List of college athletics championship game outcomes

Last updated

The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), founded in 1906, is the major governing body for intercollegiate athletics in the United States and currently conducts national championships in its sponsored sports, except for the top level of football. Before the NCAA offered a championship for any particular sport, intercollegiate national championships in that sport were determined independently. Although the NCAA sometimes lists these historic championships in its official records, it has not awarded retroactive championship titles.


Prior to NCAA inception of a sport, intercollegiate championships were conducted and usually espoused in advance as competitions for the national championship. Many winners were recognized in contemporary newspapers and other publications as the "national intercollegiate" champions. These are not to be confused with the champions of early 20th-century single-sport alliances of northeastern U.S. colleges that were named "Intercollegiate League" or "Intercollegiate Association." These leagues generally included some of the colleges that later became the Ivy League, as well as an assortment of other northeastern universities.

Even after the NCAA began organizing national championships, some non-NCAA organizations conducted their own national championship tournaments, usually as a supplement to the NCAA events. A notable example is that of NCAA Division III men's volleyball. Although the NCAA Men's National Collegiate Volleyball Championship, established in 1970, was in theory open to D-III schools, none had received a berth in that tournament. As a result, a separate championship event, open only to D-III schools, was created in 1997. That event was discontinued after its 2011 edition once the NCAA announced it would sponsor an official Division III championship starting in 2012.

The historical championship event outcomes included in the primary list section were decided by actual games organized for the purpose of determining a champion on the field of play. Lists of other championships for collegiate athletic organizations are referenced in later sections (see Table of Contents). It does not include Helms Athletic Foundation or Premo-Porretta Power Poll selections, which were awarded retrospectively. [1] [2]

Championship game outcomes prior/concurrent to NCAA inception

Men's teams


  • 1893 Yale def. Amherst, 9-0
Tournament was played at the Chicago World's Fair and included Virginia, Illinois, Wisconsin, Vanderbilt, Yale, Amherst, Wesleyan and Vermont. [3] William McKinley attended the opening game. [4] It was organized by the Columbian National Inter-Collegiate Baseball Association, notably by its secretary, Amos Alonzo Stagg, then the new head football coach at the University of Chicago. [5]

NCAA from 1947.


  • 1904 Hiram College won the 1904 Olympic Games collegiate championship tournament, def. Wheaton College, 25-20, and Latter-Day Saints University (later, Brigham Young University), 25-18. [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11]
  • 1908 Chicago def. Pennsylvania, 2 games to 0 (21-18, 16-15) [12] [13]
  • Amateur Athletic Union annual United States championship – College teams were runners-up in 1915, 1917, 1920, 1921, 1932, and 1934. Four college teams won the championship (final game results): [14]
  • 1916 Utah def. Illinois Athletic Club, 28-27
  • 1920 New York University def. Rutgers, 49-24
  • 1924 Butler (Indiana) def. Kansas City Athletic Club, 30-26
  • 1925 Washburn College (Kansas) def. Hillyard Shine Alls, 42-30

NCAA from 1939.

  • 1954 Holy Cross claims a national championship for its 1954 NIT victory. [34]
  • 1943 Wyoming, winner of NCAA tournament, def. NIT champion, St. John's, 52-47 (OT)
  • 1944 Utah, winner of NCAA tournament, def. NIT champion, St. John's, 43-36
  • 1945 Oklahoma A&M, winner of NCAA tournament, def. NIT champion, DePaul, 52-44


NCAA from 1932–1960. [48]

Cross country

Inter-Collegiate Cross Country Association (1899–1907)
Inter-Collegiate Association of Amateur Athletes of America (1908–37) [49] [50] [51]

NCAA from 1938.


Intercollegiate Fencing Association (1894–1943)

Team Foils

Three-Weapon Championship

† The first IFA three-weapon trophy was awarded in 1923. However, all three weapons (foil, épée, saber) were contested in the IFA tournament as early as 1920. [55]

NCAA 1941–42 and from 1947.


