Mexican ironwood carvings is a handcraft that began with the Seri indigenous people of the state of Sonora. The wood comes from Olneya tesota , a Sonora Desert tree commonly called ironwood (palo fierro in Spanish). It is a slow growing important shade tree found in northwest Mexico and the southwest U.S. The wood it produces is so dense that it lacks air bubbles and sinks in water. Traditionally, it was used for firewood and charcoal with some carving.
The Seri are an indigenous group of the Mexican state of Sonora. The majority reside on the Seri communal property, in the towns of Punta Chueca and El Desemboque on the mainland coast of the Gulf of California. Tiburón Island (Tahejöc) and San Esteban Island were also part of their traditional territory. They were historically seminomadic hunter-gatherers who maintained an intimate relationship with both the sea and the land. They are one of the ethnic groups of Mexico that has most strongly maintained their language and culture throughout the years after contact with Spanish and Mexican cultures.
Sonora, officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Sonora, is one of 31 states that, with Mexico City, comprise the 32 federal entities of United Mexican States. It is divided into 72 municipalities; the capital city is Hermosillo. Sonora is bordered by the states of Chihuahua to the east, Baja California to the northwest and Sinaloa to the south. To the north, it shares the U.S.–Mexico border with the states of Arizona and New Mexico, and on the west has a significant share of the coastline of the Gulf of California.
In the mid-20th century, the Seri had to move from their traditional home of Tiburon Island to the mainland, around the same time tourism was developing in Kino Bay. The first to carve ironwood for sale was Jose Astorga, who began with other materials and ironwood for utilitarian items. In the 1960s, he began carving ironwood figures which sold well to tourists and others followed. The craft began to be widely distributed in the 1970s, with non Seris beginning to carve, introducing animals from other areas as subjects, and the use of power tools. Carving, charcoal production and loss of habitat has put pressure on the ironwood tree, which the Mexican government declared protected in 1994. Although carving is still permitted, the price of the wood has increased and production has decreased.
The ironwood tree is considered native to the Sonora Desert as it is found only the states of Sonora, Baja California and Baja California Sur in Mexico and Arizona and California in the United States.Olneya tesota is the slowest growing and the tallest in the Sonora Desert, with specimens able to reach heights of up to fifteen feet, if near relatively stable sources of water. It accounts for a fifth of the desert’s biomass, mostly owing to the density of its wood. The shade provided by these trees is essential for a number of other desert plants and animals.
Baja California, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Baja California, is a state in Mexico. It is the northernmost and westernmost of the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. Before becoming a state in 1952, the area was known as the North Territory of Baja California. It has an area of 70,113 km2 (27,071 sq mi), or 3.57% of the land mass of Mexico and comprises the northern half of the Baja California Peninsula, north of the 28th parallel, plus oceanic Guadalupe Island. The mainland portion of the state is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean, on the east by Sonora, the U.S. state of Arizona, and the Gulf of California, and on the south by Baja California Sur. Its northern limit is the U.S. state of California.
Baja California Sur, officially the Estado Libre y Soberano de Baja California Sur, is the second-smallest Mexican state by population and the 31st admitted state of the 31 states which, with Mexico City, make up the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
Arizona is a state in the southwestern region of the United States. It is also part of the Western and the Mountain states. It is the sixth largest and the 14th most populous of the 50 states. Its capital and largest city is Phoenix. Arizona shares the Four Corners region with Utah, Colorado, and New Mexico; its other neighboring states are Nevada and California to the west and the Mexican states of Sonora and Baja California to the south and southwest.
The species is protected by the Mexican government because of its overexploitation and deterioration of habitat.The plant is not considered to be in danger of extinction as its range is over millions of hectares and with thousands of trees, however its slow growth and use in handcrafts and firewood puts it in some danger. In 1992, before it received protection from the Mexican government in the 1990s, 21,000 tons of the wood was converted into charcoal. Ninety percent of this charcoal was exported from Sonora to the United States. Today, carving is not the biggest danger to the tree but rather the conversion of desert into pasture and cropland. Other efforts to conserve the tree include the establishment of organizations such as Pro Palo Fierro, to develop ways to use the resource in a sustainable manner. Since the plant is found in two countries, efforts involving the US have included organizations such as Conservation International and the Desert Botanical Garden in Phoenix.
Overexploitation, also called overharvesting, refers to harvesting a renewable resource to the point of diminishing returns. Continued overexploitation can lead to the destruction of the resource. The term applies to natural resources such as: wild medicinal plants, grazing pastures, game animals, fish stocks, forests, and water aquifers.
