National Association of Broadcasters

Last updated

National Association of Broadcasters
2008 logo NAB.png
53-0114600
Legal status 501(c)(6)
Location
President
Gordon Smith
Revenue
  • Increase2.svg $92,404,239 (2020)
  • Decrease2.svg $73,650,207 (2019)
  • Increase2.svg $112,344,875 (2018)
[1]

The National Association of Broadcasters (NAB) is a trade association and lobby group representing the interests of commercial and non-commercial over-the-air radio and television broadcasters in the United States. The NAB represents more than 8,300 terrestrial radio and television stations as well as broadcast networks.

Contents

As of 2015, the president and CEO of the NAB is Gordon Smith, a former United States Senator from Oregon. [2]

Founding

NAB headquarters in Washington, D.C. National Association of Broadcasters headquarters.JPG
NAB headquarters in Washington, D.C.

The NAB was founded as the National Association of Radio Broadcasters (NARB) in April 1923 at the Drake Hotel in Chicago. The association's founder and first president was Eugene F. McDonald Jr., who also launched the Zenith corporation. [3] In 1951 it changed its name to the National Association of Radio and Television Broadcasters (NARTB) to include the television industry. In 1958 it adopted its current name, "National Association of Broadcasters". [4]

Commercial radio

The NAB worked to establish a commercial radio system in the United States. The system was set up in August 1928 with the establishment of General Order 40—a radio reallocation scheme by the Federal Radio Commission which awarded the choicest frequencies and broadcast times to the then-emerging commercial radio industry. In the wake of General Order 40, a loose coalition of educators, nonprofit broadcasters, labor unions, and religious groups coalesced to oppose the NAB and their allies through the 1920s and 1930s, and to develop a public, nonprofit, license-funded radio system without commercials (similar to what happened with the BBC). The coalition claimed that the commercial industry would only promote profitable programming, thereby reducing the quality and future potential of radio broadcasting.

Not having the political connections, resources, or publicity of the NAB and the commercial radio industry, the non-profit coalition eventually lost the fight with the passage of the Communications Act of 1934. [5]

The National Independent Broadcasters were formed in 1939 as part of the NAB, to represent stations that were not associated with any network, but the group split off in 1941. [6] [7]

Satellite radio

Many satellite radio enthusiasts have criticized the NAB for lobbying against legislation approvals for those services. The NAB protested the FCC's approval of both satellite radio services in the United States—XM and Sirius—and furthermore criticized the 2008 merger of the two companies, calling the merged company a "potential monopoly". [8]

Digital transition

In 2005, the NAB, together with the Association for Maximum Service Television Stations, Inc. (MSTV), commenced development of a prototype high quality, low cost digital-to-analog converter box for terrestrial digital television reception. [9] The result of this project was a specification for the converter box, which was then adopted by the National Telecommunications and Information Administration as a technical requirement for eligible converter boxes for the Administration's Digital-To-Analog Converter Box Coupon Program.

White space

The NAB has lobbied against the use of white spaces, unused broadcast spectrum lying between broadcast channels, for wireless broadband internet and other digital use. The NAB has claimed that use of white space will interfere with existing broadcast spectrum, even though tests by the Federal Communications Commission at levels far stronger than that being advocated for in policy circles have not supported such claims. [10] Indeed, the FCC has recommended the use of white spaces for broadband and other digital use. [11] In 2011 the NAB funded an advertising campaign titled "The Future of TV", [12] advocating for the private ownership of the spectrum, framed as a threat to free television.

Free TV campaign

In mid-2014, an NAB advertising campaign against a Congressional threat appeared, advocating viewers to defeat a cable-TV lobby. [13] [14]

Similar organizations

Organizations similar to the NAB exist in individual U.S. states, including Georgia Association of Broadcasters (GAB) in Georgia, and the Illinois Broadcasters Association (IBA), in Illinois. In Canada, the Canadian Association of Broadcasters (CAB) has a similar role.

