Nikolay Dmitrievich Kovalyov (Russian : Николай Дмитриевич Ковалёв; 6 August 1949 – 5 April 2019) was a Russian politician (United Russia) and member of the State Duma, where he chaired the Duma's Veterans' Committee. Kovalyov was the Director of the FSB from July 1996 to July 1998, when he was succeeded by Vladimir Putin.
Russian is an East Slavic language, which is official in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991. Although, nowadays, nearly three decades after the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel and Mongolia, the rise of state-specific varieties of this language tends to be strongly denied in Russia, in line with the Russian World ideology.
United Russia is the ruling political party of the Russian Federation. United Russia is the largest party in Russia and as of 2018 it holds 335 of the 450 seats in the State Duma.
The State Duma, commonly abbreviated in Russian as Gosduma, is the lower house of the Federal Assembly of Russia, while the upper house is the Council of the Federation. The Duma headquarters are located in central Moscow, a few steps from Manege Square. Its members are referred to as deputies. The State Duma replaced the Supreme Soviet as a result of the new constitution introduced by Boris Yeltsin in the aftermath of the Russian constitutional crisis of 1993, and approved by the Russian public in a referendum.
Nikolay Kovalyov joined the KGB in 1974. He was appointed General of the Army in 1997. In 1999 he was elected a deputy to the State Duma of the Russian Federation.
The KGB, translated in English as Committee for State Security, was the main security agency for the Soviet Union from 1954 until its break-up in 1991. As a direct successor of preceding agencies such as Cheka, NKGB, NKVD and MGB, the committee was attached to the Council of Ministers. It was the chief government agency of "union-republican jurisdiction", acting as internal security, intelligence and secret police. Similar agencies were constituted in each of the republics of the Soviet Union aside from Russia, and consisted of many ministries, state committees and state commissions.
He said in 1996: "There has never been such a number of spies arrested by us since the time when German agents were sent in during the years of World War II."He also publicly speculated that Boris Berezovsky might be involved in the death of Alexander Litvinenko.
Boris Abramovich Berezovsky, also known as Platon Elenin, was a Russian business oligarch, government official, engineer and mathematician. He was a member of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Berezovsky was politically opposed to the President of Russia Vladimir Putin since Putin's election in 2000 and remained a vocal critic of Putin for the rest of his life. In late 2000, after the Russian Deputy Prosecutor General demanded that Berezovsky appear for questioning, he did not return from abroad and moved to the UK, which granted him political asylum in 2003. In Russia, he was later convicted in absentia of fraud and embezzlement. The first charges were brought during Primakov's government in 1999. Despite an Interpol Red Notice for Berezovsky's arrest, Russia repeatedly failed to obtain the extradition of Berezovsky from Britain, which became a major point of diplomatic tension between the two countries.
Alexander Valterovich Litvinenko was a British naturalised Russian defector and former officer of the Russian FSB secret service who specialised in tackling organised crime. According to US diplomats, Litvinenko coined the phrase Mafia state. In November 1998, Litvinenko and several other FSB officers publicly accused their superiors of ordering the assassination of the Russian tycoon and oligarch Boris Berezovsky. Litvinenko was arrested the following March on charges of exceeding the authority of his position. He was acquitted in November 1999 but re-arrested before the charges were again dismissed in 2000. He fled with his family to London and was granted asylum in the United Kingdom, where he worked as a journalist, writer and consultant for the British intelligence services.
During the Bronze Soldier Controversy in 2007, Kovalyov led a "fact finding mission" to Estonia, where the authorities were relocating a World War II memorial, including a two meter tall bronze soldier in a Soviet uniform.Before leaving Moscow, Kovalyov asked Estonia's government to step down. The two-day visit by the Russian fact finding delegatíon, originally set up to defuse a diplomatic dispute over the Bronze Soldier statue, only appeared to have escalated the feud, with the Estonian foreign minister and other Government officials refusing to meet with Kovalyov's delegation.
The Bronze Soldier is the informal name of a controversial Soviet World War II war memorial in Tallinn, Estonia, built at the site of several war graves, which were relocated to the nearby Tallinn Military Cemetery in 2007. It was originally named "Monument to the Liberators of Tallinn", was later titled to its current official name "Monument to the Fallen in the Second World War", and is sometimes called Alyosha, or Tõnismäe monument after its old location. The memorial was unveiled on 22 September 1947, three years after the Red Army reached Tallinn on 22 September 1944 during World War II.
Estonia, officially the Republic of Estonia, is a country in Northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland with Finland on the other side, to the west by the Baltic Sea with Sweden on the other side, to the south by Latvia (343 km), and to the east by Lake Peipus and Russia (338.6 km). The territory of Estonia consists of a mainland and 2,222 islands in the Baltic Sea, covering a total area of 45,227 km2 (17,462 sq mi), water 2,839 km2 (1,096 sq mi), land area 42,388 km2 (16,366 sq mi), and is influenced by a humid continental climate. The official language of the country, Estonian, is the second most spoken Finnic language.
