|Closed||17 March 1979|
|Owner|| North British Railway |
London & North Eastern Railway
|Line length||244 m (267 yd)|
|No. of tracks||2|
|Track gauge||Standard gauge|
|Operating speed||50 mph (80 km/h)|
Penmanshiel Tunnel is a now-disused railway tunnel near Grantshouse, Berwickshire, in the Scottish Borders region of Scotland. It was formerly part of the East Coast Main Line between Berwick-upon-Tweed and Dunbar.
A tunnel is an underground passageway, dug through the surrounding soil/earth/rock and enclosed except for entrance and exit, commonly at each end. A pipeline is not a tunnel, though some recent tunnels have used immersed tube construction techniques rather than traditional tunnel boring methods.
Grantshouse is a small village in Berwickshire in the Scottish Borders of Scotland. It lies on the A1, and its nearest railway stations are Dunbar to the north and Berwick-upon-Tweed to the south.
Berwickshire is a historic county, registration county and lieutenancy area in the Scottish Borders. It takes its name from Berwick-upon-Tweed, which was part of Scotland at the time of the county's formation, but became part of England in 1482 after several centuries of being fought over and swapping back and forth between the two kingdoms.
The tunnel was constructed during 1845–46 by the contractors Ross and Mitchell, to a design by John Miller, who was the Engineer to the North British Railway.Upon completion, the tunnel was inspected by the Inspector-General of Railways, Major-General Charles Pasley, on behalf of the Board of Trade.
John Miller of Leithen FRSE MICE DL was a Scottish civil engineer and Liberal Party politician. Together with Thomas Grainger, he formed the influential engineering firm Grainger and Miller, specialising in railway viaducts.
The North British Railway was a British railway company, based in Edinburgh, Scotland. It was established in 1844, with the intention of linking with English railways at Berwick. The line opened in 1846, and from the outset the Company followed a policy of expanding its geographical area, and competing with the Caledonian Railway in particular. In doing so it committed huge sums of money, and in doing so incurred shareholder disapproval that resulted in two chairmen leaving the company.
General Sir Charles William Pasley was a British soldier and military engineer who wrote the defining text on the role of the post-American revolution British Empire: An Essay on the Military Policy and Institutions of the British Empire, published in 1810. This text changed how Britons thought their empire should relate to the rest of the world. He warned that Britain could not keep its Empire by its "splendid isolation". Britain would need to fight to gain its empire, and by using the colonies as a resource for soldiers and sailors it grew by an average of 100,000 square miles (260,000 km2) per year between the Battle of Waterloo and the American Civil War. Serving in the Royal Engineers in the Napoleonic Wars, he was Europe's leading demolitions expert and siege warfare specialist.
The tunnel consisted of a single bore, 244 metres (267 yd) long, containing two running lines.
During its 134-year existence, the tunnel was the location of two incidents investigated by HM Railway Inspectorate. The first was in 1949, when a serious fire destroyed two carriages of a south-bound express from Edinburgh. Seven passengers were injured, but there were no deaths.
The second incident occurred on 17 March 1979 when, during improvement works, a length of the tunnel collapsed. Two workmen were killed, and 13 others managed to escape. Later it was determined that the ground was not stable enough to excavate and rebuild the tunnel, so it was sealed up and a new alignment was made for the railway, in a cutting to the west of the hill.
The tunnel was also affected by the August 1948 floods. The damage caused by these floods led to the abandonment of much of the railway network in the south east of Scotland.
On 12 August 1948, 6.25 inches (160 mm) of rain fell in the area, the total for the week being 10.5 inches (265 mm). Rain falling on the Lammermuir Hills surged into the Eye Water towards Reston, and the channel could not accommodate all of the water. The flood water then backed up the tunnel and flowed to sea in the opposite direction, towards Cockburnspath. The tunnel was flooded to within 2 ft (600 mm) of the crown of the portal.
The Lammermuirs are a range of hills in southern Scotland, forming a natural boundary between Lothian and the Borders.
Eye Water is a river in the Scottish Borders, it flows in a general SE direction from its source in the Lammermuir Hills to its estuary at Eyemouth on the east coast of Scotland, having a length of approximately 35 km (22 mi).
