|Motto||Quicquid sub terra est ("Whatever is under the earth")|
|Formation||13 October 1807|
|Founded at||Freemasons Tavern, Great Queen Street |
|Headquarters|| Burlington House, Piccadilly |
The Geological Society of London, known commonly as the Geological Society,is a learned society based in the United Kingdom. It is the oldest national geological society in the world and the largest in Europe with more than 12,000 Fellows.
Fellows are entitled to the postnominal FGS (Fellow of the Geological Society), over 2,000 of whom are Chartered Geologists (CGeol). The Society is a Registered Charity, No. 210161. It is also a member of the Science Council, and is licensed to award Chartered Scientist to qualifying members.
The mission of the society is: "Making geologists acquainted with each other, stimulating their zeal, inducing them to adopt one nomenclature, facilitating the communication of new facts and ascertaining what is known in their science and what remains to be discovered".
The Society was founded on 13 October 1807 at the Freemasons' Tavern, Great Queen Street, in the Covent Garden district of London.It was partly the outcome of a previous club known as the Askesian Society. There were 13 founder members: William Babington, James Parkinson, Humphry Davy, George Bellas Greenough, Arthur Aikin, William Allen, Jacques Louis, Comte de Bournon, Richard Knight, James Laird, James Franck, William Haseldine Pepys, Richard Phillips, and William Phillips. It received its Royal Charter on 23 April 1825 from George IV.
Since 1874, the Society has been based at Burlington House, Piccadilly, London. This building houses the Society's library, which contains more than 300,000 volumes of books and journals.It is a member of the UK Science Council.
Women were first allowed to become Fellows of the Society in 1919.
In 1991, it merged with the Institution of Geologists, which had been formed in 1977 to represent the geological profession.
The Society celebrated its bicentenary in 2007. It ran programmes in the geosciences in Britain and abroad, under the auspices of the science writer and palaeontologist Professor Richard Fortey, the president that year.
The Society has 24 specialist groups and 15 regional groups which serve as an opportunity for those with specific interests to meet and discuss their subject or region. They are all free for members to join and some are open to non-members.
The Regional Groups are:
The Specialist Groups are:
The society publishes two of its own journals, the (formerly Quarterly) Journal of the Geological Society and the Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology . It also publishes the magazine Geoscientist for Fellows, and has a share in Geology Today , published by Blackwell Science.
It also co-publishes journals and publishes on behalf of other organisations. These include Petroleum Geoscience with the European Association of Geoscientists and Engineers (EAGE), Geochemistry: Exploration, Environment, Analysis with the Association of Applied Geochemists (AAG), Journal of Micropalaeontology for the Micropalaeontological Society, Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society for the Yorkshire Geological Society, and Scottish Journal of Geology for the Geological Societies of Edinburgh and Glasgow.
The society counts many famous geologists amongst its past presidents. These include pioneers of geology William Buckland, Adam Sedgwick, Roderick Impey Murchison, Charles Lyell, Henry Thomas De la Beche, T.H.Huxley, Joseph Prestwich, Archibald Geikie, Jethro Teall, and Charles Lapworth. Later well-known names include Alfred Harker, Arthur Trueman, H.H.Read, and Frederick Shotton, and Janet Watson.
In 1831 it began issuing an annual scientific award for geology, known as the Wollaston Medal. This is still the Society's premier medal, which in 2006 was awarded to James Lovelock, the originator of the Gaia Hypothesis.
Sir Roderick Impey Murchison, 1st Baronet, was a Scottish geologist who first described and investigated the Silurian system.
William Henry Fitton was an Irish physician and amateur geologist.
The Royal School of Mines comprises the departments of Earth Science and Engineering and Materials at Imperial College London. The Centre for Advanced Structural Ceramics and parts of the London Centre for Nanotechnology and Department of Bioengineering are also housed within the building. The school as an organisation no longer exists, having been incorporated into the Faculty of Engineering since 2003. Today the Royal School of Mines refers to both the departments associated with the former school, and the Edwardian building by Sir Aston Webb, which is viewed as a classic of academic architecture. The building and relevant student union still carry the name.
Sir Nicholas John Shackleton was an English geologist and paleoclimatologist who specialised in the Quaternary Period. He was the son of the distinguished field geologist Robert Millner Shackleton and great-nephew of the explorer Ernest Shackleton.
