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Gomphrena globosa1.jpg
Gomphrena globosa
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Order: Caryophyllales
Family: Amaranthaceae
Subfamily: Gomphrenoideae

about 13 genera, see text

The Gomphrenoideae are a subfamily of the Amaranthaceae.


The stamens have anthers with only one lobe (locule) and two pollen sacs. Many species show C4-photosynthesis pathway. [1]

The center of diversity lies in Central America, Mexico and the dry forests and thorn bush savannas of South America. [2]


The subfamily Gomphrenoideae was first published in 1893 by Hans Schinz (in: Engler und Prantl (Eds.): Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien vol. 3, 1a, p. 97).

According to phylogenetic research by Sanchez Del-Pino (2009), the subfamily Gomphrenoideae Schinz is regarded as a monophyletic taxon with 19 genera and about 300-400 species. The traditional classification with two tribes (Gomphreneae and Pseudoplantageae) does not reflect the phylogenetic relationship in this group. Three clades can be recognized.: [1]


This is the sister clade of the two other clades.


C4 carbon fixation evolved independently in the genera Alternathera, which also contains C3 and C3C4 intermediate species, and Tidestromia. [3] [4]


One large clade within this group, containing the genera Froelichia, Guilleminea, Blutaparon, some Gomphrena species, and probably Gossypianthus and Lithophila, has acquired the C4 carbon fixation pathway. [3] [4] Some of these C4 species occur at unusually high altitudes in the Andes, in cooler conditions than their C3 relatives. [5]


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<i>Alternanthera</i> Genus of flowering plants

Alternanthera is a genus of flowering plants in the family Amaranthaceae. It is a widespread genus with most species occurring in the tropical Americas, and others in Asia, Africa, and Australia. Plants of the genus may be known generally as joyweeds, or Joseph's coat. Several species are notorious noxious weeds.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Salicornioideae</span> Subfamily of flowering plants

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<i>Commiphora</i> Genus of flowering plants

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<i>Iresine</i> Genus of flowering plants

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<i>Pfaffia</i> Genus of flowering plants

Pfaffia is a genus of plants in the family Amaranthaceae.

<i>Aerva</i> Genus of flowering plants

Aerva is a genus of plants in the family Amaranthaceae. Its species are native to the palaeotropics, throughout continental Africa, Madagascar and smaller islands, through parts of the Middle East, India, and southeast Asia. Aerva javanica is an alien in northern Australia.

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<i>Ptilotus</i> Family of shrubs

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  1. 1 2 3 Ivonne Sánchez del-Pino, Thomas Borsch & Timothy J. Motley (2009): trnL-F and rpl16 Sequence Data and Dense Taxon Sampling Reveal Monophyly of Unilocular Anthered Gomphrenoideae (Amaranthaceae) and an Improved Picture of Their Internal Relationships, In: Systematic Botany, Volume 34 (1), p. 57-67. doi : 10.1600/036364409787602401
  2. Kai Müller & Thomas Borsch (2005): Phylogenetics of Amaranthaceae using matK/trnK sequence data – evidence from parsimony, likelihood and Bayesian approaches, In: Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 92, p. 66-102.
  3. 1 2 Sage, R.F. (2016). "A portrait of the C4 photosynthetic family on the 50th anniversary of its discovery: species number, evolutionary lineages, and Hall of Fame". Journal of Experimental Botany. 67 (14): 4039–4056. doi: 10.1093/jxb/erw156 . ISSN   0022-0957. PMID   27053721. Open Access logo PLoS transparent.svg
  4. 1 2 Sage, R.F.; Sage, T.L.; Pearcy, R.W.; Borsch, T. (2007). "The taxonomic distribution of C4 photosynthesis in Amaranthaceae sensu stricto". American Journal of Botany. 94 (12): 1992–2003. doi:10.3732/ajb.94.12.1992. ISSN   0002-9122. PMID   21636394. Open Access logo PLoS transparent.svg
  5. Bena, M.J.; Acosta, J.M.; Aagesen, Lone (2017). "Macroclimatic niche limits and the evolution of C4 photosynthesis in Gomphrenoideae (Amaranthaceae)". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 184 (3): 283–297. doi:10.1093/botlinnean/box031. ISSN   0024-4074.