Conservation International (CI) is an American nonprofit environmental organization headquartered in Arlington, Virginia. Its goal is to protect nature as a source of food, fresh water, livelihoods and a stable climate.
Desert Botanical Garden is a 140-acre (57 ha) botanical garden located in Papago Park, at 1201 N. Galvin Parkway in Phoenix, central Arizona.
Ironwood is similar to ebony, as it is dark, dense and very hard; its grain is very straight. For this reason there are few air bubbles and unlike other woods, ironwood sinks in water.Before the carving of ironwood figures, this wood was used for firewood, the production of charcoal and the carving of items such as harpoons, other tools, musical instruments and toys. Today, the wood’s main use in handcrafts is the creation of carved figures. These are mostly sold in the United States and Mexico and earn about a million dollars a year, far more than it did as the basis of charcoal.
Ebony is a dense black hardwood, most commonly yielded by several different species in the genus Diospyros, which also contains the persimmons. Ebony is dense enough to sink in water. It is finely-textured and has a very smooth finish when polished, making it valuable as an ornamental wood. The word ebony comes from the Ancient Egyptian hbny, through the Ancient Greek ἔβενος (ébenos), into Latin and Middle English.
A harpoon is a long spear-like instrument used in fishing, whaling, sealing, and other marine hunting to catch large fish or marine mammals such as whales. It accomplishes this task by impaling the target animal and securing it with barb or toggling claws, allowing the fishermen to use a rope or chain attached to the butt of the projectile to catch the animal. A harpoon can also be used as a weapon.
There are two groups which produce the carvings. The first are the Seri, which have been doing this for various decades. There are only an estimated 500 Seri still in Mexico, divided into four major clans. They are semi nomadic generally shunning agriculture, animal domestication and extended contact with outsiders. They are concentrated on Tiburon Island and towns like Punta Chueca on the mainland.The carvings are probably the best known of the Seri crafts and are still produced by hand and on a small scale. Seri craftsmen prefer to work with trees which are already dead, such as those struck by lightning or dried out for other reasons. A branch or trunk is chopped off with an ax. Pieces are carved into shape using a rasp or coarse file. The wood is made smooth using a piece of glass, then polished using desert sand then coated with a thin layer of wax. Originally this wax came from turtles but today it is wax used for shoes. Images are generally those of animals that are in the Seri world such as turtles, dolphins, eagles, lizards, crabs, coyotes and more. Styles vary from very simple lines to the inclusion of a great amount of detail and adornments.
Punta Chueca is a Seri town located on the Gulf of California in the Mexican state of Sonora. It is located 25 kilometers north of the fishing and tourist town of Bahía de Kino. Both of these towns are part of the Municipality of Hermosillo. One of the two villages on the Seri Indian communal property, it has small stores, a primary school and a small satellite-fed secondary school (telesecundaria). It is one of the closest points on the mainland to Tiburón Island, separated from it by the Canal del Infiernillo. According to the Mexican census of 2010, the town, had a population of 520 inhabitants.
A rasp is coarse form of file used for coarsely shaping wood or other material. Typically a hand tool, it consists of a generally tapered rectangular, round, or half-round sectioned bar of case hardened steel with distinct, individually cut teeth. A narrow, pointed tang is common at one end, to which a handle may be fitted.
The second group of producers is made up of town and city dwellers from Sonora and Baja California, which began after the figures became commercially popular. The latter group produces the figures in grand quantities due to their access to power tools.These families can produce between forty and fifty pieces per day, most of which are sold to wholesalers in Nogales, Sonora. Most of these are then sold in the United States. This has put the Seri at a disadvantage in the market, with their share shrinking. Today there are fewer than fifteen Seri carvers. The carvers total use about 5,000 tons of wood per year for the craft. The development of the carving as been driven by consumer and tourist demand, including the use of asymmetry and abstract forms. Often this is because a more "primitive" looking carving is considered by many tourists to be more "authentic". The association of the Seri with the craft is still important to its sale and many non Seri will falsely put "Handmade by Seri" stickers on their works.
The craft originated with the Seri people as a way to earn money from tourists. In the first half of the 20th century, the Seri were mostly confined to Tiburon Island coming into Kino Bay seasonally to sell firewood, which included ironwood. In the mid 20th century, the traditional Seri economy was disrupted by shrimping in the Gulf of California which had a negative effect on the sea species the Seri needed for food. In the late 1950s, tourism in the area took off in the Kino Bay area. These two developments, along with the island’s status as an ecological reserve prompted the Seri to move to the mainland to communities such as Desemboque and Punta Chueca. The selling of handcrafts, which have included baskets and jewelry along with the carvings, has become a vital source of income.
