|Former Borough constituency |
for the House of Commons
|Major settlements||St Newlyn East and St Enoder|
|Number of members||Two|
Mitchell, or St Michael (sometimes also called St Michael's Borough or Michaelborough) was a rotten borough consisting of the town (or village) of Mitchell, Cornwall. From the first Parliament of Edward VI, in 1547, it elected two members to the Unreformed House of Commons.
The borough encompassed parts of two parishes, Newlyn East and St Enoder. Like most of the Cornish boroughs enfranchised or re-enfranchised during the Tudor period, it was a rotten borough from the start.
The franchise in Mitchell was a matter of controversy in the 17th century, but was settled by a House of Commons resolution on 20 March 1700 which stated "That the right of election of members to serve in Parliament for the Borough of St Michael's, in the County of Cornwall, is in the portreeves, and lords of the manor, who are capable of being portreeves, and the inhabitants of the said borough paying scot and lot": this gave the vote to most of the male householders.
The borough was often not in the complete control of a single proprietor, the voters being swayed between those of the lords of the manor from whom they expected to receive most benefit in return. Namier quotes a memorandum on the state of the Cornish boroughs from Lord Edgcumbe to Prime Minister Newcastle in 1760, describing the Mitchell voters as "in general low, indigent people, [who] will join such of the Under Lords from whom they have reason to expect most money and favours. Admiral Boscawen..., by supplying some of the voters with money and conferring favours on others, seems to be adding very considerably to the strength of his interest." 
The landowners, however, had other expedients for gaining control. The number of voters, which in 1784 had been at least 39, was reduced by 1831 to just seven, achieved by pulling down a number of houses in the borough and letting those houses that still stood on conditions which prevented the occupiers appearing on the parish rates. The proprietors by the 1820s were the Earl of Falmouth (a Boscawen) and Sir Christopher Hawkins, Hawkins having purchased his interest some years previously from Sir Francis Basset; but Mitchell having thus been reduced to one of the smallest of all the rotten boroughs (in 1831, the borough had a population of approximately 90, and 23 houses), it was naturally disfranchised by the Great Reform Act of 1832.
Mitchell's early MPs included the explorer and statesman Walter Raleigh, who sat briefly for the borough in the 1590s while out of favour at court and so unable to secure a more prestigious seat. A later MP was the future Duke of Wellington, who as Sir Arthur Wellesley represented the borough from January to May 1807, for part of which time he was a junior minister (Chief Secretary for Ireland) in the Duke of Portland's second government.
|Parliament||First member||Second member|
|Parliament of 1547–1552||Ralph Cholmley||Hugh Cartwright|
|First Parliament of 1553||Robert Beverley||Humphrey Moseley|
|Second Parliament of 1553||Francis Goldsmith||Edward Chamberlain|
|Parliament of 1554||Clement Tussard||Andrew Tussard|
|Parliament of 1554–1555||Paul Stamford|
|Parliament of 1555||John Arundell||John Thomas|
|Parliament of 1558||Thomas Gardiner|
|Parliament of 1559||Drue Drury||Robert Colshill|
|Parliament of 1562||Robert Hopton||Thomas Wilson|
|Parliament of 1571||Edward Stafford||Francis Alford|
|Parliament of 1572–1581||Charles Lister||Thomas West|
|Parliament of 1584–1585||Edward Barker||James Erisey|
|Parliament of 1586–1587||Thomas Cosworth||Henry Sumaster|
|Parliament of 1588–1589||Edward Cosworth||James Clarke|
|Parliament of 1593||Sir Walter Raleigh||Richard Reynell|
|Parliament of 1597–1598||John Arundell (of Trerice)||John Carew|
|Parliament of 1601||George Chudleigh||William Cholmley|
|Parliament of 1604–1611||William Cary ||William Hakewill|
|Addled Parliament (1614)||Christopher Hodson||Walter Hickman|
|Parliament of 1621–1622||Richard Carew||John St Aubyn|
|Happy Parliament (1624–1625)|| John Holles  |
