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Feint is a French term that entered English via the discipline of swordsmanship and fencing.Feints are maneuvers designed to distract or mislead, done by giving the impression that a certain maneuver will take place, while in fact another, or even none, will. In military tactics and many types of combat, there are two types of feints: feint attacks and feint retreats.
Swordsmanship or sword fighting refers to the skills of a swordsman, a person versed in the art of the sword. The term is modern, and as such was mainly used to refer to smallsword fencing, but by extension it can also be applied to any martial art involving the use of a sword. The formation of the English word "swordsman" is parallel to the Latin word gladiator, a term for the professional fighters who fought against each other and a variety of other foes for the entertainment of spectators in the Roman Empire. The word gladiator itself comes from the Latin word gladius, meaning "sword".
Fencing is a group of three related combat sports. The three disciplines in modern fencing are the foil, the épée, and the sabre; winning points are made through the contact with an opponent. A fourth discipline, singlestick, appeared in the 1904 Olympics but was dropped after that, and is not a part of modern fencing. Fencing was one of the first sports to be played in the Olympics. Based on the traditional skills of swordsmanship, the modern sport arose at the end of the 19th century, with the Italian school having modified the historical European martial art of classical fencing, and the French school later refining the Italian system. There are three forms of modern fencing, each of which uses a different kind of weapon and has different rules; thus the sport itself is divided into three competitive scenes: foil, épée, and sabre. Most competitive fencers choose to specialize in one weapon only.
Military tactics encompasses the art of organising and employing fighting forces on or near the battlefield. They involve the application of four battlefield functions which are closely related – kinetic or firepower, mobility, protection or security, and shock action. Tactics are a separate function from command and control and logistics. In contemporary military science, tactics are the lowest of three levels of warfighting, the higher levels being the strategic and operational levels. Throughout history, there has been a shifting balance between the four tactical functions, generally based on the application of military technology, which has led to one or more of the tactical functions being dominant for a period of time, usually accompanied by the dominance of an associated fighting arm deployed on the battlefield, such as infantry, artillery, cavalry or tanks.
A feint attack is designed to draw defensive action towards the point under assault. It is usually used as a diversion to force the enemy to concentrate more manpower in a given area, to weaken the opposing force in another area.Unlike a related diversionary maneuver, the demonstration, a feint involves actual contact with the enemy.
In military terminology, a demonstration is an attack or show of force on a front where a decision is not sought, made with the aim of deceiving the enemy.
A feint retreat is performed by briefly engaging the enemy, then retreating. It is intended to draw the enemy pursuit into a prepared ambush, or to cause disarray. For example, the Battle of Hastings was lost when Saxons pursued the Norman cavalry. This forfeited the advantage of height and the line was broken, providing the opportunity to fight in single handed combat on a neutral vantage point, a battle for which the Saxons were not ready. The Parthian shot is another example of a feint retreat, where mounted Parthian archers would retreat from a battle and then, while still riding, turn their bodies back to shoot at the pursuing enemy.
The Parthian shot is a light horse military tactic made famous in the West by the Parthians, an ancient Iranian people. While in real or feigned retreat their horse archers would turn their bodies back in full gallop to shoot at the pursuing enemy. The maneuver required superb equestrian skills, since the rider's hands were occupied by his composite bow. As the stirrup had not been invented at the time of the Parthians, the rider relied solely on pressure from his legs to guide his horse.
You wound, like Parthians, while you fly,
And kill with a retreating eye.
The Islamic Prophet Muhammad made extensive use of feints. One of the earliest examples was during the Invasion of Banu Lahyan. Muhammad set out in Rabi‘ Al-Awwal, or Jumada Al-Ula, in the 6 AH (July 627 AD) with 200 Muslim fighters and made a feint of heading for Syria and then soon changed route towards Batn Gharran, where 10 Muslims were killed in the Expedition of Al Raji. Bani Lahyan were on alert and got the news of his march. The tribe then immediately fled to the mountaintops nearby and thus remained out of his reach. On his way back, Muhammad despatched a group of ten horsemen to a place called Kura‘ Al-Ghamim, in the vicinity of the habitation of Quraish, in order to indirectly confirm his growing military power. All the skirmishes took 14 days, after which he left back for home.
The Invasion of Banu Lahyan took place in September, 627 AD in Rabi‘ Al-Awwal or Jumada Al-Ula, 6 AH of the Islamic calendar.
