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The Jewish Social Democratic Association Bund was a Jewish socialist organization in Bukovina, named after the Russian General Jewish Labour Bund.
Bukovina is a historical region, variously described as in Central or Eastern Europe. The region is located on the northern slopes of the central Eastern Carpathians and the adjoining plains, today divided between Romania and Ukraine.
Russia, officially the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres (6,612,100 sq mi), Russia is by far or by a considerable margin the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with about 146.77 million people as of 2019, including Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland, Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.
After the defeat of the 1905 Russian revolution, several members of the Russian Bund fled to Bukovina (part of Austria-Hungary), where they were received by local Jewish socialists. The Bukovina Jewish socialist members of the Social Democratic Workers Party of Austria began orienting themselves towards Bundist ideas and an informal Bundist grouping emerged. In neighbouring Galicia, the Bundist-oriented Jewish Social Democratic Party was founded in 1905. The Bukovina Bundistn ("Bundists") were sympathetic towards the Galician party, but were wary of publicly joining it as this would have resulted in a breach with the Austrian party. The Bukovina Bundistn sent a two-member observer delegation to the 1908 congress of the Galician party. In the fall of 1908 an educational association called Morgenrot, albeit officially apolitical, was founded along Bundist lines. Soon thereafter, the Bukovina Bundistn registered a formal political association named 'Bund'. After its foundation, the Bund association began campaigning for the recognition of a separate Jewish nationality in the Austrian census of 1910.
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a constitutional monarchy in Central and Eastern Europe from 1867 to 1918. It was formed by giving a new constitution to the Austrian Empire, which devolved powers on Austria (Cisleithania) and Hungary (Transleithania) and placed them on an equal footing. It broke apart into several states at the end of World War I.
The Jewish Social Democratic Party was a political party in Galicia and later also Bukovina, established in a split from the Polish Social Democratic Party of Galicia (PPSD) in 1905. The party made its first public appearance on May 1, 1905, with separate May Day rallies in Kraków, Lemberg, Tarnów and Przemyśl. However, as the new party stressed that it was not a competitor of the existing Social Democratic parties, they later joined the PPSD celebrations.
In order to be able to register themselves as an association with the Austrian authorities, the organization had to adhere to the stringent rules of Austria-Hungary for political associations. Thus formal membership was restricted to male Austrian citizens aged 24 years or above.
The Bukovina Bund merged with the Jewish Social Democratic Party of Galicia in 1912. After the merger, the party adopted the name 'Jewish Social Democratic Party in Galicia and Bukovina'.
The Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, also known as Galicia or Austrian Poland, was established in 1772 as a crownland of the Habsburg Monarchy as a result of the First Partition of Poland. After the Third Partition of Poland in 1795, it became a Kingdom under Habsburg rule. In 1804 it became a crownland of the Austrian Empire. From 1867 it was an ethnic Pole-administered autonomous crownland under Cisleithanian Austria-Hungary, until its dissolution in 1918. The country was carved from the entire south-western part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Among the many ceremonial titles of the princes of Hungary was "ruler of Galicia and Lodomeria". Following the Napoleonic Wars and the Congress of Vienna, the Austrian Empire ceded portions of Galicia to the Russian Empire, West Galicia and Tarnopol District.
Mikhail Isaakovich Liber, sometimes known as Mark Liber, was a leader of the General Jewish Workers' Union. He also played a role in the Russian Social-Democratic Workers' Party (RSDRP) and among the Mensheviks. Liber was instrumental in the soviets during the February Revolution of 1917 but opposed to October Revolution. He was reportedly shot during the Purges. Liber played a defining role in the development of the Bund and helped shaped the policies of the leaders of the February Revolution.
Polish Social Democratic Party of Galicia was a political party in Galicia. The party was formed in 1890 as the Galician territorial organization of the Social Democratic Workers Party of Austria. In 1892 it took the name Social Democratic Party of Galicia. After an 1899 split, which led to the formation of the Ukrainian Social Democratic Party, the word 'Polish' was added to the party name. It was also known as Polish Social Democratic Party of Galicia and Cieszyn Silesia. From 1904 it closely worked with Polish Socialist Party, into which it was merged in 1919.
Ukrainian Social Democratic Party (USDP) was a political party in Galicia. The party was founded in 1899 as an autonomous section of the Polish Social Democratic Party of Galicia by some members of the Polish Social Democratic Party of Galicia (PPSD) and the Ukrainian Radical Party in Lviv. The key leaders were Mykola Hankevych and Semen Vityk. It was based on the Ukrainian social democratic organization that already existed since 1897. The first congress of the party took place in Lviv in 1903. Few years later in 1906 the party was joined by its affiliate in Bukovina, the Social Democratic Party of Bukovina.