Gatherings

NAB Convention Floor, Las Vegas, 2010 NAB Convention Floor Las Vegas 2010.jpg
NAB Convention Floor, Las Vegas, 2010

NAB's annual spring convention is the NAB Show. It typically draws over 100,000 industry professionals. [15] NAB also manages the NAB Radio Show which is held each autumn and draws over 3,000 radio professionals. At the 2010 and 2011 NAB shows, popular technology included stereoscopic video and editing software—a demand inspired by James Cameron's Avatar ; point-of-view cameras, and DSLR cameras boasting shallow Depth of Field. Other strides in nonlinear editing technology included archival film restoration, digital audio mixing improvements, motion stabilization of hand-held footage and rotoscoping with one click.

Hall of Fame inductees

YearTelevisionRadio
2000 Saturday Night Live Tom Joyner
2001 Ted Koppel "Cousin Brucie" Bruce Morrow
2002 Rowan and Martin's Laugh-In Dick Orkin
2003 Walt Disney anthology television series Scott Shannon
2004 Roger King Mormon Tabernacle Choir "Music and the Spoken Word"
2005 The Tonight Show Jack Buck
2006 Regis Philbin Dick Purtan
2007 Meet the Press Rick Dees
2008 Bob Barker Larry Lujack

NAB awards

The NAB presents several annual awards:

Publications

See also

Related Research Articles

Digital television television transmission using digital encoding

Digital television (DTV) is the transmission of television audiovisual signals using digital encoding, in contrast to the earlier analog television technology which used analog signals. At the time of its development it was considered an innovative advancement and represented the first significant evolution in television technology since color television in the 1950s. Modern digital television is transmitted in high definition (HDTV) with greater resolution than analog TV. It typically uses a widescreen aspect ratio in contrast to the narrower format of analog TV. It makes more economical use of scarce radio spectrum space; it can transmit up to seven channels in the same bandwidth as a single analog channel, and provides many new features that analog television cannot. A transition from analog to digital broadcasting began around 2000. Different digital television broadcasting standards have been adopted in different parts of the world; below are the more widely used standards:

Broadcasting Distribution of audio or audiovisual content to dispersed audiences

Broadcasting is the distribution of audio or video content to a dispersed audience via any electronic mass communications medium, but typically one using the electromagnetic spectrum, in a one-to-many model. Broadcasting began with AM radio, which came into popular use around 1920 with the spread of vacuum tube radio transmitters and receivers. Before this, all forms of electronic communication were one-to-one, with the message intended for a single recipient. The term broadcasting evolved from its use as the agricultural method of sowing seeds in a field by casting them broadly about. It was later adopted for describing the widespread distribution of information by printed materials or by telegraph. Examples applying it to "one-to-many" radio transmissions of an individual station to multiple listeners appeared as early as 1898.

Terrestrial television Television content transmitted via signals in the air

Terrestrial television is a type of television broadcasting in which the television signal is transmitted by radio waves from the terrestrial (Earth-based) transmitter of a television station to a TV receiver having an antenna. The term terrestrial is more common in Europe and Latin America, while in Canada and the United States it is called broadcast or over-the-air television (OTA). The term "terrestrial" is used to distinguish this type from the newer technologies of satellite television, in which the television signal is transmitted to the receiver from an overhead satellite; cable television, in which the signal is carried to the receiver through a cable; and Internet Protocol television, in which the signal is received over an Internet stream or on a network utilizing the Internet Protocol. Terrestrial television stations broadcast on television channels with frequencies between about 52 and 600 MHz in the VHF and UHF bands. Since radio waves in these bands travel by line of sight, reception is generally limited by the visual horizon to distances of 64–97 kilometres (40–60 mi), although under better conditions and with tropospheric ducting, signals can sometimes be received hundreds of kilometers distant.

Low-power broadcasting Type of broadcasting station

Low-power broadcasting is broadcasting by a broadcast station at a low electric power to a smaller service area than "full power" stations within the same region. It is often distinguished from "micropower broadcasting" and broadcast translators. LPAM, LPFM and LPTV are in various levels of use across the world, varying widely based on the laws and their enforcement.

