Jewish Social Democratic Association Bund

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The Jewish Social Democratic Association Bund was a Jewish socialist organization in Bukovina, [1] named after the Russian General Jewish Labour Bund.

Bukovina Historical region

Bukovina is a historical region, variously described as in Central or Eastern Europe. The region is located on the northern slopes of the central Eastern Carpathians and the adjoining plains, today divided between Romania and Ukraine.

Russia transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and Northern Asia

Russia, officially the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres (6,612,100 sq mi), Russia is by far or by a considerable margin the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with about 146.77 million people as of 2019, including Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland, Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.

After the defeat of the 1905 Russian revolution, several members of the Russian Bund fled to Bukovina (part of Austria-Hungary), where they were received by local Jewish socialists. The Bukovina Jewish socialist members of the Social Democratic Workers Party of Austria began orienting themselves towards Bundist ideas and an informal Bundist grouping emerged. In neighbouring Galicia, the Bundist-oriented Jewish Social Democratic Party was founded in 1905. The Bukovina Bundistn ("Bundists") were sympathetic towards the Galician party, but were wary of publicly joining it as this would have resulted in a breach with the Austrian party. The Bukovina Bundistn sent a two-member observer delegation to the 1908 congress of the Galician party. In the fall of 1908 an educational association called Morgenrot, albeit officially apolitical, was founded along Bundist lines. Soon thereafter, the Bukovina Bundistn registered a formal political association named 'Bund'. After its foundation, the Bund association began campaigning for the recognition of a separate Jewish nationality in the Austrian census of 1910. [2]

Austria-Hungary Constitutional monarchic union from 1867 to October 1918

Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a constitutional monarchy in Central and Eastern Europe from 1867 to 1918. It was formed by giving a new constitution to the Austrian Empire, which devolved powers on Austria (Cisleithania) and Hungary (Transleithania) and placed them on an equal footing. It broke apart into several states at the end of World War I.

The Jewish Social Democratic Party was a political party in Galicia and later also Bukovina, established in a split from the Polish Social Democratic Party of Galicia (PPSD) in 1905. The party made its first public appearance on May 1, 1905, with separate May Day rallies in Kraków, Lemberg, Tarnów and Przemyśl. However, as the new party stressed that it was not a competitor of the existing Social Democratic parties, they later joined the PPSD celebrations.

In order to be able to register themselves as an association with the Austrian authorities, the organization had to adhere to the stringent rules of Austria-Hungary for political associations. [2] Thus formal membership was restricted to male Austrian citizens aged 24 years or above. [2]

The Bukovina Bund merged with the Jewish Social Democratic Party of Galicia in 1912. [2] After the merger, the party adopted the name 'Jewish Social Democratic Party in Galicia and Bukovina'. [3]

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References

  1. Jacobs, Jack Lester. Jewish Politics in Eastern Europe: The Bund at 100. Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2001. p. 144
  2. 1 2 3 4 Joseph Kissman, The History of the Jewish Worker Movement Bund in Bukovina, in Hugo Gold (ed.), History of the Jews in the Bukowina, Tel Aviv, Vol. 1, 1958, pp. 129-144
  3. Brenner, Michael and Penslar, Derek Jonathan. In Search of Jewish Community : Jewish Identities in Germany and Austria, 1918-1933. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, c. 1998. p. 118