|Wallace's figure (1) of Graphium thule|
Graphium thule is a species of butterfly in the family Papilionidae. It is found in New Guinea. The larva feeds on Aquifoliacene ilex .
Butterflies are insects in the macrolepidopteran clade Rhopalocera from the order Lepidoptera, which also includes moths. Adult butterflies have large, often brightly coloured wings, and conspicuous, fluttering flight. The group comprises the large superfamily Papilionoidea, which contains at least one former group, the skippers, and the most recent analyses suggest it also contains the moth-butterflies. Butterfly fossils date to the Paleocene, which was about 56 million years ago.
New Guinea is a large island separated by a shallow sea from the rest of the Australian continent. It is the world's second-largest island, after Greenland, covering a land area of 785,753 km2 (303,381 sq mi), and the largest wholly or partly within the Southern Hemisphere and Oceania.
Graphium thule is not common but not known to be threatened. It mimics the danaines Ideopsis juventa and Tirumala hamata . There is one subspecies felixi Joicey & Noakes, 1915 and three forms.It is an endemic species.
In evolutionary biology, mimicry is an evolved resemblance between an organism and another object, often an organism of another species. Mimicry may evolve between different species, or between individuals of the same species. Often, mimicry functions to protect a species from predators, making it an antipredator adaptation. Mimicry evolves if a receiver perceives the similarity between a mimic and a model and as a result changes its behaviour in a way that provides a selective advantage to the mimic. The resemblances that evolve in mimicry can be visual, acoustic, chemical, tactile, or electric, or combinations of these sensory modalities. Mimicry may be to the advantage of both organisms that share a resemblance, in which case it is a form of mutualism; or mimicry can be to the detriment of one, making it parasitic or competitive. The evolutionary convergence between groups is driven by the selective action of a signal-receiver or dupe. Birds, for example, use sight to identify palatable insects, whilst avoiding the noxious ones. Over time, palatable insects may evolve to resemble noxious ones, making them mimics and the noxious ones models. In the case of mutualism, sometimes both groups are referred to as "co-mimics". It is often thought that models must be more abundant than mimics, but this is not so. Mimicry may involve numerous species; many harmless species such as hoverflies are Batesian mimics of strongly defended species such as wasps, while many such well-defended species form Mullerian mimicry rings, all resembling each other. Mimicry between prey species and their predators often involves three or more species.
Ideopsis juventa, the wood nymph, gray glassy tiger or grey glassy tiger, is a species of nymphalid butterfly in the Danainae subfamily. It is found in Southeast Asia.
Tirumala hamata, the blue tiger, dark blue tiger, or blue wanderer, is a butterfly of the family Nymphalidae. It is found in South-East Asia and Australia. In Australia, the butterflies perform mass migrations to the south in some years.
Graphium arycles, the spotted jay, is a species of butterfly of the family Papilionidae found in the Indomalayan ecozone. It is scarce and likely to be found in the extreme north east of India. It is not known to be threatened but the nominate subspecies is protected by law in India.
Graphium evemon, the blue jay, lesser jay, or pale green triangle is a species of tropical butterfly found in India, Indonesia, and Malaysia.
Ornithoptera tithonus, the Tithonus birdwing, is a species of birdwing butterfly found on New Guinea and other neighbouring islands.
Ornithoptera paradisea, the paradise birdwing, is a species of birdwing butterfly found in New Guinea.
Graphium aurivilliusi is a species of butterfly in the family Papilionidae (swallowtails). It is endemic to the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Graphium idaeoides is a species of butterfly in the family Papilionidae. It is endemic to the Philippines. It is a perfect mimic of Idea leuconoe.
Graphium levassori is a species of butterfly in the family Papilionidae. It is endemic to the Comoros.
The Meek's graphium is a species of butterfly in the family Papilionidae. It is found in Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands.
Graphium megaera is a species of butterfly in the family Papilionidae. It is endemic to the Philippines.
Graphium mendana is a species of butterfly in the family Papilionidae, that is found in Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands.
Graphium sandawanum, the Apo swallowtail, is a species of butterfly in the family Papilionidae. It is endemic to the Philippines.
Graphium stresemanni is a vulnerable species of butterfly in the family Papilionidae. It is endemic to the Indonesian island of Seram. It closely resembles the related Graphium weiskei, a more common species from New Guinea but has been treated as a distinct species. It is rare.
Graphium weiskei, the purple spotted swallowtail, which is found only in the highlands of New Guinea, is a butterfly of the swallowtail family, Papilionidae. It resembles the related Graphium stresemanni. These swallowtails live in elevations of 4,500 to 8,000 feet.
Graphium leonidas, the veined swordtail, veined swallowtail or common graphium, is a species of butterfly in the family Papilionidae, found in Sub-Saharan Africa.
Graphium illyris, the cream-banded swordtail, is a forest butterfly of the swallowtail family (Papilionidae). It is native to the Afrotropic ecozone.
Graphium fulleri is a butterfly in the family Papilionidae (swallowtails). It is found in Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, the Republic of the Congo, Angola, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Chad.
Graphium gelon is a butterfly of the family Papilionidae, that is found in New Caledonia.
Graphium wallacei is a butterfly found in New Guinea and the Moluccas that belongs to the swallowtail family.
Graphium encelades is a species of butterfly in the family Papilionidae. It is endemic species found only in Sulawesi.
Graphium stratocles is a species of butterfly in the family Papilionidae. It is found in the Philippines.
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