World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.
The Order "For Military Merit" is a military decoration of the Russian Federation established by presidential decree № 442 of March 2, 1994 to reward military excellence. Its statute was amended three times, first on January 6, 1999 by decree № 19, then on September 7, 2010 by decree № 1099 which modernised the entire Russian awards system and finally on December 16, 2011 by Presidential Decree № 1631.
The Order of the Red Star was a military decoration of the Soviet Union. It was established by decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of 6 April 1930 but its statute was only defined in decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of 5 May 1930. That statute was amended by decrees of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of 7 May 1936, of 19 June 1943, of 26 February 1946, of 15 October 1947, of 16 December 1947 and by decree No 1803-X of 28 March 1980.
The Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation is the principal security agency of Russia and the main successor agency to the USSR's Committee of State Security (KGB). Its main responsibilities are within the country and include counter-intelligence, internal and border security, counter-terrorism, and surveillance as well as investigating some other types of grave crimes and federal law violations. It is headquartered in Lubyanka Square, Moscow's centre, in the main building of the former KGB. According to the 1995 Federal Law "On the Federal Security Service", direction of the FSB is executed by the president of Russia, who appoints the Director of FSB.
Nikolay Vasilyevich Fyodorov is the First Deputy Chairman of the Federation Council. He is also the former President of the Chuvash Republic in Russia.
Nikolay Ivanovich Merkushkin is a former Governor of Samara Oblast and a former head of the Republic of Mordovia in Russia. He held the latter office from September 22, 1995 to May 10, 2012. From January 24 to September 22, 1995 he was the Chairman of the State Assembly of Mordovia.
Boris Vsevolodovich Gromov is a prominent Russian military and political figure. From 2000 to 2012, he was the Governor of Moscow Oblast.
Nikolay Vasiliyevich Karpol, is a retired women's volleyball coach. Known as 'The Howling Bear,' Karpol was a regular at the Olympic Games, with his teams usually earning a last call on the Olympic podium, winning gold medals in 1980 and 1988 and taking the silver medals in 1992, 2000 and 2004 for a total of five Olympic medals.
Nikolay Vyacheslavovich Rastorguyev is the lead singer of the Russian group Lyube.
Nikolay Nikolayevich Krasovsky was a prominent Russian mathematician who worked in the mathematical theory of control, the theory of dynamical systems, and the theory of differential games. He was the author of Krasovskii-LaSalle principle and the chief of the Ural scientific school in mathematical theory of control and the theory of differential games.
Nikolay Anatolyevich Kovalev is a Russian sabre fencer. He won a bronze medal in the 2012 Summer Olympics in London and a gold medal in the 2014 World Championships in Kazan. He is three-times World team champion and twice European team champion.
Kovalyov, often spelled as Kovalev, or Kovalyova, Kovaleva, is a common Russian surname, an equivalent of the English "Smith".
Aleksey Ivanovich Aleksandrov is a Russian lawyer, businessman, and politician.
The Bronze Night, also known as the April Unrest and April Events, is the controversy and riots in Estonia surrounding the 2007 relocation of the Bronze Soldier of Tallinn, the Soviet World War II memorial in Tallinn.
Aftermath of the Bronze Night refers to the reactions and consequences of the Bronze Night, the controversy and riots in Estonia surrounding the 2007 relocation of the Bronze Soldier of Tallinn, the Soviet World War II memorial in Tallinn.
Nikolay Ilyich Travkin is a Russian and former Soviet politician, former member of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union, member of State Duma and member of the Government of the Russian Federation (1994-1996).
Sergei Adamovich Kovalyov is a Russian human rights activist and politician and a former Soviet dissident and political prisoner.
Nikolai Evgenievich Sorokin was a Russian theatre and film actor, theatre director, educator, and People's Artist of Russia (1999). He was artistic director of the Rostov-on-Don academic drama theatre of a name Maxim Gorky and a deputy of the State Duma of the 3rd convocation.
Nikolay Timofeyevich Antoshkin is a retired Mokshan Russian Air Force colonel general, Hero of the Soviet Union and politician. Born in 1942 in Bashkortostan, Antoshkin was drafted into the Soviet Army in August 1961. After graduating from military aviation school, he served with reconnaissance aviation units. He became commander of the Air Force of the 20th Guards Army in May 1980. After graduation from the Military Academy of the General Staff, Antoshkin became commander of the Air Force and deputy commander of the Central Group of Forces.
Oleg Ivanovich Kovalyov is a Russian politician and former governor of Ryazan Oblast (2008-2017).
Nikolay Nikolaevich Trofimov was a Soviet and Russian theater and film actor. People's Artist of the USSR (1990).
By-elections to the 7th Russian State Duma are held to fill vacancies in the State Duma between the 2016 election and the 2021 election.
| Director of FSB |
July 9, 1996 – July 25, 1998