|Named after||Percy John Heawood|
|Properties|| Bipartite |
|Table of graphs and parameters|
In the mathematical field of graph theory, the Heawood graph is an undirected graph with 14 vertices and 21 edges, named after Percy John Heawood.
The graph is cubic, and all cycles in the graph have six or more edges. Every smaller cubic graph has shorter cycles, so this graph is the 6-cage, the smallest cubic graph of girth 6. It is a distance-transitive graph (see the Foster census) and therefore distance regular.
There are 24 perfect matchings in the Heawood graph; for each matching, the set of edges not in the matching forms a Hamiltonian cycle. For instance, the figure shows the vertices of the graph placed on a cycle, with the internal diagonals of the cycle forming a matching. By subdividing the cycle edges into two matchings, we can partition the Heawood graph into three perfect matchings (that is, 3-color its edges) in eight different ways.Every two perfect matchings, and every two Hamiltonian cycles, can be transformed into each other by a symmetry of the graph.
There are 28 six-vertex cycles in the Heawood graph. Each 6-cycle is disjoint from exactly three other 6-cycles; among these three 6-cycles, each one is the symmetric difference of the other two. The graph with one node per 6-cycle, and one edge for each disjoint pair of 6-cycles, is the Coxeter graph.
The Heawood graph is a toroidal graph; that is, it can be embedded without crossings onto a torus. One embedding of this type places its vertices and edges into three-dimensional Euclidean space as the set of vertices and edges of a nonconvex polyhedron with the topology of a torus, the Szilassi polyhedron.
The graph is named after Percy John Heawood, who in 1890 proved that in every subdivision of the torus into polygons, the polygonal regions can be colored by at most seven colors.The Heawood graph forms a subdivision of the torus with seven mutually adjacent regions, showing that this bound is tight.
The Heawood graph is the Levi graph of the Fano plane, the graph representing incidences between points and lines in that geometry. With this interpretation, the 6-cycles in the Heawood graph correspond to triangles in the Fano plane. Also, the Heawood graph is the Tits building of the group SL3(F2).
The Heawood graph has crossing number 3, and is the smallest cubic graph with that crossing number (sequence A110507 in the OEIS ). Including the Heawood graph, there are 8 distinct graphs of order 14 with crossing number 3.
The Heawood graph is the smallest cubic graph with Colin de Verdière graph invariant μ = 6.
The Heawood graph is a unit distance graph: it can be embedded in the plane such that adjacent vertices are exactly at distance one apart, with no two vertices embedded to the same point and no vertex embedded into a point within an edge.
The automorphism group of the Heawood graph is isomorphic to the projective linear group PGL2(7), a group of order 336.It acts transitively on the vertices, on the edges and on the arcs of the graph. Therefore, the Heawood graph is a symmetric graph. It has automorphisms that take any vertex to any other vertex and any edge to any other edge. More strongly, the Heawood graph is 4-arc-transitive. According to the Foster census, the Heawood graph, referenced as F014A, is the only cubic symmetric graph on 14 vertices.
It has book thickness 3 and queue number 2.
The characteristic polynomial of the Heawood graph is . It is the only graph with this characteristic polynomial, making it a graph determined by its spectrum.
In the mathematical field of graph theory, the Petersen graph is an undirected graph with 10 vertices and 15 edges. It is a small graph that serves as a useful example and counterexample for many problems in graph theory. The Petersen graph is named after Julius Petersen, who in 1898 constructed it to be the smallest bridgeless cubic graph with no three-edge-coloring.
In the mathematical field of graph theory, a vertex-transitive graph is a graph G in which, given any two vertices v1 and v2 of G, there is some automorphism
In the mathematical field of graph theory, a cubic graph is a graph in which all vertices have degree three. In other words, a cubic graph is a 3-regular graph. Cubic graphs are also called trivalent graphs.