A non-commercial educational station is a radio station or TV station that does not accept on-air advertisements, as defined in the United States by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) and was originally intended to offer educational programming as part, or whole, of its programming. NCE stations do not pay broadcast license fees for their non-profit uses of the radio spectrum. Stations which are almost always operated as NCE include public broadcasting, community radio, and college radio, as well as many religious broadcasting stations. Nearly all Non-Commercial radio stations derive their support from listener support, grants and endowments, such as the governmental entity Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB) that distributes supporting funds provided by the congress to support Public Radio.

All-Channel Receiver Act United States legislation

The All-Channel Receiver Act of 1962 (ACRA), commonly known as the All-Channels Act, was passed by the United States Congress in 1961, to allow the Federal Communications Commission to require that all television set manufacturers must include UHF tuners, so that new UHF-band TV stations could be received by the public. This was a problem at the time since most affiliated stations of the Big Three television networks were well-established on VHF, while many local-only stations on UHF were struggling for survival.

Tuner (radio)

A tuner is a subsystem that receives radio frequency (RF) transmissions and converts the selected carrier frequency and its associated bandwidth into a fixed frequency that is suitable for further processing, usually because a lower frequency is used on the output. Broadcast FM/AM transmissions usually feed this intermediate frequency (IF) directly into a demodulator that converts the radio signal into audio-frequency signals that can be fed into an amplifier to drive a loudspeaker.

KCPT, virtual channel 19, branded on-air as Kansas City PBS or KC PBS, is a Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) member television station licensed to Kansas City, Missouri, United States and serving the Kansas City metropolitan area. Owned by Public Television 19, Inc., it is sister to adult album alternative radio station KTBG. The two stations share studios on East 31st Street in the Union Hill section of Kansas City, Missouri ; KCPT's transmitter is located near 23rd Street and Stark Avenue in the city's Blue Valley section. On cable, the station is available on Charter Spectrum and SureWest channel 11, Comcast Xfinity channel 4, and Google Fiber and AT&T U-verse channel 19, and in high definition on Spectrum digital channel 1221, Xfinity channel 804, SureWest channel 601 and U-verse channel 1019.

WOCH-CD, virtual channel 41, was a low-powered, Class A Charge!-affiliated television station licensed to Chicago, Illinois, United States. The station was owned by NRJ TV, LLC.

KOZK, virtual channel 21, is a Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) member television station licensed to Springfield, Missouri, United States. The station is owned by Missouri State University. KOZK's studios are located on the Missouri State University campus on National Avenue in southern Springfield, and its transmitter is located on Highway FF north of Fordland.

Mobile television Television for handheld or mobile device

Mobile television is television watched on a small handheld or mobile device. It includes service delivered via mobile phone networks, received free-to-air via terrestrial television stations, or via satellite broadcast. Regular broadcast standards or special mobile TV transmission formats can be used. Additional features include downloading TV programs and podcasts from the Internet and storing programming for later viewing.

Digital television adapter Type of television tuner to display digital signals on analog sets

A digital television adapter (DTA), commonly known as a converter box or decoder box, is a television tuner that receives a digital television (DTV) transmission, and converts the digital signal into an analog signal that can be received and displayed on an analog television set. Some also have an HDMI output since some TVs with HDMI do not have a digital tuner. The input digital signal may be over-the-air terrestrial television signals received by a television antenna, or signals from a digital cable system. It normally does not refer to satellite TV, which has always required a set-top box either to operate the big satellite dish, or to be the integrated receiver/decoder (IRD) in the case of direct-broadcast satellites (DBS).

Coupon-eligible converter box US DTV conversion program

A coupon-eligible converter box (CECB) was a digital television adapter that met eligibility specifications for subsidy "coupons" from the United States government. The subsidy program was enacted to provide terrestrial television viewers with an affordable way to continue receiving free digital terrestrial television services after the nation's television service transitioned to digital transmission and analog transmissions ceased. The specification was developed by the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA), with input from the broadcast and consumer electronics industries as well as public interest groups.

In telecommunications, white spaces refer to radio frequencies allocated to a broadcasting service but not used locally. National and international bodies assign frequencies for specific uses and, in most cases, license the rights to broadcast over these frequencies. This frequency allocation process creates a bandplan which for technical reasons assigns white space between used radio bands or channels to avoid interference. In this case, while the frequencies are unused, they have been specifically assigned for a purpose, such as a guard band. Most commonly however, these white spaces exist naturally between used channels, since assigning nearby transmissions to immediately adjacent channels will cause destructive interference to both.