The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) has never conducted a national championship event at the highest level of college football, currently its Division I Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS). Neither has the NCAA ever officially endorsed an FBS national champion. Since 1978, it has held a championship playoff at the next lower level of college play. Prior to 1978, no divisions separated teams, and champions were independently designated by "selectors," composed of individuals and third-party organizations using experts, polls, and mathematical methods. [95] These efforts have continued and thrived for the higher FBS level. From the beginning, the selectors' choices have frequently been at odds with each other. [96] The NCAA has documented both contemporaneous and retroactive choices of several major national selectors in its official NCAA Football Records Book. [95] These selections are often claimed as championships by individual schools.



See Pre-NCAA college golf champions

NCAA from 1939.


  • 1899 No team title. Yale gymnasts won 4 out of 6 individual events, shared a tie for victory in one event and also won the individual all-around. 19 schools participated. [97]
  • 1900 Columbia def. 2nd place Yale, 26 - 17 [98]
  • 1901 Yale def. 2nd place Columbia, 20 - 14 [99]
  • 1902 Yale def. 2nd-place Columbia, 16 - 15 [100]
In 1903, the Western Conference instituted an annual conference championship meet. [101] Although early interest was expressed by the Intercollegiate Association in establishing a recognized national championship event with the Western Conference, [102] that interest did not reach fruition. In later years, the University of Chicago, a perennial Western Conference power, participated in several of the annual championship meets of the Intercollegiate Association.
  • 1917 Chicago def. 2nd-place Haverford, 14½ - 10 [103] [104] [105]
  • 1918 not held
  • 1919 not held
  • 1925 Navy def. Chicago, 33 - 12, in a dual meet between winners of the Intercollegiate and Western Conference championship meets. [106]
"[I]n the twenty year period from 1910 to (the end of 1929) ... Navy has participated in 91 tournaments and dual meets and won 87 of them, including all seven of the intercollegiate championship events entered." [107] (Those seven events were conference, not national, championships.) Navy was so strong that the Intercollegiate Association asked Navy not to participate in the 1926 championship meet. [108] Navy was not a participant in the 1926, 1927 and 1928 meets.
  • 1944 Penn State won the National AAU team title during a five-year hiatus in the NCAA championships for World War II. [109]

NCAA from 1938.

Ice hockey

  • Amateur Athletic Union conducted annual National Ice Hockey Championships during 1931–1948, except during most of the World War II years. [110] College teams won the championship on at least two occasions:
  • 1940 Minnesota [111] def. Amesbury, 9-4, and Brock-Hall, 9-1 [112] [113]
  • 1942 Boston College [114] def. High Standard H.C., 3-2, Massena H.C., 9-8, and defending champion St. Nicholas H.C., 6-4 [115]

NCAA from 1948.


  • 1881 Harvard def. Princeton, 3-0
The first intercollegiate lacrosse tournament was held in 1881 with Harvard beating Princeton in the championship game. New York University and Columbia University also participated. From 1882 through 1970 (excepting 1932–1935), the United States Intercollegiate Lacrosse Association and the collegiate lacrosse associations from which it evolved chose annual champions based on season records. These associations were the ILA (1882-1905), IULL (1899-1905), USILL (1906-1925) and USILA (1926-1970). [116] [117] In 1912 and 1921, the USILL conducted championship games between the winners of its Northern and Southern Divisions. Efforts to conduct such games in other years during its existence were unsuccessful. [116]
  • 1912 Harvard def. Swarthmore, 7-3
  • 1921 Lehigh def. Syracuse, 3-1

NCAA from 1971.


National Rifle Association [118]

National Indoor Intercollegiate Match


Men/Coed (year of conversion to Coed undetermined)

In the contemporary press, the type of competition utilized for this match was referred to as "shoulder-to-shoulder." This distinguished it from the "telegraphic" or "postal" form of competition.

NCAA from 1980.

* The Intercollegiate Rifle Team Trophy was presented to the NRA by the Sons of the American Revolution in 1928, when it was first awarded for annual rifle competition. [118]
† NRA document [118] states that there was no competition in 1946.
NRA Intercollegiate League


Competition was held in telegraphic form using the indoor ranges of each competing school.

1908 – ?

The indoor intercollegiate match was a single annual indoor match open to teams of any college. It was held in telegraphic form using the indoor ranges of each competing school.

National Outdoor Intercollegiate Match

1905 – ?

Matches were initially held at Sea Girt, New Jersey; after several years Camp Perry, Ohio, became the perennial venue.