Zionist-Socialist Workers Party, often referred to simply as Zionist-Socialists or S.S. by their Russian initials, was a Jewish socialist territorialist political party in the Russian Empire and Poland, that emerged from the Vozrozhdenie (Renaissance) group in 1904. The party held its founding conference in Odessa in 1905.
The Ukrainian Social Democratic Labour Party was the leading party of the Ukrainian People's Republic and was also known as SDPists or Esdeky. The party was reformed in 1905 at the Second Congress of the RUP and was pursuing the Marxist ideology. The leaders of the Ukrainian Social Democratic Party were Volodymyr Vynnychenko, Symon Petliura, Mykola Porsh, Dmytro Antonovych, Lev Yurkevych, Mykhailo Tkachenko, M. Kovalsky.
The Jewish Social Democratic Workers Association "Zukunft" was a Bundist organization in Stockholm, Sweden. The association was founded in 1902. It was affiliated to the General Jewish Labour Bund via its Foreign Committee in Geneva. C. Zeitel was the secretary of the association.
The General Jewish Labour Bund in Romania was a Jewish socialist party in Romania, adhering to the political line of the General Jewish Labour Bund. Founded in 1922, shortly after the establishment of Greater Romania, it united Jewish socialists in Bukovina, Bessarabia and the Romanian Old Kingdom. Standing for the lay wing of the Jewish representative movement, the Romanian Bund had atheistic leanings and offered an alternative to the mainstream Jewish organization. Like other Bundist groups, but unlike the Marxist-inspired Poale Zion bodies of Bessarabia, it rejected Zionism.
Sara Szweber was one of the leaders of the Bund and a trade unionist in the Russian Empire, the Second Polish Republic and later in the United States. She was one of the few women that held leadership positions in the Jewish socialist and trade union movements of the late 19th and early 20th century.
The General Jewish Labour Bund in Latvia was a Jewish socialist party in Latvia, adhering to the political line of the General Jewish Labour Bund and existed from 1900 until 1940, when it was banned shortly after the Soviet occupation of Latvia in 1940.
The General Jewish Labour Bund in Poland was a Jewish socialist party in Poland which promoted the political, cultural and social autonomy of Jewish workers, sought to combat antisemitism and was generally opposed to Zionism.
Der arbeyter was a Yiddish-language newspaper, issued by the Polish Socialist Party (PPS). The newspaper was launched in 1898, named after a Galician Jewish social democratic publication by the same name. Der arbeyter was initially published from London.
Arkadi Kremer was a Russian socialist leader known as the 'Father of the Bund'. This organisation was instrumental in the development of Russian Marxism, the Jewish labour movement and Jewish nationalism.
Pati Kremer (1867–1943) was a Russian revolutionary socialist and pioneer of the General Jewish Workers' Union in Lithuania, Poland and Russia (Bund). She was the wife of Arkadi Kremer.
Bundism was a secular Jewish socialist movement, whose organizational manifestation was the General Jewish Labour Bund in Lithuania, Poland and Russia, founded in the Russian Empire in 1897.
Vorwärts ('Forward') was a German-language socialist daily newspaper published from Czernowitz/Cernăuți, Bukovina. The newspaper was founded in 1899 with the name Volkspresse. During its initial phase, Volkspresse was published twice-monthly. Volkspresse was an organ of the Social Democratic Workers Party of Austria and the trade union movement. The newspaper was largely representative of the Jewish labour movement of the town.
Anna Rozental was a Bundist activist in the Russian Empire and later Soviet Russia. Her Vilna apartment served as a site of refuge for Bundists fleeing the German occupation elsewhere.
The 2nd Congress of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party was held during July 30–August 23 1903, starting in Brussels, Belgium and ending in London. Probably as a result of diplomatic pressure from the Russian Embassy, Belgian police had forced the delegates to leave the country. The congress finalized the creation of the Marxist party in Russia proclaimed at the 1st Congress of the RSDLP.
The General Jewish Labour Bund in Lithuania, Poland and Russia, generally called The Bund or the Jewish Labour Bund, was a secular Jewish socialist party in the Russian Empire, active between 1897 and 1920. In 1917 the Polish part of the Bund, which dated to the times when Poland was a Russian territory, seceded from the Russian Bund and created a new Polish General Labor Bund which continued to operate in Poland in the years between the two world wars. The Russian Bund was dissolved in 1920 and incorporated into the Communist Party. Other remnants of the Bund endured in various countries. A member of the Bund was called a Bundist.