Reston is a village located in the southeast of Scotland, in Berwickshire, Scottish Borders region. The village lies on the western bank of the Eye Water.
On the evening of 23 June 1949 a fire broke out in the tenth coach of an express passenger train from Edinburgh to King's Cross, about 2 1⁄2 miles (4 km) beyond Cockburnspath. The train stopped somewhere near the tunnel, within one and a quarter minutes of the fire starting, but the fire spread rapidly and with such ferocity that, within seconds, the brake-composite carriage was engulfed and the fire had spread to the coach in front. Most passengers escaped by running to the guard's compartment or forwards along the corridor, but some were compelled to break the windows and jump down onto the track. One lady was seriously injured by doing this.
The train crew reacted quickly to the incident. The two coaches behind the two ablaze were uncoupled and pushed back, leaving them isolated up the line. Having drawn forward and uncoupled the two burning vehicles, the driver proceeded with the front eight coaches to Grantshouse station.
The cause of the fire was thought to be a cigarette end or lighted match dropped against a partition in the corridor. The cellulose lacquer covering the corridor walls was found to be highly flammable with a very fast flame spread.It contained large amounts of nitrocellulose (68%) . Draughts of air from the open windows may have fanned the flames.
Despite the noxious fumes and the severity of the blaze, which reduced the two carriages to their underframes, only seven passengers were injured, with no fatalities.
The next significant event to occur at the tunnel led to its abandonment.
Work was being carried out to increase the internal dimension of the tunnel to allow 8 ft 6 in (2.59 m) high containers to travel through it on intermodal wagons. This was done by lowering the track, in a process involving removing the existing track and ballast, digging out the floor of the tunnel and then laying new track set on a concrete base.
As the tunnel was on a very busy main line, and in order to minimise the disruption to passenger and freight services, it was decided that each of the two tracks through the tunnel would be renewed separately, with trains continuing to run on the adjacent open track.
Work was completed on the "Up" (southbound) track by 10 March 1979, and trains were then transferred to this track by the following day, to allow the "Down" (northbound) track to be modified.
At the time the tunnel collapsed there were a total of fifteen people and five items of plant inside. According to the Railway Inspectorate report, shortly before 3:45 a.m. the duty Railway Works Inspector noticed some small pieces of rock flaking away from the tunnel wall, approximately 90 metres (300 ft) from the southern portal. He decided that it would be wise to shore up the affected piece of the tunnel and was making his way towards the site office to arrange this when he heard the sound of the tunnel collapsing behind him.
It is estimated that approximately 20 metres (66 ft) of the tunnel arch collapsed, with the resultant rock fall filling 30 metres (98 ft) of the tunnel from floor to roof, totally enveloping a dumper truck and a JCB. Thirteen of the people inside the tunnel at the time of the collapse escaped successfully; the dumper truck and JCB operators could not be accounted for, and were killed in the accident.[ citation needed ]
An official HM Railway Inspectorate reportwas written by Lieutenant Colonel I.K.A. McNaughton, on 2 August 1983. The report concluded that it was impossible to be certain as to the cause of the collapse as access could not be gained to the collapsed portion of the tunnel.
The report suggested that the collapse was likely to be the result of over-stressing of the natural rock on which the brick arch rings were founded. It was likely to have happened at some time in any event and there was insufficient evidence to say whether or not it had been triggered by the excavation.
Finally the report stated that there were no grounds for finding any individual responsible for the accident. British Rail was charged in the High Court, in Edinburgh, with health and safety offences. It was found guilty and fined £10,000.
After the collapse, it was originally the intention of British Rail to re-open the tunnel by removing the collapsed material and repairing the structure of the tunnel. Once the extent of the collapse became apparent, it was decided that this operation would be too difficult and dangerous, and that a more expedient and cost effective option would be to construct a new alignment for the railway.
This decision resulted in around 1 km (1,100 yd) of existing railway (including the tunnel itself) being abandoned and replaced by a new section of line constructed in open cut, somewhat to the west of the original course. The operation to reopen the railway took five months of round-the-clock working. The portals of the collapsed tunnel were sealed to prevent further access.
The contractor Sir Robert McAlpine & Sons Ltd started work on the new alignment on 7 May 1979, and it was completed on 20 August.
