List of aqueducts in the city of Rome

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This article lists ancient Roman aqueducts in the city of Rome.

Contents

The eleven ancient aqueducts of Rome Aquae planrome.PNG
The eleven ancient aqueducts of Rome
Route of the aqueducts outside of Rome Aquae planlatium.jpg
Route of the aqueducts outside of Rome

Introduction

In order to meet the massive water needs of its huge population, the city of Rome was eventually supplied with 11 aqueducts by 226 AD. Their combined capacity was capable of supplying at least 1,127,000 cubic metres (nearly 300 million gallons)[ citation needed ] of water to the city each day mostly from the Anio and the Apennine Mountains, serving a million citizens. Detailed statistics[ citation needed ] for the city's aqueducts were logged around 97 AD by Sextus Julius Frontinus, the curator aquarum (superintendent of the aqueducts) for Rome during the reign of Nerva. Less information is known about aqueducts built after Frontinus.

These estimates may not have considered water loss. Modern engineers have questioned the validity of these figures and measured Anio Novus limestone deposits to estimate the average wetted perimeter and surface roughness corresponding to only 2/3 of the flow figure given below. [1]

Table

Aqueducts in Rome
NameYear begunYear completedLength
(km)
Height at
source (m)
Height in
Rome (m)
Average gradient
(%)
Capacity
(m³ a day)[ citation needed ]
Aqua Appia 312 BC16.530200.0673,000
Aqua Anio Vetus 272 BC269 BC64280480.36176,000
Aqua Marcia 144 BC140 BC91318590.28188,000
Aqua Tepula 125 BC18151610.5118,000
Aqua Julia 33 BC22350641.3248,000
Aqua Virgo 19 BC2124200.02100,000
Aqua Alsietina 2 BC33209170.5916,000
(not drinkable)
Aqua Anio Novus 38 AD52 AD87400700.38189,000
Aqua Claudia 38 AD52 AD69320670.37184,000
Aqua Traiana 109 AD33---
Aqua Alexandrina 226 AD22-50-120,000 to 320,000

See also

Related Research Articles

Sextus Julius Frontinus was a prominent Roman civil engineer, author, soldier and senator of the late 1st century AD. He was a successful general under Domitian, commanding forces in Roman Britain, and on the Rhine and Danube frontiers. A novus homo, he was consul three times. Frontinus ably discharged several important administrative duties for Nerva and Trajan. However, he is best known to the post-Classical world as an author of technical treatises, especially De aquaeductu, dealing with the aqueducts of Rome.

Cloaca Maxima One of the worlds earliest sewage systems

The Cloaca Maxima was one of the world's earliest sewage systems. Built during either the Roman Kingdom or early Roman Republic, it was constructed in Ancient Rome in order to drain local marshes and remove waste from the city. It carried effluent to the River Tiber, which ran beside the city.

Aniene

The Aniene, formerly known as the Teverone, is a 99-kilometer (62 mi) river in Lazio, Italy. It originates in the Apennines at Trevi nel Lazio and flows westward past Subiaco, Vicovaro, and Tivoli to join the Tiber in northern Rome. It formed the principal valley east of ancient Rome and became an important water source as the city's population expanded. The falls at Tivoli were noted for their beauty. Historic bridges across the river include the Ponte Nomentano, Ponte Mammolo, Ponte Salario, and Ponte di San Francesco, all of which were originally fortified with towers.

Ancient Roman engineering

The ancient Romans were famous for their advanced engineering accomplishments. Technology for bringing running water into cities was developed in the east, but transformed by the Romans into a technology inconceivable in Greece. The architecture used in Rome was strongly influenced by Greek and Etruscan sources.

Aqua Appia

The Aqua Appia was the first Roman aqueduct, constructed in 312 BC by the co-censors Gaius Plautius Venox and Appius Claudius Caecus, the same Roman censor who also built the important Via Appia.

Aqua Virgo

The Aqua Virgo was one of the eleven Roman aqueducts that supplied the city of ancient Rome. It was completed in 19 BC by Marcus Agrippa, during the reign of the emperor Augustus and was built mainly to supply the contemporaneous Baths of Agrippa in the Campus Martius.

Aqua Augusta (Naples) Aqueduct

The Aqua Augusta, or Serino Aqueduct, was one of the largest, most complex and costliest aqueduct systems in the Roman world; it supplied water to at least eight ancient cities in the Bay of Naples including Pompeii and Herculaneum. This aqueduct was unlike any other of its time, being a regional network rather than being focussed on one urban centre.

Roman aqueduct Type of aqueduct built in ancient Rome

The Romans constructed aqueducts throughout their Republic and later Empire, to bring water from outside sources into cities and towns. Aqueduct water supplied public baths, latrines, fountains, and private households; it also supported mining operations, milling, farms, and gardens.