(This competition is not to be confused with the National ROTC outdoor rifle team championship for the William Randolph Hearst Team Trophy (first awarded circa 1922 [159] ), which was not open to all students.)



Beginning in 1921, an intercollegiate winter sports championship was held annually at Lake Placid, New York, and involved colleges from the US and Canada. It combined events from downhill and slalom skiing, cross-country skiing and ski jumping, as well as speed skating, figure skating and snowshoeing in some years. The overall winning team received the President Harding Trophy. Prior to the 1940s, in end-of-year accounts of national sporting champions, major newspapers regarded the winning team at Lake Placid as intercollegiate champion.

In the late 1930s, a major annual "four-way" (downhill, slalom, jumping and cross-country) intercollegiate event began in Sun Valley, Idaho. [173] [174] From the start it attracted not only college teams from the West, but also strong teams that traditionally participated in the Lake Placid meet, such as Dartmouth. [175] [176] After interruption by World War II, it usurped the older event.

Newspaper coverage referred to the 1946 and 1947 Sun Valley winners (Utah and Middlebury, respectively) as national champions. [177] A few days earlier than the 1947 Sun Valley meet, a similar skiing competition was held in Aspen, Colorado, overlapping the start date of the Sun Valley event. [178] In 1948 and 1949, Aspen, rather than Sun Valley, hosted the national "four-way" intercollegiate ski championships. [179] [180] [181] [182]

All of these competitions were held in the middle of the ski season rather than at the end. Then in 1950, an official annual post-season national championship event was established. [183] This event served to influence the NCAA to add skiing as a sponsored sport, with the first NCAA title event occurring in 1954. [184]

The Intercollegiate Ski Union (ISU), a conference of schools primarily in the Northeast, also conducted annual championship events for its members. [185] However, its geographic reach was more limited than the other competitions described.

Lake Placid, New York

† curtailed by bad weather (jump and snowshoe race held, last two events cancelled)
‡ lack of snow (cross-country and jump held, downhill and slalom cancelled)
# competition included non-collegians
♦ lack of snow (jump held, other events cancelled)
§ not regarded as national champion; included for completeness

Sun Valley, Idaho

Aspen, Colorado

Post-Season National Championship

  • 1950 Dartmouth (venue: Arapahoe Basin, Colorado) [183] [184]
  • 1951 Denver (venue: Mt. Hood, Oregon) [247] [248] [249]
  • 1952 Denver (venue: Snow Basin, Utah) [250]
  • 1953 Washington State (venue: Snow Basin, Utah) [251] [252]

NCAA from 1954.


During the periods 1926–35 and 1946–58, annual champions were selected by collegiate soccer associations based on regular season records. All are considered unofficial. For the period of 1936–45, each year's outstanding teams claim unofficial national championships. See also Intercollegiate Soccer Football Association.

The Soccer Bowl [253] (played in 1950–52) attempted to settle the national championship on the field for the 1949, 1950 and 1951 seasons. The Soccer Bowl championship games were played in January, 1950; December, 1950; and February, 1952, respectively.

NCAA from 1959.


1883–1945 [254]

See Collegiate individual tennis champions

NCAA from 1946.

Tennis (indoor)

Intercollegiate Tennis Association (1973– )

Track and field (indoor)

Amateur Athletic Union (1918)

Intercollegiate Association of Amateur Athletes of America (1923–64) [255]

  1. 1 2 3 4 In 1943 and 1947, NYU also won the AAU national senior indoor track and field meet. Villanova did so in 1957, as did the University of Pennsylvania in 1918. These are the only occasions that a college team won this open AAU title prior to collegiate sponsorship of the sport by the NCAA. [256] [257]

NCAA from 1965.

Track and field (outdoor)

Intercollegiate Association of Amateur Athletes of America (1876–1920) [50] [259] [260]

* University of Chicago won the 1904 Olympic Games collegiate championship meet, defeating Princeton, Illinois, Michigan State and Colgate. [261]

† A contemporary source [262] states, as part of an "international athletic games" (similar to the Olympics) in Chicago on June 28—July 6, 1913, "The national intercollegiate track and field meet was won by the University of Michigan," with Southern California second and Chicago third.

NCAA from 1921.


