List of Roman aqueducts by date

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This is a list of aqueducts in the city of Rome listed in chronological order of their construction.

Contents

Ancient Rome

NameBuiltWater sourceLength
Aqua Appia 312 BCEsprings 10 miles (16 km) to the east of Rome10 miles (16 km); underground from its source for 7 miles (11 km), then on arches for 3 miles (4.8 km) to its terminus in the Forum Boarium in Campus Martius
Aqua Anio Vetus 272–269 BCE Aniene river near Vicovaro, east of Rome40 miles (64 km); underground channel of stone from its source to its terminus on the Viminal Hill
Aqua Marcia 144–140 BCEsprings near Subiaco, east of Rome56 miles (90 km); underground for 50 miles (80 km) from its source, then on arches for 6 miles (9.7 km) to its terminus on the Capitoline Hill; later piped to the baths of Caracalla on the Caelian Hill, then to the Aventine Hill and the Quirinal Hill
Aqua Tepula 125 BCEsprings near Subiaco, east of Rome11 miles (18 km); underground for 5 miles (8.0 km) from its source, then on the same arches as those of the Aqua Marcia for 6 miles (9.7 km) to its terminus on the Aventine Hill
Aqua Julia 33 BCEsprings near Subiaco, east of Rome14 miles (23 km); underground for 7 miles (11 km) from its source, then on the same arches as those of the Aqua Marcia and Aqua Tepula to its terminus on the Aventine Hill
Aqua Virgo 19 BCEsprings near Via Collatina, east of Rome14 miles (23 km); underground for 7 miles (11 km) from its source, then on arches for 7 miles (11 km) to its terminus at the baths of Agrippa in Campus Martius
Aqua Alsietina 2 BCELake Alsietina, now Lake Martignano, northwest of Rome14 miles (23 km); underground for 1334 miles from its source, then on arches for 1/4-mile to its terminus at the Naumachia of Augustus in Transtiberim (Trastevere)
Aqua Claudia AD 52springs in Subiaco, east of Rome43 miles (69 km); underground for 34 miles (55 km) from its source, then on arches for 9 miles (14 km) to its terminus on the Caelian Hill; later piped to the imperial palaces from the mid-first century on the Palatine Hill
Aqua Anio Novus AD 52 Aniene river, east of Rome54 miles (87 km); underground for 46 miles (74 km) from its source, then on arches for 8 miles (13 km), entering Rome at Porta Maggiore, atop the channel of Aqua Claudia to its terminus on the Caelian Hill
Aqua Traiana AD 109springs to the north of Lake Bracciano, northwest of Rome35 miles (56 km); underground for 29 miles (47 km) from its source, then on arches for 6 miles (9.7 km) to its terminus on the Janiculum Hill
Aqua Alexandrina AD 226the Pantano springs near Via Prenestina, east of Rome14 miles (23 km); underground for 4 miles (6.4 km) from its source, then on arches for 10 miles (16 km) to its terminus at the baths of Alexander Severus in Campus Martius

Modern Rome

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Aqua Appia

The Aqua Appia was the first Roman aqueduct, constructed in 312 BC by the co-censors Gaius Plautius Venox and Appius Claudius Caecus, the same Roman censor who also built the important Via Appia.

Aqua Virgo

The Aqua Virgo was one of the eleven Roman aqueducts that supplied the city of ancient Rome. The aqueduct fell into disuse with the fall of the Western Roman Empire, but was fully restored nearly a millennium later during the Italian Renaissance to take its current form as the Acqua Vergine. The Aqua Virgo was completed in 19 BC by Marcus Agrippa, during the reign of the emperor Augustus. Its source is just before the 8th milestone north of the Via Collatina, in a marshy area about 3 km from the Via Praenestina. It was also supplemented by several feeder channels along its course. The name is thought to be derived from the purity and clarity of the water because it does not chalk significantly. According to a legend repeated by Frontinus, thirsty Roman soldiers asked a young girl for water who directed them to the springs that later supplied the aqueduct; Aqua Virgo was named after her.

Acqua Vergine

Acqua Vergine is one of several Roman aqueducts that deliver pure drinking water to Rome. Its name derives from its predecessor Aqua Virgo, which was constructed by Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa in 19 BC. Its terminal castellum is located at the Baths of Agrippa, and it served the vicinity of Campus Martius through its various conduits. In an effort to restore fresh water to Rome during the Renaissance, Pope Nicholas V, in 1453, renovated the main channels of the Aqua Virgo and added numerous secondary conduits under Campo Marzio. The original terminus, called a mostra, which means showpiece, was the stately, dignified wall fountain designed by Leon Battista Alberti in Piazza dei Crociferi. Due to several additions and modifications to the end-most points of the conduits during the years that followed, during the Renaissance and Baroque periods, the Acqua Vergine culminated in several magnificent mostre - the Trevi Fountain and the fountains of Piazza del Popolo.

Roman aqueduct

The Romans constructed aqueducts throughout their Republic and later Empire, to bring water from outside sources into cities and towns. Aqueduct water supplied public baths, latrines, fountains, and private households; it also supported mining operations, milling, farms, and gardens.

Aqua Anio Novus Roman aqueduct

Aqua Anio Novus was an ancient Roman aqueduct. Like the Aqua Claudia, it was begun by emperor Caligula in 38 AD and completed in 52 AD by Claudius, who dedicated them both on August 1. Together with the Aqua Anio Vetus, Aqua Marcia and Aqua Claudia, it is regarded as one of the "four great aqueducts of Rome."