In the mathematical field of graph theory, a graph G is symmetric if, given any two pairs of adjacent vertices u1—v1 and u2—v2 of G, there is an automorphism
In the mathematical field of graph theory, the Hoffman–Singleton graph is a 7-regular undirected graph with 50 vertices and 175 edges. It is the unique strongly regular graph with parameters (50,7,0,1). It was constructed by Alan Hoffman and Robert Singleton while trying to classify all Moore graphs, and is the highest-order Moore graph known to exist. Since it is a Moore graph where each vertex has degree 7, and the girth is 5, it is a (7,5)-cage.
In the mathematical field of graph theory, the Coxeter graph is a 3-regular graph with 28 vertices and 42 edges. It is one of the 13 known cubic distance-regular graphs. It is named after Harold Scott MacDonald Coxeter.
In the mathematical field of graph theory, the Pappus graph is a bipartite 3-regular undirected graph with 18 vertices and 27 edges, formed as the Levi graph of the Pappus configuration. It is named after Pappus of Alexandria, an ancient Greek mathematician who is believed to have discovered the "hexagon theorem" describing the Pappus configuration. All the cubic distance-regular graphs are known; the Pappus graph is one of the 13 such graphs.
In the mathematical field of graph theory, the Foster graph is a bipartite 3-regular graph with 90 vertices and 135 edges.
In the mathematical field of graph theory, the Möbius–Kantor graph is a symmetric bipartite cubic graph with 16 vertices and 24 edges named after August Ferdinand Möbius and Seligmann Kantor. It can be defined as the generalized Petersen graph G(8,3): that is, it is formed by the vertices of an octagon, connected to the vertices of an eight-point star in which each point of the star is connected to the points three steps away from it.
In the mathematical field of graph theory, the Shrikhande graph is a named graph discovered by S. S. Shrikhande in 1959. It is a strongly regular graph with 16 vertices and 48 edges, with each vertex having degree 6. Every pair of nodes has exactly two other neighbors in common, whether the pair of nodes is connected or not.
In the mathematical field of graph theory, Tietze's graph is an undirected cubic graph with 12 vertices and 18 edges. It is named after Heinrich Franz Friedrich Tietze, who showed in 1910 that the Möbius strip can be subdivided into six regions that all touch each other – three along the boundary of the strip and three along its center line – and therefore that graphs that are embedded onto the Möbius strip may require six colors. The boundary segments of the regions of Tietze's subdivision form an embedding of Tietze's graph.
In the mathematical field of graph theory, the Biggs–Smith graph is a 3-regular graph with 102 vertices and 153 edges.
In the mathematical field of graph theory, the Dyck graph is a 3-regular graph with 32 vertices and 48 edges, named after Walther von Dyck.
In the mathematical field of graph theory, the Nauru graph is a symmetric bipartite cubic graph with 24 vertices and 36 edges. It was named by David Eppstein after the twelve-pointed star in the flag of Nauru.
In the mathematical field of graph theory, the F26A graph is a symmetric bipartite cubic graph with 26 vertices and 39 edges.
In the mathematical field of graph theory, the Ljubljana graph is an undirected bipartite graph with 112 vertices and 168 edges.
In the mathematical field of graph theory, the Tutte 12-cage or Benson graph is a 3-regular graph with 126 vertices and 189 edges named after W. T. Tutte.
In geometry, a toroidal polyhedron is a polyhedron which is also a toroid, having a topological genus of 1 or greater. Notable examples include the Császár and Szilassi polyhedra.
Italo Jose Dejter is an Argentine-born American mathematician, a retired professor of mathematics and computer science and a researcher in Algebraic topology, Differential topology, Graph theory, Coding theory and Design theory. He obtained a Licentiate degree in mathematics at University of Buenos Aires in 1967, arrived at Rutgers University in 1970 by means of a Guggenheim Fellowship and obtained there a Ph.D. degree in mathematics in 1975 under the supervision of Professor Ted Petrie, with support of the National Science Foundation. He was a professor at the Federal University of Santa Catarina, Brazil, from 1977 to 1984, with grants from the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development, (CNPq).
In the mathematical field of graph theory, the Klein graphs are two different but related regular graphs, each with 84 edges. Each can be embedded in the orientable surface of genus 3, in which they form dual graphs.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Heawood graph .|