Until 1969, men's trampoline was one of the events that comprised the NCAA gymnastics championships. At that time, the event was removed in order to conform to the international gymnastics itinerary. The NCAA continued to bestow a national title in trampoline for two years. [263] [264] [265]

  • 1969 Michigan
  • 1970 Michigan

Discontinued after 1970.


United States Volleyball Association (1949–69) [266]

NCAA from 1970.

Molten Division III Men's Invitational Volleyball Championship Tournament (1997–2011)

This was a championship solely for NCAA Division III schools. It was discontinued after its 2011 edition when the NCAA announced it would organize an official Division III championship starting in 2012.

NCAA from 2012.

Water polo

  • 1913 Princeton 3, Illinois 1 [267]

NCAA from 1969.


NCAA from 1928.

Women's teams

AIAW Champions in 16 NCAA Sports

See AIAW Champions for listings of pre-NCAA champions for most of the current NCAA women's sports.


See DGWS/AIAW Basketball Champions (1969–82)

NCAA from 1982.

The Amateur Athletic Union (AAU) has since 1926 conducted United States championship tournaments for women's amateur teams. On 28 occasions, small college teams (all from the central U.S.) have won the AAU women's basketball championship: [271]

  • 1932–33 (2) Oklahoma Presbyterian College [64]
  • 1934–36 (3) Tulsa Business College [66] [67] [68]
  • 1950, 58, 60, 62–69 (11) Nashville Business College
  • 1954–57, 59, 61, 70–71, 74–75 (10) Wayland Baptist College (Texas)
  • 1972–73 (2) John F. Kennedy College (Nebraska)


United States Bowling Congress (formerly American Bowling Congress and Women's Intercollegiate Bowling Congress) [272]

Year and ChampionYear and ChampionYear and ChampionYear and ChampionYear and Champion
1975 Wichita State1984 Indiana State1993 William Paterson (NJ)2002 Morehead State2011 Maryland Eastern Shore
1976 San Jose State1985 West Texas State1994 Wichita State2003 Central Missouri State2012 Webber International
1977 Wichita State1986 Wichita State1995 Nebraska2004 Pikeville (Kentucky)2013 Maryland Eastern Shore
1978 Wichita State1987 West Texas State1996 West Texas State2005 Wichita State2014 Robert Morris-Illinois
1979 Penn State1988 West Texas State1997 Nebraska2006 Lindenwood (Missouri)2015 North Carolina A&T
1980 Erie Community College (NY)1989 Morehead State (Kentucky)1998 Morehead State2007 Wichita State2016 Webber International
1981 Arizona State1990 Wichita State1999 Nebraska2008 Pikeville2017 McKendree (Illinois)
1982 Erie Community College1991 Nebraska2000 Morehead State2009 Wichita State2018 Lindenwood
1983 West Texas State1992 West Texas State2001 Nebraska2010 Webber International (Florida)2019

The NCAA from 2004 has sponsored a women's team championship, apart from the USBC national championships. There were 80 schools in all divisions participating in NCAA bowling as of April, 2018.


Intercollegiate Women's Fencing Association (1929–63)

National Intercollegiate Women's Fencing Association (1964–79) [273]

Until 1974, schools from the states of New York and New Jersey won every foil team title.

YearFoil TeamYearFoil TeamYearFoil Team
1929New York University1946Hunter College1963Fairleigh Dickinson
1930New York University1947Hunter College1964Paterson State College
1931New York University1948Hunter College1965Paterson State College
1932New York University1949New York University1966Paterson State College
1933New York University1950New York University1967Cornell
1934Brooklyn College1951New York University1968Cornell
1935Hunter College1952Hunter College1969Cornell
1936Hunter College1953Hunter College1970Hunter College
1937Hunter College1954Elmira College1971New York University
1938New York University1955Rochester Institute of Technology1972Cornell
1939Hofstra University1956Paterson State College1973Cornell
1940Hunter College1957Rochester Institute of Technology1974California State-Fullerton
1941Brooklyn College1958Paterson State College1975San Jose State
1942Jersey City State College1959Paterson State College1976San Jose State
1943Jersey City State College1960Fairleigh Dickinson1977San Jose State
1944Hunter College1961Paterson State College1978San Jose State
1945Brooklyn College1962Paterson State College1979San Jose State

AIAW 1980–82 (3 years). NCAA 1982–89 (8 years). NCAA (Coed) from 1990.