The first ironwood carver was Jose Astorga, who began by carving animals of pumice stone. His first work with ironwood is utilitarian, bowls, spoons, etc. His first decorative items were created between 1963 and 1964, focusing on sea animals which were popular with tourists. His daughter later became the first to sign her work.
Commercial wax and other sanding methods were introduced in 1968. That same year, University of Arizona students began to make monthly trips to the Seri villages to buy the carvings, greatly increasing their popularity.In the 1970s, the Mexican government began to promote and widely distribute the carvings leading to about half of the adult population engaged in the craft.
Non Seris began carving in the 1970s, as the popularity of the craft grew, and introduced motorized cutting and carving methods in the 1980s as well as carving of animals not part of the Seri world.In 1974, BANFOCO became a carving wholesaler with the aim of providing the Seris with a regular income. In the 1980s, distribution extended into Canada and Japan. The growth of the craft however, along with continued use of the wood for charcoal, started to decrease the supply of wood. In 1994 the ironwood tree became protected by the Mexican government, allowing its use only for carving. By this time, the craft had spread into various parts of Sonora as well as the Baja California peninsula. However, most ironwood carving is still done in Kino Bay, Caborca, Magdalena de Kino, Punta Checa, Puerto Libertad, Puerto Peñasco, Santa Ana and Sonoyta. The scarcity of the wood has caused its price to rise and production to fall. This in turn has made already existing pieces more valuable.
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Hermosillo, formerly called Pitic, is a city located centrally in the northwestern Mexican state of Sonora. It is the capital and largest city as well as the main economic center for the state and region. As of 2015, the city has a population of 812,229 inhabitants, making it the 16th largest city in Mexico. The recent city population spur is due to its recent strong industrialization, especially in the automotive industry.
The Sonoran Desert is a North American desert which covers large parts of the Southwestern United States in Arizona and California and of Northwestern Mexico in Sonora, Baja California, and Baja California Sur. It is the hottest desert in Mexico. It has an area of 260,000 square kilometers (100,000 sq mi). The western portion of the United States–Mexico border passes through the Sonoran Desert.
Alebrijes are brightly colored Mexican folk art sculptures of fantastical (fantasy/mythical) creatures. The first alebrijes, along with use of the term, originated with Pedro Linares. In the 1930s, Linares fell very ill and while he was in bed, unconscious, Linares dreamt of a strange place resembling a forest. There, he saw trees, animals, rocks, clouds that suddenly turned into something strange, some kind of animals, but, unknown animals. He saw a donkey with butterfly wings, a rooster with bull horns, a lion with an eagle head, and all of them were shouting one word, "Alebrijes". Upon recovery, he began recreating the creatures he saw in cardboard and papier-mâché and called them Alebrijes.
The Yuma Desert is a lower-elevation section of the Sonoran Desert in the southwestern United States and the northwest of Mexico. It lies in the Salton basin. The desert contains areas of sparse vegetation and has notable areas of sand dunes. With an average rainfall less than 8 inches (200 mm) each year, this is among the harshest deserts in North America. Human presence is sparse throughout, the largest city being Yuma, Arizona, on the Colorado River and the border of California.
Ironwood Forest National Monument is located in the Sonoran Desert of Arizona. Created by Bill Clinton by Presidential Proclamation 7320 on June 9, 2000, the monument is managed by the Bureau of Land Management, an agency within the United States Department of the Interior. The monument covers 188,619 acres (76,331 ha), of which 59,922 acres (24,250 ha) are non-federal and include private land holdings and Arizona State School Trust lands.
Parkinsonia microphylla, the yellow paloverde, foothill paloverde or little-leaved palo verde; syn. Cercidium microphyllum), is a species of palo verde.
Bahía de Kino is a town in the Mexican state of Sonora, Hermosillo (municipality), on the Sea of Cortez ; it was named after Eusebio Kino. The name also applies to the adjacent bay between Tiburón Island and Punta San Nicolás, Sonora. The names Bahía de Kino, Bahía Kino and Kino Bay are used interchangeably.
