Graphium thule

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Graphium thule
Wallace1865TransLinnSocLondPlate7.jpg
Wallace's figure (1) of Graphium thule
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Lepidoptera
Family: Papilionidae
Genus: Graphium
Species:G. thule
Binomial name
Graphium thule
(Wallace, 1865) [1]
Synonyms
  • Papilio thuleWallace, 1865
  • Papilio thule leutheGrose-Smith, 1894
  • Papilio goldieiGodman & Salvin, 1880
  • Papilio felixiJoicey & Noakes, 1915

Graphium thule is a species of butterfly in the family Papilionidae. It is found in New Guinea. The larva feeds on Aquifoliacene ilex .

Butterfly A group of insects in the order Lepidoptera

Butterflies are insects in the macrolepidopteran clade Rhopalocera from the order Lepidoptera, which also includes moths. Adult butterflies have large, often brightly coloured wings, and conspicuous, fluttering flight. The group comprises the large superfamily Papilionoidea, which contains at least one former group, the skippers, and the most recent analyses suggest it also contains the moth-butterflies. Butterfly fossils date to the Paleocene, which was about 56 million years ago.

New Guinea Island in the Pacific Ocean

New Guinea is a large island separated by a shallow sea from the rest of the Australian continent. It is the world's second-largest island, after Greenland, covering a land area of 785,753 km2 (303,381 sq mi), and the largest wholly or partly within the Southern Hemisphere and Oceania.

Graphium thule is not common but not known to be threatened. It mimics the danaines Ideopsis juventa and Tirumala hamata . There is one subspecies felixi Joicey & Noakes, 1915 and three forms. [2] [3] It is an endemic species.

Mimicry similarity of one species to another

In evolutionary biology, mimicry is an evolved resemblance between an organism and another object, often an organism of another species. Mimicry may evolve between different species, or between individuals of the same species. Often, mimicry functions to protect a species from predators, making it an antipredator adaptation. Mimicry evolves if a receiver perceives the similarity between a mimic and a model and as a result changes its behaviour in a way that provides a selective advantage to the mimic. The resemblances that evolve in mimicry can be visual, acoustic, chemical, tactile, or electric, or combinations of these sensory modalities. Mimicry may be to the advantage of both organisms that share a resemblance, in which case it is a form of mutualism; or mimicry can be to the detriment of one, making it parasitic or competitive. The evolutionary convergence between groups is driven by the selective action of a signal-receiver or dupe. Birds, for example, use sight to identify palatable insects, whilst avoiding the noxious ones. Over time, palatable insects may evolve to resemble noxious ones, making them mimics and the noxious ones models. In the case of mutualism, sometimes both groups are referred to as "co-mimics". It is often thought that models must be more abundant than mimics, but this is not so. Mimicry may involve numerous species; many harmless species such as hoverflies are Batesian mimics of strongly defended species such as wasps, while many such well-defended species form Mullerian mimicry rings, all resembling each other. Mimicry between prey species and their predators often involves three or more species.

<i>Ideopsis juventa</i> species of insect

Ideopsis juventa, the wood nymph, gray glassy tiger or grey glassy tiger, is a species of nymphalid butterfly in the Danainae subfamily. It is found in Southeast Asia.

<i>Tirumala hamata</i> species of insect

Tirumala hamata, the blue tiger, dark blue tiger, or blue wanderer, is a butterfly of the family Nymphalidae. It is found in South-East Asia and Australia. In Australia, the butterflies perform mass migrations to the south in some years.

See also

Related Research Articles

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Graphium arycles, the spotted jay, is a species of butterfly of the family Papilionidae found in the Indomalayan ecozone. It is scarce and likely to be found in the extreme north east of India. It is not known to be threatened but the nominate subspecies is protected by law in India.

<i>Graphium evemon</i> species of insect

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<i>Ornithoptera tithonus</i> species of insect

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<i>Ornithoptera paradisea</i> species of insect

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<i>Graphium aurivilliusi</i> species of insect

Graphium aurivilliusi is a species of butterfly in the family Papilionidae (swallowtails). It is endemic to the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

<i>Graphium idaeoides</i> species of insect

Graphium idaeoides is a species of butterfly in the family Papilionidae. It is endemic to the Philippines. It is a perfect mimic of Idea leuconoe.

<i>Graphium levassori</i> species of insect

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Meeks graphium species of insect

The Meek's graphium is a species of butterfly in the family Papilionidae. It is found in Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands.

<i>Graphium megaera</i> species of insect

Graphium megaera is a species of butterfly in the family Papilionidae. It is endemic to the Philippines.

<i>Graphium mendana</i> species of insect

Graphium mendana is a species of butterfly in the family Papilionidae, that is found in Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands.

Graphium sandawanum, the Apo swallowtail, is a species of butterfly in the family Papilionidae. It is endemic to the Philippines.

Graphium stresemanni is a vulnerable species of butterfly in the family Papilionidae. It is endemic to the Indonesian island of Seram. It closely resembles the related Graphium weiskei, a more common species from New Guinea but has been treated as a distinct species. It is rare.

<i>Graphium weiskei</i> species of insect

Graphium weiskei, the purple spotted swallowtail, which is found only in the highlands of New Guinea, is a butterfly of the swallowtail family, Papilionidae. It resembles the related Graphium stresemanni. These swallowtails live in elevations of 4,500 to 8,000 feet.

<i>Graphium leonidas</i> species of insect

Graphium leonidas, the veined swordtail, veined swallowtail or common graphium, is a species of butterfly in the family Papilionidae, found in Sub-Saharan Africa.

<i>Graphium illyris</i> species of insect

Graphium illyris, the cream-banded swordtail, is a forest butterfly of the swallowtail family (Papilionidae). It is native to the Afrotropic ecozone.

<i>Graphium fulleri</i> species of insect

Graphium fulleri is a butterfly in the family Papilionidae (swallowtails). It is found in Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, the Republic of the Congo, Angola, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Chad.

<i>Graphium gelon</i> species of insect

Graphium gelon is a butterfly of the family Papilionidae, that is found in New Caledonia.

<i>Graphium wallacei</i> species of insect

Graphium wallacei is a butterfly found in New Guinea and the Moluccas that belongs to the swallowtail family.

<i>Graphium encelades</i> species of insect

Graphium encelades is a species of butterfly in the family Papilionidae. It is endemic species found only in Sulawesi.

<i>Graphium stratocles</i> species of insect

Graphium stratocles is a species of butterfly in the family Papilionidae. It is found in the Philippines.

References

  1. funet
  2. Collins, N. Mark; Morris, Michael G. (1985). Threatened Swallowtail Butterflies of the World: The IUCN Red Data Book. Gland & Cambridge: IUCN. ISBN   978-2-88032-603-6 via Biodiversity Heritage Library.
  3. Hancock, D.L. (1979). Systematic notes on Graphium felixi (Joicey and Noakes) (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) Australian Entomological Magazine 7: 11-12.