Ice hockey

American Women's College Hockey Alliance

Year and Champion
1998 New Hampshire
1999 Harvard
2000 Minnesota

NCAA from 2001.


National Rifle Association

Year and ChampionYear and ChampionYear and Champion
192? unknown start date1928 George Washington [274] 1934 Washington [66]
1923 Washington [172] 1929 ?1935 Carnegie Tech [67] [275]
1924 Washington [172] 1930 ?1936 Carnegie Tech [275]
1925 Washington [57] 1931 ?1937 Carnegie Tech [275]
1926 ?1932 Maryland [64] 1938–46?
1947 Penn State [276]
1927 George Washington [274] [277] 1933 Washington [65] 1948–53?
1954 Monmouth (IL) [278]

NCAA (Coed) from 1980.

Pre-NCAA Coed Rifle: see above


The National Women's Rowing Association (NWRA) sponsored an annual open eights national championship from 1971–1979, among college and non-college teams. (There were no eights before 1971.) During this period, only in 1973 and 1975 did a college team win the national eights championship outright. According to US Rowing Association, contemporary news reports in 1976 and 1977 do not mention a national collegiate title. [279] Beginning in 1980, the NWRA sponsored the Women's Collegiate National Championship, including varsity eights. In 1986 the NWRA dissolved after recognizing US Rowing's assuming of responsibility as the national governing body for women's rowing.

NWRA Open National Championship, Eights top college finishers, 1971–1979 (champion in parentheses) :

  • 1971 Washington (first place - Vesper Boat Club)
  • 1972 Washington (first place - College Boat Club)
  • 1973 Radcliffe College (NWRA open champion)
  • 1974 Radcliffe College (first place - Vesper Boat Club)
  • 1975 Wisconsin (NWRA open champion) [280]
  • 1976 Wisconsin (first place - College Boat Club)
  • 1977 Wisconsin (first place - Vesper Boat Club)
  • 1978 Wisconsin (first place - Burnaby Boat Club)
  • 1979 Yale (first place - Burnaby Boat Club) [281]

NWRA / US Rowing Women's Collegiate National Championship, Varsity eights:

Year and ChampionYear and ChampionYear and ChampionYear and Champion
1980 California [282] [283] 1985 Washington1989 Cornell1993 Princeton
1981 Washington1986 Wisconsin1990 Princeton1994 Princeton
1982 Washington *1987 Washington1991 Boston University1995 Princeton
1983 Washington1988 Washington1992 Boston University1996 Brown
1984 Washington

* simultaneous AIAW championship, the only one conducted

Followed by NCAA from 1997 , in which women currently compete in a Varsity 8, a Second Varsity 8, and a Varsity Four.

Beach volleyball

American Volleyball Coaches Association , Collegiate Nationals

2006multi-school pair
2007Nebraska (two-person team)
2008Texas (four pairs per team)
2009USC (four pairs per team)
2010Loyola Marymount (two-person team)
2011multi-school pair
2013Long Beach State

NCAA from 2016.

Tennis (indoor)

Intercollegiate Tennis Association

1991Florida2002Georgia2013North Carolina
1993Stanford2004Stanford2015North Carolina
1996Florida2007Georgia Tech
1997Florida2008Georgia Tech

Track and field (outdoor)

Women's National Collegiate and Scholastic Track Association

Telegraphic meets conducted during specified dates each May

YearChampion [284] :52, 56–58
1923Winthrop College
1925Winthrop College
1926 Humboldt State College

Amateur Athletic Union

The AAU conducted senior women's national track and field championships for all athletes, both indoors and outdoors, beginning in the 1920s. Two college teams won numerous championships in each sport against other clubs from throughout the country.

Tuskegee Institute won the AAU national title 14 times in 1937–1942 and 1944–1951. Tennessee State won national outdoors 13 times in 1955–1960, 1962, 1963, 1965–1967, 1969 and 1978. [284]

Track and field (indoor)

Amateur Athletic Union

Tuskegee Institute won the AAU national indoor championships four times in 1941, 1945, 1946 and 1948. Tennessee State won the national title 14 times in 1956–1960, 1962, 1965–1969 and 1978–1980. [284]

Water polo

USA Water Polo [285]

Year and ChampionYear and ChampionYear and Champion
1984 UC Davis1990 UC San Diego1996 UCLA
1985 Stanford1991 UC San Diego1997 UCLA
1986 UC San Diego1992 UC San Diego1998 UCLA
1987 UC Santa Barbara1993 UC Davis1999 USC
1988 UC Davis1994 UC San Diego2000 UCLA
1989 UC Santa Barbara1995 Slippery Rock (PA)

NCAA from 2001.

