First Cabinet of Napoleon I

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Ministers of Napoleon
cabinet of France

Napoleon I of France by Andrea Appiani.jpg

Date formed 18 May 1804
Date dissolved 1 April 1814
People and organisations
Head of state Napoleon
Head of government Napoleon
History
Predecessor Cabinet of the French Consulate
Successor Provisional Government of 1814

The First Cabinet of Napoleon I was appointed by the Emperor Napoleon I upon the establishment of the First French Empire on 18 May 1804, replacing the Cabinet of the Consulate. It was succeeded by the French Provisional Government of 1814 following the downfall of Napoleon and the abolition of the Empire.

An emperor is a monarch, and usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. Empress, the female equivalent, may indicate an emperor's wife, mother, or a woman who rules in her own right. Emperors are generally recognized to be of a higher honour and rank than kings. In Europe, the title of Emperor has been used since the Middle Ages, considered in those times equal or almost equal in dignity to that of Pope due to the latter's position as visible head of the Church and spiritual leader of the Catholic part of Western Europe. The Emperor of Japan is the only currently reigning monarch whose title is translated into English as Emperor.

First French Empire Empire of Napoleon I of France between 1804–1815

The First French Empire, officially the French Empire, was the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte of France and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century. Although France had already established an overseas colonial empire beginning in the 17th century, the French state had remained a kingdom under the Bourbons and a republic after the Revolution. Historians refer to Napoleon's regime as the First Empire to distinguish it from the restorationist Second Empire (1852–1870) ruled by his nephew as Napoleon III.

French Consulate former government of France

The Consulate was the top level Government of France from the fall of the Directory in the coup of Brumaire on 10 November 1799 until the start of the Napoleonic Empire on 18 May 1804. By extension, the term The Consulate also refers to this period of French history.

Contents

Formation

At the session of the Tribunat on 3 Floréal year XII (23 April 1804) Jean-François Curée proposed that Napoleon, then First Consul, be declared hereditary Emperor of France. [1] The motion was supported by several members of the Tribunat, with only Lazare Carnot speaking against it. [2] At a session of the Senate on 28 Floréal year XII (18 May 1804) attended by Consul Charles-François Lebrun and all the ministers a motion was adopted in which Napoleon was declared hereditary Emperor of the French. [1] The formal coronation ceremony was delayed until 11 Frimaire year XIII (2 December 1804), when Pope Pius VII attended and Napoleon crowned himself in the Notre Dame de Paris. [3]

The Tribunat was one of the four assemblies set up in France by the Constitution of Year VIII. It was set up officially on 1 January 1800 at the same time as the Corps législatif. Its first president was the historian Pierre Daunou, whose independent spirit led to his dismissal from the post by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1802. The Tribunat assumed some of the functions of the Council of Five Hundred, but its role consisted only of deliberating projected laws before their adoption by the Corps législatif, with the legislative initiative remaining with the Council of State.

Lazare Carnot French political, engineering and mathematical figure

Lazare Nicolas Marguerite, Count Carnot was a French mathematician, physicist and politician. He was known as the Organizer of Victory in the French Revolutionary Wars and Napoleonic Wars.

Ministers

Napoleon retained the ministers from the Consulate, but made various changes during his reign. He did not appoint a prime minister, but headed the government himself. [3] The ministers were:

Ministry From To Minister
Secretary of State 18 May 1804 17 April 1811 Hugues-Bernard Maret, duc de Bassano
17 April 1811 20 November 1813 Pierre Daru [3]
20 November 1813 1 April 1814 Hugues-Bernard Maret, duc de Bassano [3]
Foreign Affairs 18 May 1804 9 August 1807 Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord
9 August 1807 17 April 1811 Jean-Baptiste de Nompère de Champagny [3]
17 April 1811 20 November 1813 Hugues-Bernard Maret, duc de Bassano [3]
20 November 1813 1 April 1814 Armand Augustin Louis de Caulaincourt [3]
Interior 18 May 1804 8 August 1804 Jean-Antoine Chaptal
8 August 1804 9 August 1807 Jean-Baptiste de Nompère de Champagny [3]
9 August 1807 29 June 1809 Emmanuel Crétet [3]
29 June 1809 1 October 1809 Joseph Fouché (?)
1 October 1809 1 April 1814 Jean-Pierre de Montalivet [3]
Justice 18 May 1804 13 June 1813 Claude Ambroise Régnier
20 November 1813 1 April 1814 Mathieu Molé [3]
War 18 May 1804 9 August 1807 Louis-Alexandre Berthier
9 August 1807 20 November 1813 Henri Jacques Guillaume Clarke [3]
20 November 1813 1 April 1814 Pierre Daru [3]
War Administration 18 May 1804 3 January 1810 Jean François Aimé Dejean
3 January 1810 20 November 1813 Jean-Girard Lacuée [3]
20 November 1813 1 April 1814 Pierre Daru [3]
Finance 18 May 1804 1 April 1814 Martin Michel Charles Gaudin
Treasury 18 May 1804 27 January 1806 François Barbé-Marbois
27 January 1806 1 April 1814 Nicolas François, Count Mollien [3]
Navy and Colonies 18 May 1804 1 April 1814 Denis Decrès
Police 10 July 1804 3 June 1810 Joseph Fouché [3]
3 June 1810 1 April 1814 Anne Jean Marie René Savary [3]
Religious affairs 10 July 1804 4 January 1808 Jean-Étienne-Marie Portalis [3]
4 January 1808 1 April 1814 Félix-Julien-Jean Bigot de Préameneu [3]
Manufacturing and Commerce 16 January 1812 1 April 1814 Jean-Baptiste Collin de Sussy [3]

Replacement

In March 1814 the allied armies invaded France, and arrived at the walls of Paris on 29 March 1814. After a short struggle on 30 March 1814 against overwhelmingly superior forces, on 31 March 1814 Marshal Marmont signed the capitulation of Paris. [4] A provisional government was formed on 1 April 1814 under the presidency of Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord. [4]

Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord French diplomat

Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord, 1st Prince of Benevento, then 1st Prince of Talleyrand, was a laicized French bishop, politician, and diplomat. After theology studies, he became in 1780 Agent-General of the Clergy and represented the Catholic Church to the French Crown. He worked at the highest levels of successive French governments, most commonly as foreign minister or in some other diplomatic capacity. His career spanned the regimes of Louis XVI, the years of the French Revolution, Napoleon, Louis XVIII, and Louis-Philippe. Those he served often distrusted Talleyrand but, like Napoleon, found him extremely useful. The name "Talleyrand" has become a byword for crafty, cynical diplomacy.

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References

Citations

  1. 1 2 Muel 1891, p. 67.
  2. Muel 1891, p. 68.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Muel 1891, p. 73.
  4. 1 2 Muel 1891, p. 75.

Sources