El Desemboque is a town located 376 km from Hermosillo on the shore of Gulf of California in the Mexican state of Sonora; coordinates N 29° 30' 13", W 112° 23' 43". It is part of the Municipality of Pitiquito, and is one of two major villages on the Seri Indian communal property, the other being Punta Chueca. The Spanish name refers to the fact that the Río San Ignacio meets the sea near that point. The Seri name is literally where the clams lie. It has been a good location to find the small clams Protothaca grata (haxöl). According to the Mexican census of 2010, the town had a population of 287 inhabitants. (The town of El Desemboque described in the prior text is not located in the Pitiquito municipality of Sonora. It is a Seri village about 120 km north of Punta Chueca north of Bahia Kino where the dry Rio Ignacio meets the Gulf of California. The El Desemboque in Pitiquito is west of Caborca at the mouth of Rio Concepcion and is a small village catering to weekenders from Caborca. The Seri may have lived at the El Desemboque west of present day Caborca in prehistoric times before Spanish arrived as well as the current Seri town north of Bahia Kino. Their oral history has them living as far north as present day Puerto Penasco which was also an O'Odham settlement as well as present-day Bahia Kino and Isla Tiburon .)
Olneya tesota is a perennial flowering tree of the Fabaceae family, legumes, which is commonly known as ironwood or desert ironwood. It is the only species in the monotypic genus Olneya. This tree is part of the western Sonoran Desert complex in the Southwestern United States, which includes flora such as palo verde, saguaro, ocotillo, brittlebush, creosote bush, and mesquite.
Bursera microphylla is a North American species of tree in the frankincense family in the soapwood order. Bursera microphylla, known by the common name elephant tree in English or 'torote' in Spanish, is a tree in genus Bursera. It grows into a distinctive sculptural form, with a thickened, water-storing or caudiciform trunk. It is found in the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico.
The Lower Colorado River Valley ("LCRV") is the river region of the lower Colorado River of the southwestern United States in North America that rises in the Rocky Mountains and has its outlet at the Colorado River Delta in the northern Gulf of California in northwestern Mexico, between the states of Baja California and Sonora. This north–south stretch of the Colorado River forms the border between the U.S. states of California/Arizona and Nevada/Arizona, and between the Mexican states of Baja California/Sonora.
Hyptis emoryi is a large, multi-stemmed shrub species of flowering plant in the Lamiaceae. The genus Hyptis is commonly known as the bushmints.
Olive wood carving is an ancient tradition in Palestine that continues to the present day. It involves the skillful chiseling of olive wood and is most common in the Bethlehem region.
Phoradendron californicum, the desert mistletoe or mesquite mistletoe, is a hemiparasitic plant native to southern California, Nevada, Arizona, Sonora, Sinaloa and Baja California. It can be found in the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts at elevations of up to 1400 m.
Hermosillo is a municipality in Sonora in north-western Mexico. The municipal seat is the city of Hermosillo.
The Tiburón Island Tragedy occurred in 1905 when three members of a small American gold prospecting expedition went missing in the Sonoran Desert near Tiburón Island. At the time, Tiburon was inhabited by the Seri natives, who were widely believed to have been responsible for the fate of the expedition. There were also Yaqui renegades active in the area and there were rumors about their involvement as well. However, the sole American survivor, Jack Hoffman, said that lack of water was most likely the cause. Of the five-man expedition, the leader, Thomas F. Grindell, and two of his associates disappeared while the other two men survived, including a Papago guide, who left the journey early on. A prolonged search for the missing men then commenced. Led by Edward P. Grindell, search parties uncovered several artifacts that had belonged to members of the expedition, as well as evidence of their fate, but no trace of the men themselves was found. It was not until over a year later that the remains of Thomas Grindell were discovered by another group of explorers. Evidence at the scene seemed to confirm that dehydration was the cause of death.
Peniocereus striatus is a species of cactus known by several common names, including gearstem cactus, cardoncillo, jacamatraca, sacamatraca, and dahlia-rooted cactus. It is endemic to the Sonoran Desert, where it occurs in Baja California, Sinaloa, and Sonora in Mexico and Arizona in the United States.
Basketry of Mexico has its origins far into the pre Hispanic period, pre-dating ceramics and the domestication of fire. By the time the Spanish arrived, there were a number of indigenous forms, a number of which are still made today. These and products that the Spanish introduced form the combined tradition that remains today. Like other Mexican handcrafts, sales to tourists and collectors is important, but basketry is not as popular as other handcrafts. Basketry techniques and materials vary from region to region depending on the vegetation available, with important traditions in Sonora, State of Mexico, Michoacán, Veracruz, Oaxaca and the Yucatán Peninsula.