Aqua Anio Novus Roman aqueduct

Aqua Anio Novus was an ancient Roman aqueduct. Like the Aqua Claudia, it was begun by emperor Caligula in 38 AD and completed in 52 AD by Claudius, who dedicated them both on August 1. Together with the Aqua Anio Vetus, Aqua Marcia and Aqua Claudia, it is regarded as one of the "four great aqueducts of Rome."

Aqua Claudia aqueduct designed to supply water to the city of Rome, built at the time of the Emperor Claudius

Aqua Claudia, was an ancient Roman aqueduct that, like the Aqua Anio Novus, was begun by Emperor Caligula in 38 AD and finished by Emperor Claudius in 52 AD.

Sanitation in ancient Rome, acquired from the Etruscans, was well advanced compared to other ancient cities and was providing water supply and sanitation services to residents of Rome. Although there were many sewers, public latrines, baths and other sanitation infrastructure, disease was still rampant. The baths are known to symbolise the "great hygiene of Rome". Although the baths may have made the Romans smell good, they were a cesspool of waterborne diseases.

Aqua Julia

The Aqua Julia is a Roman aqueduct built in 33 BC by Agrippa under Augustus to supply the city of Rome. It was repaired and expanded by Augustus from 11–4 BC.

Aqua Tepula

The Aqua Tepula is an ancient Roman aqueduct completed in 125 BC by censors Gnaeus Servilius Caepio and L. Cassius Longinus.

De aquaeductu is a two-book official report given to the emperor Nerva or Trajan on the state of the aqueducts of Rome, and was written by Julius Sextus Frontinus at the end of the 1st century AD. It is also known as De Aquis or De Aqueductibus Urbis Romae. It is the earliest official report of an investigation made by a distinguished citizen on Roman engineering works to have survived. Frontinus had been appointed Water Commissioner by the emperor Nerva in AD 96.

Aqua Marcia Ancient Roman aqueduct, built 144–140 BC

The Aqua Marcia is one of the longest of the eleven aqueducts that supplied the city of Rome. The aqueduct was built between 144–140 BC, during the Roman Republic. The still-functioning Acqua Felice from 1586 runs on long stretches along the route of the Aqua Marcia.

Aqueduct (water supply) Structure constructed to convey water

An aqueduct is a watercourse constructed to carry water from a source to a distribution point far away. In modern engineering, the term aqueduct is used for any system of pipes, ditches, canals, tunnels, and other structures used for this purpose. The term aqueduct also often refers specifically to a bridge carrying an artificial watercourse. Aqueducts were used in ancient Greece, ancient Egypt, and ancient Rome. In modern times, the largest aqueducts of all have been built in the United States to supply large cities. The simplest aqueducts are small ditches cut into the earth. Much larger channels may be used in modern aqueducts. Aqueducts sometimes run for some or all of their path through tunnels constructed underground. Modern aqueducts may also use pipelines. Historically, agricultural societies have constructed aqueducts to irrigate crops and supply large cities with drinking water.

Aqueduct (bridge) Structure constructed to convey water

Aqueducts or water bridges are bridges constructed to convey watercourses across gaps such as valleys or ravines. The term aqueduct may also be used to refer to the entire watercourse, as well as the bridge. Large navigable aqueducts are used as transport links for boats or ships. Aqueducts must span a crossing at the same level as the watercourses on each end. The word is derived from the Latin aqua ("water") and ducere, therefore meaning "to lead water". A modern version of an aqueduct is a pipeline bridge. They may take the form of tunnels, networks of surface channels and canals, covered clay pipes or monumental bridges.

Aqua Crabra

Aqua Crabra refers to a Roman aqueduct supplying villas in the hinterland of the ancient town of Tusculum.

Quintus Marcius Rex (praetor 144 BC)

Quintus Marcius Rex was a Roman politician of the Marcii Reges, a patrician family of gens Marcia, who claimed royal descent from the Roman King Ancus Marcius. He was a paternal great-grandfather of Julius Caesar.

Aqua Anio Vetus

The Aqua Anio Vetus was an ancient Roman aqueduct, and the second oldest after the Aqua Appia. It was commissioned in 272 BC and funded by treasures seized after the victory against Pyrrhus of Epirus. Two magistrates were appointed by the Senate, the censors Manius Curius Dentatus who died five days after the assignment, and Flavius Flaccus. The aqueduct acquired the nickname of "old" (vetus) only when the Anio Novus was built almost three centuries later.

References

  1. Sturgeon, Clair; Shidlauski, Kristina (2015). "Illinois team solves ancient Roman water supply mystery". CEE. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Fall 2015: 24.