During the closure, some trains from King's Cross terminated at Berwick, with onward services being provided by a fleet of buses, some towing trailers for luggage. The bus service went as far as Dunbar, where a railway shuttle took over between Dunbar and Edinburgh. Other East Coast Mainline InterCity 125 services to Edinburgh were diverted via Newcastle, Carlisle and Carstairs.
As a result of the work to re-align the railway line, it was also necessary to alter the course of the A1 trunk road. A map of the area, showing both the railway and the road diverting to the west is available.
Since the tunnel was closed, the landscape has gradually 'returned to nature'. The southern portal has been covered by the hillside, and the only clues to the route of the old line are a dry-stone wall marking the railway boundary, and a disused bridge that used to carry the A1 main road over the line.
As the collapsed portion of the tunnel was never excavated, the site became the final resting place of Gordon Turnbull from Gordon 22 miles (35 km) away and Peter Fowler from Eyemouth, who were killed when the tunnel collapsed. A three-sided obelisk was erected over the point where the tunnel collapsed to act as a memorial. One face of the obelisk displays a cross, while each of the other two faces commemorates one of the men killed.
The memorial is adjacent to a road running over the hill and is marked on 1:50,000 and 1:25,000 scale OS maps, at grid ref: NT 797670 . From the maps it is also possible to determine the abandoned section of the A1 road, but the original course of the railway is not visible.
Glasgow Queen Street is a city centre railway terminus in Glasgow, Scotland. It is the smaller of the city's two main line railway terminals and the third busiest station in Scotland. The station is situated between George Street to the south and Cathedral Street Bridge to the north, at the northern end of Queen Street adjacent to George Square. Queen Street station serves the Greater Glasgow areas northern towns and suburbs. the station also serves the Edinburgh Waverley shuttle and is the terminus for all inter-city services to destinations in the North of Scotland. The other main city-centre station in Glasgow is Glasgow Central.
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The Caledonian Railway (CR) was a major Scottish railway company. It was formed in the early 19th century with the objective of forming a link between English railways and Glasgow. It progressively extended its network and reached Edinburgh and Aberdeen, with a dense network of branch lines in the area surrounding Glasgow. It was absorbed into the London, Midland and Scottish Railway in 1923. Many of its principal routes are still used, and the original main line between Carlisle and Glasgow is in use as part of the West Coast Main Line railway.
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The Glasgow and Paisley Joint Railway was the section of railway line between Glasgow Bridge Street railway station and Paisley, in the west of Scotland. It was constructed and operated jointly by two competing railway companies as the stem of their lines to Greenock and Ayr respectively, and it opened in 1840. The Joint Committee, which controlled the line, built a branch to Govan and later to Cessnock Dock, and then Prince's Dock.
The Symington, Biggar and Broughton Railway was a railway company in southern Scotland. It built a line connecting Biggar, and later Peebles, to the main line railway at Symington. It was taken over by the Caledonian Railway in 1861, and was completed in 1864.
The Edinburgh and Dalkeith Railway was an early railway built to convey coal from pits in the vicinity of Dalkeith into the capital. It was a horse-operated line, with a terminus at St Leonards on the south side of Arthur's Seat.
The Glasgow, Paisley and Greenock Railway (GP&GR) was an early Scottish railway, opened in 1841, providing train services between Greenock and Glasgow. At the time the River Clyde was not accessible to sea-going ships, and the intention was to compete with river boats that brought goods to and from the city. In fact passenger traffic proved surprisingly buoyant, and connecting steamer services to island resorts in the Firth of Clyde provided a very great source of business.
The Garnkirk and Glasgow Railway was an early railway built primarily to carry coal to Glasgow and other markets from the Monkland coalfields, shortening the journey and by-passing the monopolistic charges of the Monkland Canal; passenger traffic also developed early in the line's existence.
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The Glasgow Queen Street railway accident occurred on 12 October 1928, in the tunnel adjacent to Glasgow Queen Street railway station on the Glasgow to Edinburgh line of the London & North Eastern Railway. A train climbing the steep 1 in 42–44 gradient through the tunnel slipped to a standstill and rolled back, colliding with an empty local train which was shunting. Three passengers were killed and 52 injured, and three train crew were also injured. Full details are in the Railway Inspectorate accident report; the investigation was carried out by Colonel A.C. Trench.
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