|Useless Parliament (1625)||Henry Sandys||Sir John Smith|
|Parliament of 1625–1626||Francis Crossing|
|Parliament of 1628–1629||Francis Buller||John Sparke|
|No Parliament summoned 1629–1640|
This list is incomplete; you can help by adding missing items. (August 2008)
|Year||First member||First party||Second member||Second party|
|April 1640||Double return |
|November 1640||William Chadwell||Royalist||John Arundell ||Royalist|
|August 1642||Holborne disabled from sitting – seat vacant |
|January 1644||Chadwell disabled from sitting – seat vacant|
|December 1648||Kerr excluded in Pride's Purge – seat vacant|
|1653||Mitchell was unrepresented in the Barebones Parliament and the First and Second Parliaments of the Protectorate|
|January 1659||James Launce||Richard Lobb|
|May 1659||Not represented in the restored Rump|
|April 1660||Thomas Carew||Heneage Finch |
|May 1660||John Alleyn|
|1661||Matthew Wren||Sir Edward Mosley|
|1665||The Lord Hawley|
|1679||Sir John St Aubyn||Walter Vincent|
|1681||Sir William Russell||Henry Vincent|
|1685||Thomas Price||John Vivian|
|January 1689||The Viscount Fanshawe ||Tory||Francis Vyvyan (MP for Mitchell)|
|September 1689||William Coryton|
|December 1689||Humphrey Courtney|
|March 1690||Anthony Rowe||Francis Scobell|
|November 1690||Humphrey Courtney|
|1697||John Tregagle||John Povey|
|1698||Sir John Hawles||Whig|
|January 1701||William Beaw||Anthony Rowe|
|March 1701||Sir Richard Vyvyan|
|December 1701||William Courtney|
|1702||Renatus Bellott||Francis Basset|
|1705||Sir William Hodges||Hugh Fortescue|
|1710||Abraham Blackmore||Richard Belasyse|
|1713||Sir Henry Belasyse||John Statham|
|1715||Nathaniel Blakiston||Robert Molesworth ||Whig|
|1722||Charles Selwyn||John Hedges|
|1727||Henry Kelsall||Thomas Farrington|
|1734||Thomas Watts||Robert Ord|
|1741||Edward Clive||John Ord|
|May 1745||Richard Lloyd|
|November 1745||Sir Edward Pickering|
|1747||Thomas Clarke||Albert Nesbitt|
|1754||John Stephenson||Robert Clive|
|1755 ||Simon Luttrell||Richard Hussey|
|1761||John Stephenson||James Scawen |
|1774||Hon. Thomas Howard|
|1780||Hon. William Hanger|
|1784||David Howell||Sir Christopher Hawkins ||Tory|
|1796||Sir Stephen Lushington||Whig|
|1802||Robert Dallas||Tory||Robert Sharpe Ainslie|
|1805||Earl of Dalkeith|
|1806||Sir Christopher Hawkins ||Tory||Frederick Trench||Tory|
|January 1807||Hon. Sir Arthur Wellesley||Tory||Henry Conyngham Montgomery|
|May 1807||Edward Leveson-Gower||Tory||George Galway Mills|
|July 1807||Sir James Hall, Bt|
|1813||Hon. Edward Law||Tory|
|August 1814||Charles Trelawny-Brereton|
|December 1814||Lord Binning||Tory|
|1818||Sir George Staunton, Bt||William Leake|
|1820||William Taylor Money|
|April 1826||Henry Labouchere||Whig|
|June 1826||William Leake||Whig|
|1830||Hon. Lloyd Kenyon||Tory||John Heywood Hawkins||Whig|
|1831||Hon. William Best||Tory|
Truro was the name of a parliamentary constituency in Cornwall represented in the House of Commons of England and later of Great Britain from 1295 until 1800, then in the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1801 to 1918 and finally from 1950 to 1997. Until 1885 it was a parliamentary borough, electing two members of parliament (MPs) by the plurality-at-large system of election; the name was then transferred to the surrounding county constituency, which elected a single Member by the first past the post system. In 1997, although there had been no changes to its boundaries, it was renamed as Truro and St Austell, reflecting the fact that St Austell by then had a larger population than Truro.
Newport was a rotten borough situated in Cornwall. It is now the suburb of Newport within the town of Launceston, which was itself also a parliamentary borough at the same period. It is also referred to as Newport Iuxta Launceston, to distinguish it from other constituencies named Newport.
Grampound in Cornwall, was a borough constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of England, then of the Parliament of Great Britain from 1707 to 1800 and of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1801 to 1821. It was represented by two Members of Parliament.
