This article lists ancient Roman aqueducts in the city of Rome.
In order to meet the massive water needs of its huge population, the city of Rome was eventually supplied with 11 aqueducts by 226 AD. Their combined capacity was capable of supplying at least 1,127,000 cubic metres (nearly 300 million gallons)[ citation needed ] of water to the city each day mostly from the Anio and the Apennine Mountains, serving a million citizens. Detailed statistics[ citation needed ] for the city's aqueducts were logged around 97 AD by Sextus Julius Frontinus, the curator aquarum (superintendent of the aqueducts) for Rome during the reign of Nerva. Less information is known about aqueducts built after Frontinus.
These estimates may not have considered water loss. Modern engineers have questioned the validity of these figures and measured Anio Novus limestone deposits to estimate the average wetted perimeter and surface roughness corresponding to only 2/3 of the flow figure given below.
|Name||Year begun||Year completed||Length|
(m³ a day)[ citation needed ]
|Aqua Appia||312 BC||16.5||30||20||0.06||73,000|
|Aqua Anio Vetus||272 BC||269 BC||64||280||48||0.36||176,000|
|Aqua Marcia||144 BC||140 BC||91||318||59||0.28||188,000|
|Aqua Tepula||125 BC||18||151||61||0.51||18,000|
|Aqua Julia||33 BC||22||350||64||1.32||48,000|
|Aqua Virgo||19 BC||21||24||20||0.02||100,000|
|Aqua Alsietina||2 BC||33||209||17||0.59||16,000|
|Aqua Anio Novus||38 AD||52 AD||87||400||70||0.38||189,000|
|Aqua Claudia||38 AD||52 AD||69||320||67||0.37||184,000|
|Aqua Traiana||109 AD||33||-||-||-|
|Aqua Alexandrina||226 AD||22||-||50||-||120,000 to 320,000|
Sextus Julius Frontinus was a prominent Roman civil engineer, author, soldier and senator of the late 1st century AD. He was a successful general under Domitian, commanding forces in Roman Britain, and on the Rhine and Danube frontiers. A novus homo, he was consul three times. Frontinus ably discharged several important administrative duties for Nerva and Trajan. However, he is best known to the post-Classical world as an author of technical treatises, especially De aquaeductu, dealing with the aqueducts of Rome.
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The ancient Romans were famous for their advanced engineering accomplishments. Technology for bringing running water into cities was developed in the east, but transformed by the Romans into a technology inconceivable in Greece. The architecture used in Rome was strongly influenced by Greek and Etruscan sources.
The Aqua Appia was the first Roman aqueduct, constructed in 312 BC by the co-censors Gaius Plautius Venox and Appius Claudius Caecus, the same Roman censor who also built the important Via Appia.
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Aqua Anio Novus was an ancient Roman aqueduct. Like the Aqua Claudia, it was begun by emperor Caligula in 38 AD and completed in 52 AD by Claudius, who dedicated them both on August 1. Together with the Aqua Anio Vetus, Aqua Marcia and Aqua Claudia, it is regarded as one of the "four great aqueducts of Rome."
Aqua Claudia, was an ancient Roman aqueduct that, like the Aqua Anio Novus, was begun by Emperor Caligula in 38 AD and finished by Emperor Claudius in 52 AD.
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The Aqua Julia is a Roman aqueduct built in 33 BC by Agrippa under Augustus to supply the city of Rome. It was repaired and expanded by Augustus from 11–4 BC.
The Aqua Tepula is an ancient Roman aqueduct completed in 125 BC by censors Gnaeus Servilius Caepio and L. Cassius Longinus.
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The Aqua Anio Vetus was an ancient Roman aqueduct, and the second oldest after the Aqua Appia. It was commissioned in 272 BC and funded by treasures seized after the victory against Pyrrhus of Epirus. Two magistrates were appointed by the Senate, the censors Manius Curius Dentatus who died five days after the assignment, and Flavius Flaccus. The aqueduct acquired the nickname of "old" (vetus) only when the Anio Novus was built almost three centuries later.