In the United States, digital television broadcasts, or DTV, can be received via cable, via internet, via satellite, or via digital terrestrial television — much like analog television broadcasts have been. Full-power analog television broadcasts, however, were required by U.S. federal law to cease by June 12, 2009. Low-power, Class A, and TV Translator stations are not currently required to cease analog broadcasts. Also by law, digital broadcasts — when transmitted as over-the-air signals — must conform to ATSC standards. it is unclear whether satellite operators are free to use their own proprietary standards; and many standards exist for Internet television.

Code of Practices for Television Broadcasters

The Code of Practices for Television Broadcasters, also known as the Television Code, was a set of ethical standards adopted by the National Association of Broadcasters (NAB) of the United States for television programming from 1952 to 1983. The code was created to self-regulate the industry in hopes of avoiding a proposed government Advisory Board and satisfying parental concerns over violence and other matters. Prior to the Television Code, the 1935 NAB Code of Ethics for radio was applied to television but fewer than half of television stations subscribed to it; when the Television Code was first issued, two-thirds of stations became subscribers.

Analog passthrough is a feature found on some digital-to-analog television converter boxes. Boxes without analog passthrough only allow digital TV to be viewed on older, analog-only TVs. Those with analog passthrough allow both digital and analog television to be viewed on older TVs.

The digital transition in the United States is the switchover from analog to exclusively digital broadcasting of terrestrial television programming. According to David Rehr, then president and CEO of the National Association of Broadcasters, this transition represented "the most significant advancement of television technology since color TV was introduced." For full-power TV stations, the transition went into effect on June 12, 2009, with stations ending regular programming on their analog signals no later than 11:59 p.m. local time that day.

The Community Broadcasters Association (CBA) was a trade organization representing low-power broadcasting interests, including LPTV and Class A television stations, in the United States of America. It ceased operations in 2009.

The 2016 United States wireless spectrum auction, officially known as Auction 1001, allocated approximately 100 MHz of the United States Ultra High Frequency (UHF) spectrum formerly allocated to UHF television in the 600 MHz band. The spectrum auction and subsequent reallocations were authorized by Title VI of the payroll tax cut extension passed by the United States Congress on February 17, 2012.

References

  1. https://projects.propublica.org/nonprofits/organizations/530114600
  2. 18 September 2009 "NAB NAMES GORDON SMITH NEW PRESIDENT AND CEO" NAB.org
  3. Schneider, John (July 13, 2017). "Eugene F. McDonald Jr.: Broadcasting Pioneer". RadioWorld. Retrieved July 24, 2017.
  4. "National Association of Broadcasters - Dictionary definition of National Association of Broadcasters - Encyclopedia.com: FREE online dictionary". www.encyclopedia.com.
  5. "The Battle for the U.S. Airwaves, 1928-1935", in The Political Economy of Media: Enduring Issues, Emerging Dilemmas by Robert W. McChesney (New York: Monthly Review Press, 2008).
  6. "N.I.B. Votes to Form Own Organization". Schenectady Gazette . Associated Press. September 24, 1941. p. 2.
  7. "Independents Act to Break N.A.B. Tie" (PDF). The New York Times . September 24, 1941.
  8. 28 February 2007 testimony of NAB President David Rehr before US House Judiciary Committee Antitrust Task Force
  9. "MSTV & NAB Seek to Develop Digital to Analog Converter Box". NAB News Release. June 15, 2005. Retrieved March 8, 2018.
  10. Tim Karr, "The NAB vs. Reality"
  11. Megan Tady, "A Win for White Spaces"
  12. "The Future of TV"
  13. Picard, Joe (June 5, 2014). "Senate should ignore pay-TV's STELA add-ons".
  14. Graphicfort. "KeepMyTV.org". keepmytv.org.
  15. "NAB Show". NAB Show.
  16. Broadcasters, National Association of. "NAB Awards | Overview". National Association of Broadcasters. Retrieved June 22, 2021.