, it is regarded as an important source of raw materials for the Andean peoples.
The Santa Marta páramo (NT1007) is an ecoregion containing páramo vegetation above the treeline in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta mountain range on the Caribbean coast of Colombia. The isolated position of the range has allowed unique species to evolve. Some are related to those found in Central America and the Caribbean coastal areas, and some to species from the Andes. The habitat is relatively stable, but has been drastically changed from the original by long-term human activity.