East Looe was a parliamentary borough represented in the House of Commons of England from 1571 to 1707, in the House of Commons of Great Britain from 1797 to 1800, and finally in the House of Commons of the United Kingdom from 1801 until its abolition in 1832. It elected two Members of Parliament (MP) by the bloc vote system of election. It was disenfranchised in the Reform Act 1832.
Thomas Pitt, of Boconnoc, Cornwall, was a British landowner and politician who sat in the House of Commons between 1727 and 1761. He was Lord Warden of the Stannaries from 1742 to 1751.
West Looe, often spelt Westlow or alternative Westlowe, in Cornwall, England, was a rotten borough represented in the House of Commons of England from 1535 to 1707, in the House of Commons of Great Britain from 1707 to 1800, and in the House of Commons of the United Kingdom from 1801 to 1832. It elected two Members of Parliament (MP) by the bloc vote system of election. It was disfranchised in the Reform Act 1832.
Bossiney was a parliamentary constituency in Cornwall, one of a number of Cornish rotten boroughs. It returned two members of Parliament to the British House of Commons from 1552 until 1832, when it was abolished by the Great Reform Act.
The Cornish rotten and pocket boroughs were one of the most striking anomalies of the Unreformed House of Commons in the Parliament of the United Kingdom before the Reform Act of 1832. Immediately before the Act Cornwall had twenty boroughs, each electing two members of parliament, as well as its two knights of the shire, a total of 42 members, far in excess of the number to which its wealth, population or other importance would seem to entitle it. Until 1821 there was yet another borough which sent two men to parliament, giving Cornwall only one fewer member in the House of Commons than the whole of Scotland.
Callington was a rotten borough in Cornwall which returned two Members of Parliament to the House of Commons in the English and later British Parliament from 1585 to 1832, when it was abolished by the Reform Act 1832.
Camelford was a rotten borough in Cornwall which returned two Members of Parliament to the House of Commons in the English and later British Parliament from 1552 to 1832, when it was abolished by the Great Reform Act.
Fowey was a rotten borough in Cornwall which returned two Members of Parliament to the House of Commons in the English and later British Parliament from 1571 to 1832, when it was abolished by the Great Reform Act.
Lostwithiel was a rotten borough in Cornwall which returned two Members of Parliament to the House of Commons in the English and later British Parliament from 1304 to 1832, when it was abolished by the Great Reform Act.
Saltash, sometimes called Essa, was a "rotten borough" in Cornwall which returned two Members of Parliament to the House of Commons in the English and later British Parliament from 1552 to 1832, when it was abolished by the Great Reform Act.
St Germans was a rotten borough in Cornwall which returned two Members of Parliament to the House of Commons in the English and later British Parliament from 1562 to 1832, when it was abolished by the Great Reform Act.
St Mawes was a rotten borough in Cornwall, England. It returned two Members of Parliament (MPs) to the House of Commons of England from 1562 to 1707, to the House of Commons of Great Britain from 1707 to 1800, and to the House of Commons of the United Kingdom until it was abolished by the Great Reform Act in 1832.
Tregony was a rotten borough in Cornwall which was represented in the Model Parliament of 1295, and returned two Members of Parliament to the English and later British Parliament continuously from 1562 to 1832, when it was abolished by the Great Reform Act.
Bere Alston or Beeralston was a parliamentary borough in Devon, which elected two Members of Parliament (MPs) to the House of Commons from 1584 until 1832, when the constituency was abolished by the Great Reform Act as a rotten borough.
Bramber was a parliamentary borough in Sussex, one of the most notorious of all the rotten boroughs. It elected two Members of Parliament (MPs) to the House of Commons in 1295, and again from 1472 until 1832, when the constituency was abolished by the Great Reform Act.
Gatton was a parliamentary borough in Surrey, one of the most notorious of all the rotten boroughs. It elected two Members of Parliament (MPs) to the House of Commons from 1450 until 1832, when the constituency was abolished by the Great Reform Act. Around the time of that Act it was often held up by reformers as the epitome of what was wrong with the unreformed system.
Sir Christopher Hawkins, 1st Baronet FRS was a Cornish landowner, mine-owner, Tory Member of Parliament, and patron of steam power. He was Recorder of Grampound, of Tregony, and of St Ives, Cornwall.