Batn Gharran was a location in Saudi Arabia during the Islamic Prophet Muhammad's era. Muhammad ordered the Invasion of Banu Lahyan which took place here. Muhammad set out in Rabi‘ Al-Awwal or Jumada Al-Ula in the year six Hijri with 200 Muslim fighters and made a feint of heading for Syria, then soon changed route towards Batn Gharran, the scene of where 10 Muslims were killed in the Expedition of Al Raji.
The Expedition of al Raji, occurred directly after the Battle of Uhud in the year 4 AH of the Islamic calendar.
Muhammad also ordered the Expedition of Abu Qatadah ibn Rab'i al-Ansari (Batn Edam) in December 629to divert the attention from his intention of attacking Mecca. He dispatched eight men to attack a caravan passing through Edam.
Expedition of Abu Qatadah ibn Rab'i al-Ansari, to Batn Edam took place in November 629 AD, 8AH, 8th month, of the Islamic Calendar
During the Battle of Fancheng general Xu Huang of Cao Wei was sent to oppose Guan Yu at Fancheng District. Knowing that most of his enemy's soldiers were composed of new recruits without training, Xu Huang did not go into battle straight away but camped behind the enemy to impose a deterrent effect. Meanwhile, he instructed his subordinates Xu Shang (徐商) and Lü Jian (呂建) to oversee the digging of trenches around the nearby enemy stronghold of Yancheng (偃城) to deceive the enemy into thinking that it was trying to cut off supplies into Yancheng. The deception worked, with the position being abandoned, which yielded Xu Huang a foothold on the battlefield. By then, a total of twelve camps had been gathered under the flag of Xu Huang. With the strengthened army, Xu Huang finally unleashed an attack on Guan Yu's camp. The enemy encirclement had five camps and so Xu Huang spread news that he was planning to attack the main camp. He secretly attacked the other four side camps instead. When Guan Yu saw that the four side camps had been destroyed, he personally led 5,000 horsemen to meet the attackers but was eventually outmatched. Many of his soldiers were forced into the nearby Han River and drowned. The siege on Fancheng was then lifted.
The Battle of Fancheng was fought between the warlords Liu Bei and Cao Cao in 219 in the late Eastern Han dynasty. It was named after Fancheng (樊城) in present-day Xiangyang City, Hubei, a fortress that played a significant role in the battle.
Xu Huang, courtesy name Gongming, was a military general serving under the warlord Cao Cao in the late Eastern Han dynasty of China. He later served in the state of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms period under the first two rulers, Cao Pi and Cao Rui, before his death at the start of Cao Rui's reign. Xu Huang is best noted for breaking the siege at the Battle of Fancheng in 219 by routing the enemy commander Guan Yu on the field.
Wei (220–266), also known as Cao Wei, was one of the three major states that competed for supremacy over China in the Three Kingdoms period (220–280). With its capital initially located at Xuchang, and thereafter Luoyang, the state was established by Cao Pi in 220, based upon the foundations laid by his father, Cao Cao, towards the end of the Eastern Han dynasty. The name "Wei" first became associated with Cao Cao when he was named the Duke of Wei by the Eastern Han government in 213, and became the name of the state when Cao Pi proclaimed himself emperor in 220. Historians often add the prefix "Cao" to distinguish it from other Chinese states known as "Wei", such as Wei of the Warring States period and Northern Wei of the Northern and Southern dynasties. The authority of the ruling Cao family dramatically weakened in the aftermath of the deposal and execution of Cao Shuang and his siblings, the former being one of the regents for the third Wei emperor, Cao Fang, with state authority gradually falling into the hands of Sima Yi, another Wei regent, and his family, from 249 onwards. The last Wei emperors would remain largely as puppet rulers under the control of the Simas until Sima Yi's grandson, Sima Yan, forced the last Wei ruler, Cao Huan, to abdicate the throne and established the Jin dynasty.
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Liao Hua, courtesy name Yuanjian, originally named Liao Chun, was a military general of the state of Shu Han during the Three Kingdoms period of China.
Wen Chou was a military general serving under the warlord Yuan Shao during the late Eastern Han dynasty of China. His force was defeated by that of rival warlord Cao Cao in the Battle of Yan Ford and he was killed in the midst of battle.
The Ghaṭafān are a massive ancient Nejdi tribe north east of Medina and from them come the tribes of Banu Abs, Banu Dhubyan and Ashja'. They were one of the Arab tribes that interacted with Muhammad. They are notable for allying themselves with the Quraysh in the Battle of the Trench.