Champions of collegiate athletic organizations

NCAA champions

NAIA champions

NJCAA champions

USCAA champions

ACCA champions

Other sports

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ECAC Hockey is one of the six conferences that compete in NCAA Division I ice hockey. The conference used to be affiliated with the Eastern College Athletic Conference, a consortium of over 300 colleges in the eastern United States. This relationship ended in 2004; however, the ECAC abbreviation was retained in the name of the hockey conference. ECAC Hockey is the only ice hockey conference with identical memberships in both its women's and men's divisions.

The Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women was founded in 1971 to govern collegiate women’s athletics and to administer national championships. During its existence, the AIAW and its predecessor, the Division for Girls' and Women's Sports (DGWS), recognized via these championships the teams and individuals who excelled at the highest level of women's collegiate competition.

NCAA Boxing Championship Football league

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NCAA Mens Volleyball Tournament

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Penn State Nittany Lions Intercollegiate sports teams of Penn State University

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South Florida Bulls

The South Florida Bulls are the athletic teams that represent the University of South Florida. USF competes in NCAA Division I and is a member of the American Athletic Conference for all sports besides sailing, which competes in the South Atlantic Intercollegiate Sailing Association within the Inter-Collegiate Sailing Association.

Navy Midshipmen

The Navy Midshipmen are the athletic teams that represent the United States Naval Academy. The academy sponsors 33 varsity sports teams and 12 club sport teams. Both men's and women's teams are called Navy Midshipmen or "Mids". They participate in the NCAA's Division I, as a non-football member of the Patriot League, a football-only member of the American Athletic Conference in the Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS), and a member of the Collegiate Sprint Football League (men), Eastern Association of Rowing Colleges (men), Eastern Association of Women's Rowing Colleges, Eastern Intercollegiate Gymnastics League (men), Mid-Atlantic Squash Conference (men) and Eastern Intercollegiate Wrestling Association. Navy is also one of approximately 300 members of the Eastern College Athletic Conference (ECAC).

Alaska Nanooks

The Alaska Nanooks are the intercollegiate athletics teams that represent the University of Alaska Fairbanks. The Nanooks name is derived from the Inupiaq "nanuq." The school colors are blue and gold. The Nanooks compete at the NCAA Division II level for all sports except men's ice hockey. The majority of Nanooks sports are members of the Great Northwest Athletic Conference (GNAC), the hockey team is a member of the WCHA and plays at the 4,595 seat Carlson Center located west of downtown Fairbanks, while the women's swim team is a member of the Pacific Collegiate Swimming & Diving Conference (PCSC), the men's and women's skiing teams are members of the Rocky Mountain Intercollegiate Ski Association (RMISA), and the rifle team competes as a member of the Patriot Rifle Conference.

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The first tier of intercollegiate sports in the United States includes sports that are sanctioned by one of the collegiate sport governing bodies. The major sanctioning organization is the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). Before mid-1981, women's top-tier intercollegiate sports were solely governed by the Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women (AIAW). The second tier consists of competition between student clubs from different colleges, not organized by and therefore not formally representing the institutions or their faculties. This tier is also considered to be "intercollegiate" sports. College sports originated as student activities.

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The 1919–20 NCAA men's basketball season began in December 1919, progressed through the regular season, and concluded in March 1920.

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Haverford Fords

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Cornell Big Red wrestling

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The first tier of intercollegiate sports in the United States includes sports that are sanctioned by one of the collegiate sport governing bodies. The major sanctioning organization is the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). Before mid-1981, women's top-tier intercollegiate sports were solely governed by the Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women (AIAW). The second tier consists of competition between student clubs from different colleges, not organized by and therefore not formally representing the institutions or their faculties. This tier is also considered to be "intercollegiate" sports. College sports originated as student activities.


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