Owen Thomas Jones, FRS FGS was a Welsh geologist.
The Geological Association of Canada (GAC) is a learned society that promotes and develops the geological sciences in Canada. The organization holds conferences, meetings and exhibitions for the discussion of geological problems and the exchange of views in matters related to geology. It publishes various journals and collections of learned papers dealing with geology.
William Noel Benson FRS FRGS was a research geologist and academic. After studying geology at the University of Sydney, Benson worked temporarily at the University of Adelaide before returning to Sydney as a demonstrator. After winning an 1851 Exhibition Science Scholarship in 1910 he left Sydney to study at the University of Cambridge, where he worked until 1913. He returned to Sydney in 1914 as the Macleay Fellow in Geology, leaving in 1917 to become Chair of the Geology Department at the University of Otago, where for many years he was the only lecturer. During his lifetime he published over 100 papers and won several awards, including the Clarke Medal and the Lyell Medal. He died on 20 August 1957 following his retirement from academia in 1951.
Women in geology concerns the history and contributions of women to the field of geology. There has been a long history of women in the field, but they have tended to be under-represented. In the era before the eighteenth century, science and geological science had not been as formalized as they would become later. Hence early geologists tended to be informal observers and collectors, whether they were male or female. Notable examples of this period include Hildegard of Bingen who wrote works concerning stones and Barbara Uthmann who supervised her husband's mining operations after his death. Mrs. Uthmann was also a relative of Georg Agricola. In addition to these names varied aristocratic women had scientific collections of rocks or minerals.
W. Gary Ernst is an American geologist specializing in petrology and geochemistry. He currently is the Benjamin M. Page Professor Emeritus in Stanford University's Department of Geological Sciences.
William Whitaker was born on 4 May 1836 in London,
Dr Ramsay Heatley Traquair FRSE FRS LLD was a Scottish naturalist and palaeontologist who became a leading expert on fossil fish.
John R. Underhill is Professor of Stratigraphy in the Grant Institute of Geology in the School of Geosciences at The University of Edinburgh, Scotland and Associate Professor in the Institute of Petroleum Engineering, Heriot-Watt University. He was a football referee in the Scottish Premier League, until mandatory age retiral in 2008 and was on the FIFA panel of referees.
Maria Luisa (Weecha) Crawford is an American geologist/petrologist. She was born on July 18, 1939, in Beverly, Massachusetts. In 1960, Crawford received a bachelor of arts degree in geology from Bryn Mawr College, located in Pennsylvania. 5 years later, she received her doctorate degree from the University of California at Berkeley, where she met her husband, William Crawford. Shortly after graduating, Crawford became employed by Bryn Mawr College in the department of geology. Throughout her career, she had a wide range of interests. She was known to be one of the first scientists to use the electron micro probe on metamorphic rocks. Crawford has also been interested in lunar petrology and geochemistry. In this field, she researched the crystallization of lava that seemed to fill craters on the moon.
Konrad Bates Krauskopf was an American geologist, a pioneer in geochemistry, noted for his work in radioactive waste disposal. Krauskopf led expeditions to Mexico, Norway, the Sierra and the Pacific Northwest. Krauskopf was a geology professor at Stanford University, and a member of the National Academy of Sciences.
Anthony Brian Watts FRS is a British marine geologist and geophysicist and Professor of Marine Geology and Geophysics in the Department of Earth Sciences, at the University of Oxford.
Eleanor Mary Reid (1860–1953) was a British palaeobotanist. Throughout her life she worked closely with her husband, Clement Reid, a trained botanist and geologist, and later worked alongside Marjorie Chandler.
Susan L. Brantley is an American geologist and geochemist who is Distinguished Professor of Geosciences at Pennsylvania State University. Her research dominantly studies interactions between fluids and minerals at low temperatures, biological reactions in water-rich fluids within soils, and the geochemical processes that convert rock into soil. However, among many other topics she has also published work on carbon dioxide emissions from volcanoes, and the environmental impact of shale gas extraction and nuclear waste disposal. During her career, Brantley has published over 200 research papers and book chapters, has been awarded academic prizes and fellowships by many of the world's leading geoscience societies, and has been described as "one of the leading aqueous geochemists of her generation."
Rosalind "Ros" Emily Majors Rickaby is a professor of biogeochemistry at the Department of Earth Sciences, University of Oxford and a Governing Body Fellow of Wolfson College.
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