The Early Muslim-Meccan Conflict refer to a series of raids in which the Islamic prophet Muhammed and his companions participated. The raids were generally offensive and carried out to gather intelligence or seize the trade goods of caravans financed by the Quraysh. The raids were intended to weaken the economy of Mecca by Muhammad. His followers were also impoverished. Muhammad broke an Arab tradition of not attacking one's own kinsmen by raiding caravans. The Muslims felt that the raids were justified and that God gave them permission to defend against the Meccans' persecution of Muslims.
The Battle of Hamra al-Assad, was a Ghazawat, a battle in which the prophet Muhammad took part. It occurred in 625 AD after the Battle of Uhud, when the Quraysh were returning to Mecca.
The Invasion of Buhran occurred in 3 A.H of the Islamic calendar of the 4th or 5th month. A report had arrived to the Muslims that a formidable force of the Banu Sulaym from Buhran were advancing on Madinah. Muhammad, took 300 men, to Hijaz reaching to Buhran, where the Banu Sulaym fled in panic.
The Expedition of Abdullah ibn Unais, also known as the Assassination of Khaled bin Sufyan was the 1st attack against the Banu Lahyan, which took place in the month of Muharam in the year 4 A.H. it was reported that Khaled bin Sufyan Al-Hathali, considered an attack on Madinah and that he was inciting the people on Nakhla or Uranah to fight Muslims. So Muhammad sent Abdullah ibn Unais to assassinate him. After cutting off Sufyan bin Khalid's head at night, Unais brought it back to Muhammad.
The Expedition of Bir Maona, according to Islamic tradition, took place four months after the Battle of Uhud in the year 4 A.H of the Islamic calendar. Muhammad sent missionaries to preach Islam, at the request of Abu Bara. Forty or seventy of the Muslim missionaries sent by Muhammed were killed.
The Expedition of Badr al-Maw'id was the 3rd time Muhammad led an expedition in Badr. Modern historians date the event to April 626, though several alternative dates are found in primary sources.
The Expedition of 'Abdullah ibn 'Atik also known as the Assassination of Abu Rafi' ibn Abi Al-Huqaiq, took place in December, 624AD
According to Islamic tradition, the invasion of Banu Qaynuqa, also known as the expedition against Banu Qaynuqa, occurred in 624 AD. The Banu Qaynuqa were a Jewish tribe expelled by the Islamic prophet Muhammad for breaking the treaty known as the Constitution of Medina by pinning the clothes of a Muslim woman such that when she tried to move, her clothes tore and she was stripped naked. A Muslim killed a Jew in retaliation, and the Jews in turn killed the Muslim man. This escalated to a chain of revenge killings, and enmity grew between Muslims and the Banu Qaynuqa, leading to the siege of their fortress. The tribe eventually surrendered to Muhammad, who initially wanted to capture the men of Banu Qaynuqa but ultimately yielded to Abdullah ibn Ubayy's insistence and agreed to expel the Qaynuqa.
Kurz ibn Jabir al-Fihri is a companion of Muhammad but used to be an enemy. During the Invasion of Safwan he rustled some grazing cattle belonging to the Muslim community. Muhammad sent seventy Muslims after him, who chased him to Safwan, at the outskirts of Badr. But Kurz ibn Jabir al-Fihri managed to escape.
Khaled bin Sufyan Al-Hathali belonged to the Banu Lahyan tribe at the time of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad. Muhammad alleged that he was planning on attacking Madinah and instructed the people of Nakhla and Uranah to attack him in return. Therefore he sent Abdullah ibn Unais to assassinate him in 625 during the Expedition of Abdullah Ibn Unais.
Banu Lahyan were an Arab pagan tribe during the time of Muhammad and were involved in several military conflicts with him. The first was in 625 during the Expedition of Abdullah Ibn Unais, where Muhammad sent Abdullah ibn Unais to kill Khaled bin Sufyan Al-Hathali, who was the chief of the tribe. Muhammad alleged that he was planning to attack Madinah and incite the people of Nakhla and Uranah to attack him. Therefore, he sent Abdullah ibn Unais to assassinate him in 625 during the Expedition of Abdullah Ibn Unais. This was followed by the Invasion of Banu Lahyan in September 627 when Muhammad ordered his followers to attack the Banu Lahyan tribe to get revenge for the killing of 10 Muslims in the Expedition of Al Raji
THE SARIYYAH OF ABO QATADAH IBN RIB'I AL- ANSARl TOWORDS BATN IDAM.