The Aqua Julia or Aqua Iulia is a Roman aqueduct built in 33 BC by Agrippa. It was repaired and expanded by Augustus from 11–4 BC.

Acqua Felice

The Acqua Felice is one of the aqueducts of Rome, completed in 1586 by Pope Sixtus V, whose birth name, which he never fully abandoned, was Felice Peretti. The first new aqueduct of early modern Rome, its source is at the springs at Pantano Borghese, off Via Casilina. Its length is fifteen miles (24 km), running underground for eight miles (13 km) from its source, first in the channel of Aqua Alexandrina, then alternating on the arches of the Aqua Claudia and the Aqua Marcia for seven miles (11 km) to its terminus at the Fontana dell'Acqua Felice on the Quirinal Hill, standing to one side of the Strada Pia, so as to form a piazza in this still new part of Rome. The engineer was Giovanni Fontana, brother of Sixtus' engineer-architect Domenico Fontana, who recorded that the very day the new pope entered the Lateran, he decided that he would bring water once again to the hills of Rome, which had remained waterless and sparsely inhabited, largely by monasteries, since the Roman aqueducts had been destroyed in the sixth century. From the source, which Sixtus purchased, there was only a very small fall, and the work required an underground conduit as well as an aqueduct carried on arches.

Fontana di Piazza Nicosia

The Fontana di Piazza Nicosia is a fountain in Rome, Italy, is the first of the modern fountains of Rome. It is located in the square with the same name.

Aqua Traiana

The Aqua Traiana was a 1st-century Roman aqueduct built by Emperor Trajan and inaugurated on 24 June 109 AD. It channelled water from sources around Lake Bracciano, 40 kilometers (25 mi) north-west of Rome, to Rome in ancient Roman times but had fallen into disuse by the 17th century. It fed a number of water mills on the Janiculum, including a sophisticated mill complex revealed by excavations in the 1990s under the present American Academy in Rome. Some of the Janiculum mills were famously put out of action by the Ostrogoths when they cut the aqueduct in 537 during the first siege of Rome. Belisarius restored the supply of grain by using mills floating in the Tiber. The complex of mills bears parallels with a similar complex at Barbegal in southern Gaul.

The Acqua Pia Antica Marcia or Aqua Pia was an aqueduct in Rome. It was first built as a restoration of the classical Aqua Marcia by Luigi Canina, commissioned by Pope Pius IX. Its city terminus was the "Fountain of the Naiads" in the Piazza Esedra.

Aqua Alsietina

In Ancient Rome, the Aqua Alsietina was the earlier of the two western Roman aqueducts, erected somewhere around 2BC, during the reign of emperor Augustus. It was the only water supply for the Transtiberine region.

De aquaeductu is a two-book official report given to the emperor Nerva or Trajan on the state of the aqueducts of Rome, and was written by Julius Sextus Frontinus at the end of the 1st century AD. It is also known as De Aquis or De Aqueductibus Urbis Romae. It is the earliest official report of an investigation made by a distinguished citizen on Roman engineering works to have survived. Frontinus had been appointed Water Commissioner by the emperor Nerva in AD 96.

Aqua Alexandrina Roman aqueduct in the city of Rome

The Aqua Alexandrina was a Roman aqueduct located in the city of Rome. The 22.4 km long aqueduct carried water from Pantano Borghese to the Baths of Alexander on the Campus Martius. It remained in use from the 3rd to the 8th century AD.

Aqua Marcia

The Aqua Marcia is one of the longest of the eleven aqueducts that supplied the city of Rome. The aqueduct was built between 144–140 BC, during the Roman Republic. The still-functioning Acqua Felice from 1586 runs on long stretches along the route of the Aqua Marcia.

Fontana dellAcqua Felice

The Fontana dell'Acqua Felice, also called the Fountain of Moses, is a monumental fountain located in the Quirinale District of Rome, Italy. It marked the terminus of the Acqua Felice aqueduct restored by Pope Sixtus V. It was designed by Domenico Fontana and built in 1585-88.

Fontana del Nettuno, Piazza del Popolo

The Fontana del Nettuno is a monumental fountain located in the Piazza del Popolo in Rome. It was constructed in the 1822-23 at the terminus of a newly built aqueduct, the Acqua Vergine Nuovo. The fountains in the Piazza del Popolo were the work of Giovanni Ceccarini. The Fontana del Nettuno is located on the west side of the square, and shows Neptune with his Trident, accompanied by two Tritons.

Fontana dellAcqua Paola

The Fontana dell'Acqua Paola also known as Il Fontanone is a monumental fountain located on the Janiculum Hill, near the church of San Pietro in Montorio, in Rome, Italy. It was built in 1612 to mark the end of the Acqua Paola aqueduct, restored by Pope Paul V, and took its name from him. It was the first major fountain on the right bank of the River Tiber.

Fountain in Piazza Santa Maria in Trastevere

The Fountain in Piazza Santa Maria in Trastevere is a fountain located in the square in front of the church of Santa Maria in Trastevere, Rome, Italy. It is believed to be the oldest fountain in Rome, dating back, according to some sources, to the 8th century. The present fountain is the work of Donato Bramante, with later additions by Gian Lorenzo Bernini and Carlo Fontana.

Acqua may refer to:

References

  1. Bizzotto, Prof. Arch. Renata (Editor) & Mancuso, (With the cooperation of). "The post-unification aqueducts". www.architettiroma.it (in Italian).CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  2. Bizzotto, Prof. Arch. Renata (Editor) & Mancuso, (With the cooperation of). "The post-unification aqueducts". www.architettiroma.it (in Italian).CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)

Sources